SECTION 617 Laws Relating to Pregnant and Nursing Women, and Women after Recent Childbirth, on Yom Kippur. (1–5)

סימן תריז דִּין עֻבָּרָה וּמְנִיקָה וְיוֹלֶדֶת בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 Pregnant and nursing women must complete the fast on Yom Kippur.1

א עֻבָּרוֹת וּמְנִיקוֹת – מִתְעַנּוֹת וּמַשְׁלִימוֹת בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:א,1

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2 [The following laws apply if] a pregnant woman smells [the aroma of] a delicacy, [and desires it so intensely] that if she is not given the food she may miscarry.2 For the fetus [also] smelled the aroma of the food and desires it, and if [the mother] does not partake of it, [the fetus] may break loose [from the placenta in an endeavor] to leave [the womb], thus endangering the lives of them both.

[In such a situation,] someone should whisper in her ear that this day is Yom Kippur, for perhaps [this awareness will] enable her to restrain herself. If her mind becomes settled, and the fetus ceases its desire because of this reminder, well and good. If her mind remains unsettled and she says, “I need to eat” (see the explanation of this statement in sec. 618[:1]), or if her face began to change [color] even if she did not say, “I need to eat,” one should dip a stalk3 in sauce and place it in her mouth [for her to suck], in the [hope] that this will settle her.4

If she remains unsettled and her face remains different from its usual appearance, or if she still says, “I need [to eat],” she should be given some of the sauce itself (in small amounts, each less than the minimum measure5 [for which one is liable], as will be explained in sec. 618[:13]).

If this, too, is not sufficient to settle her, she should be given some of the food itself (in small amounts, each less than the minimum measure) until she feels settled.6

ב עֻבָּרָה שֶׁהֵרִיחָה מַאֲכָל ב וְאִם לֹא יִתְּנוּ לָהּ מֵהַמַּאֲכָל אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁתַּפִּיל עֻבָּרָהּ,ג,2 לְפִי שֶׁהָעֻבָּר הֵרִיחַ רֵיחַ הַמַּאֲכָל וּמִתְאַוֶּה לוֹ, וְאִם לֹא תֹּאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּתְעַקֵּר לָצֵאת וְנִמְצָא שְׁנֵיהֶם מְסֻכָּנִים ד – לוֹחֲשִׁין לָהּ בְּאָזְנָהּ שֶׁהַיּוֹם הוּא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים ה אוּלַי תּוּכַל לְהִתְאַפֵּק,ו וְאִם נִתְיַשְּׁבָה דַּעְתָּהּ ז שֶׁפָּסַק הָעֻבָּר מִתַּאֲוָתוֹ ח עַל יְדֵי זִכָּרוֹן זֶה ט – מוּטָב.

וְאִם לֹא נִתְיַשְּׁבָה דַּעְתָּהּ בָּזֶה אֶלָּא אוֹמֶרֶת צְרִיכָה אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל י (עַיֵּן בֵּאוּר דָּבָר זֶה בְּסִימָן תרי"ח יא), אוֹ שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ פָּנֶיהָ מִשְׁתַּנִּים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרָה צְרִיכָה אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל יב – תּוֹחֲבִין כּוֹשׁ בָּרֹטֶב,3 וְנוֹתְנִין לְתוֹךְ פִּיהָ, שֶׁמָּא תִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתָּהּ בָּזֶה.,4 וְאִם לֹא נִתְיַשְּׁבָה דַּעְתָּהּ בְּכָךְ וַעֲדַיִן פָּנֶיהָ מְשֻׁנִּים אוֹ שֶׁעֲדַיִן אוֹמֶרֶת צְרִיכָה אֲנִי – נוֹתְנִין לָהּ מִן הָרֹטֶב עַצְמוֹ יג (פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִכְּשִׁעוּר,5 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרי"ח יד).

וְאִם גַּם בָּזֶה לֹא נִתְיַשְּׁבָה דַּעְתָּהּ – נוֹתְנִין לָהּ מִן הַמַּאֲכָל עַצְמוֹ טו (פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִכְּשִׁעוּר) עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתָּהּ:טז,6

3 [These laws] apply not only to a pregnant woman. Any person who smells [the aroma of] food, and [desires it so intensely that] his face changes [color], is [considered to be] in mortal danger if he is not given the opportunity to taste the food. He should therefore be given food on Yom Kippur in the same manner as a pregnant woman is given.

If his face did not change [color] he should not be given food even though he says, “I need to eat,” unless he is sick. [If he is sick] and says, “I need [to eat],” or if doctors say that he must eat, then even if he did not smell [the aroma of] food he should be given the amount he needs as soon as he needs it. [The procedure of] first giving some of the sauce was stated only with regard to a pregnant woman or to a person who smelled the aroma of food, for neither they, nor we, are able to estimate when their minds will be settled. Sometimes the sauce itself will suffice, and sometimes they need the food itself. We are therefore particular, [when feeding] them, to whatever extent possible.

With regard to a sick person, by contrast, [since] he is given food on the advice of knowledgeable doctors, he should be given what [they] recommend. Similarly, when food is given to [a sick person because] he himself says, “I need [to eat],” it should be given until he says that it is sufficient. One must be particular, however, to give it in small amounts, each less than the minimum measure [for which one is liable], as will be explained in sec. 618[:13].

ג וְלֹא מְעֻבֶּרֶת בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ כָּל אָדָם שֶׁהֵרִיחַ מַאֲכָל וְנִשְׁתַּנּוּ פָּנָיו – מְסֻכָּן הוּא אִם לֹא יִתְּנוּ לוֹ לִטְעֹם מֵהַמַּאֲכָל, לְפִיכָךְ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים יז כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּאֲכִילִין אֶת הַמְעֻבֶּרֶת שֶׁהֵרִיחָה,יח אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ פָּנָיו יט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל כ – אֵין מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ.

