SECTION 641 The Blessing Shehecheyanu is Not Recited over the Construction of a Sukkah. (1–2)

סימן תרמא שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ עַל עֲשִׂיַּת הַסֻּכָּה וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 Whether one constructs a sukkah for himself, so that he himself can dwell in it during the festival, or for others, so that they can dwell in it during the festival, he should not recite a blessing over its construction;1 i.e., he does not recite a berachah blessing Him “Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to build a sukkah,” as is done when one performs all the other mitzvos.2 [The rationale is] that constructing the sukkah is not the consummation of the mitzvah,3 for the core of the mitzvah is to dwell in [the sukkah] during the festival.

Nevertheless, it would seem appropriate to recite the blessing Shehecheyanu when constructing the sukkah if one is making it for oneself,4 for this is a mitzvah that presents itself periodically. Likewise, if one is constructing the sukkah for someone else, it would seem appropriate for the owner of the sukkah, who will dwell in it during the festival, to recite the blessing Shehecheyanu at the time of its construction. For in essence, this blessing was ordained to mark the joy experienced at the performance of a mitzvah that is infrequent but presents itself periodically, and the one who primarily experiences this joy is the owner of the sukkah, not the person building it.

However, we do not recite the blessing Shehecheyanu at the time of construction at all, even if one builds a sukkah for himself. [The rationale:] We rely on the blessing Shehecheyanu that we recite during Kiddush5 on the [first] night of Yom-Tov that [is recited] because of the mitzvah of sanctifying the festival, which is also a mitzvah that comes [only] periodically.6 The one blessing covers both requirements.7

א הָעוֹשֶׂה סֻכָּה,א בֵּין לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב בָּהּ הוּא עַצְמוֹ בַּחַג וּבֵין לַאֲחֵרִיםב שֶׁיֵּשְׁבוּ בָּהּ בַּחַג – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַל עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ,1 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת סֻכָּה"ג כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים עַל עֲשִׂיַּת שְׁאָר כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת,2 לְפִי שֶׁעֲשִׂיָּתָהּ אֵינָהּ גְּמַר הַמִּצְוָה,ד,3 שֶׁעִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה הוּא לֵישֵׁב בָּהּ בַּחַג.

אֲבָל "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" הָיָה רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּה אִם עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ לְעַצְמוֹ,ה,4 שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא מִצְוָה הַבָּאָה מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן.ו וְאִם עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ לַאֲחֵרִים – הָיָה רָאוּי שֶׁבַּעַל הַסֻּכָּהז שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב בָּהּ בַּחַג יְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ, שֶׁעִקַּר הַבְּרָכָה נִתַּקְּנָה עַל הַשִּׂמְחָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָאָדָם מִן הַמִּצְוָהח שֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּדִירָה וּבָאָה מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן, וְעִקַּר הַשִּׂמְחָה הִיא לְבַעַל הַסֻּכָּה וְלֹא לְהָעוֹשֶׂה הַסֻּכָּה.ט

אֲבָל אֵין אָנוּ מְבָרְכִין כְּלָל "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּה אֲפִלּוּ אִם עוֹשֶׂה סֻכָּה לְעַצְמוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאָנוּ סוֹמְכִין עַל בִּרְכַּת "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" שֶׁאוֹמְרִים בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹםי,5 שֶׁבְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב בִּשְׁבִיל מִצְוַת קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם שֶׁהִיא גַּם כֵּן מִצְוָה הַבָּאָה מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן,יא,6 וּבְרָכָה אַחַת עוֹלָה לְכָאן וּלְכָאן:יב,7

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2 When does the above8 apply? When one recites Kiddush in the sukkah. If, however, on the night of Yom-Tov, one made Kiddush inside his home, reciting the blessing Shehecheyanu in his home does not enable him to fulfill the obligation to recite it for the mitzvah of dwelling in the sukkah.9

Therefore when he enters the sukkah to eat one of the other meals of the festival, he must recite the blessing Shehecheyanu, after10 reciting the blessing leishev basukkah, even if the sukkah is not his.11

ב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?8 כְּשֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם בְּתוֹךְ הַסֻּכָּה, אֲבָל אִם בְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב קִדֵּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּבִרְכַּת "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ" שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל מִצְוַת יְשִׁיבַת הַסֻּכָּהיג,9 בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר בַּבַּיִת, וּלְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לַסֻּכָּה לֶאֱכֹל סְעוּדָה אַחֶרֶת מִשְּׁאָר סְעוּדוֹת הַחַג – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ"יד אַחַר10 בִּרְכַּת "לֵישֵׁב בַּסֻּכָּה",טו אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַסֻּכָּה שֶׁלּוֹ:טז,11