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא חוֹלֶה, שֶׁאָז אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֵרִיחַ רֵיחַ מַאֲכָל וְהוּא אוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ אֲנִי,כא אוֹ שֶׁהָרוֹפְאִים אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל כב – מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ, כְּדֵי הַצָּרִיךְ לוֹ. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ לִתֵּן לוֹ תְּחִלָּה מִן הָרֹטֶב, אֶלָּא בִּמְעֻבֶּרֶת אוֹ מִי שֶׁהֵרִיחַ רֵיחַ הַמַּאֲכָל, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם וְלֹא לָנוּ אֹמֶד בְּיִשּׁוּב דַּעְתָּם, פְּעָמִים מִתְיַשֵּׁב בְּרֹטֶב וּפְעָמִים שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לְהַמַּאֲכָל עַצְמוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ מְדַקְדְּקִין עִמָּהֶם בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר, אֲבָל חוֹלֶה שֶׁמַּאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל פִּי רוֹפְאִים בְּקִיאִים – נוֹתְנִים לוֹ כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁאוֹמְרִים הַבְּקִיאִים.כג וְכֵן אִם מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל פִּי עַצְמוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ אֲנִי – נוֹתְנִים לוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר דַּי.כד

אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְהַאֲכִיל אוֹתוֹ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִכְּשִׁעוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרי"ח:כה

4 Within three days of childbirth, a woman should not fast at all. Even if she says, “I do not need [to eat],” she should be served food against her will. Nevertheless, it should be given to her in small amounts, each less than the minimum measure [for which one is liable], as will be explained in sec. 618[:13].

[The following procedure applies] between the end of the third day and the end of the seventh day after childbirth. If she says, “I need to eat,” then even though her peers and the doctors likewise say that there is no need for this, she should immediately be given food7 (in small amounts, each less than the minimum measure [for which one is liable], as explained there).

Beyond [seven days after childbirth] she is considered as any sick person whose condition is not dangerous, for after seven days she is certainly not in any danger arising from the birth. Therefore, even if she said, “Because of the suffering of the birth I must eat,” she should not be given food, because no risk is involved.

However, if she said, “I must eat because illness is overcoming me,” she should be given food in the same manner that it is given to any sick person who says, “I must [eat],” as explained in [sec. 618:1].

ד יוֹלֶדֶת תּוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים – לֹא תִּתְעַנֶּה כְּלָל,כו אֲפִלּוּ אוֹמֶרֶת אֵינִי צְרִיכָה – מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ כז בְּעַל כָּרְחָהּ.כח וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לְהַאֲכִילָהּ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִכְּשִׁעוּר,כט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרי"ח.ל

מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים עַד סוֹף שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְלִדְתָּהּ, אִם אָמְרָה צְרִיכָה אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל לא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ לב וְכֵן הָרוֹפְאִים לג אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ מִיָּד לד,7 פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִכְּשִׁעוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.לה

מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ – הֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁאָר חוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,לו לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי אֵין שׁוּם סַכָּנָה מֵחֲמַת הַלֵּדָה לְאַחַר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים לְלִדְתָּהּ. לְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ אִם אָמְרָה צְרִיכָה אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל מֵחֲמַת צַעַר הַלֵּדָה – אֵין מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין סַכָּנָה בַּדָּבָר. אֲבָל אִם אָמְרָה צְרִיכָה אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל מֵחֲמַת שֶׁמִּתְכַּבֵּד עָלַי חֹלִי – מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ לז כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּאֲכִילִין כָּל חוֹלֶה שֶׁאוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ אֲנִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,לח עַיֵּן שָׁם:

5 The three days and the seven days [referred to above in subsection 4] are not counted from hour to hour. For example, if a woman gave birth on the seventh of Tishrei after midday, the three days are not counted as continuing until after midday on Yom Kippur, but according to the days of the week.8 Thus, [in the above situation,] Yom Kippur is considered the fourth day after she gave birth.

If, [between the end of the third day and the end of the seventh day after childbirth,9] she said, “I do not need [to eat],” she should not be given food at all. If she simply said nothing, or if she said that she did not know whether she needed [to eat], she should be given food, unless her friends or doctors say that she does not need [to eat]. In such a case she should not be given food unless she explicitly says, “I need to eat.”

ה שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אֵלּוּ, וְכֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֵלּוּ – אֵין מוֹנִין אוֹתָם מֵעֵת לְעֵת, כְּגוֹן אִם יָלְדָה בְּז' בְּתִשְׁרֵי אַחַר חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם – אֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים עַד אַחַר חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אֶלָּא מְחַשְּׁבִין אוֹתָם לְפִי סֵדֶר יְמֵי בְּרֵאשִׁית,8 וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הוּא יוֹם רְבִיעִי לְלִדְתָּהּ.לט

וְאִם מ,9 אָמְרָה אֵינִי צְרִיכָה – אֵין מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ כְּלָל.מא אֲבָל בִּסְתָם שֶׁאֵינָהּ אוֹמֶרֶת כְּלוּם,מב אוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֶרֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת אִם הִיא צְרִיכָה – מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ אוֹ הָרוֹפְאִים אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה, שֶׁאָז אֵין מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָהּ,מג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָמְרָה בְּפֵרוּשׁ צְרִיכָה אֲנִי לֶאֱכֹל:מד