SECTION 611 [The Restrictions Observed on] the Night of Yom Kippur, [which is Governed by] the Same Laws as the Day of Yom Kippur. (1–10)

סימן תריא לֵיל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים דִּינוֹ כְּיוֹמוֹ וּבוֹ י' סְעִיפִים:

1 The night of Yom Kippur [is governed by the same laws] as the day [of Yom Kippur] in all respects:1 whatever is forbidden by day is also forbidden at night. [Moreover,] whatever is forbidden on the festival itself is also forbidden even during the additional time that is appended from the mundane realm to the realm of holiness, both before and after [the festival].2

א לֵיל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּיוֹמוֹ לְכָל דָּבָר,א,1 שֶׁכָּל דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בַּיּוֹם – אֲסוּרִים בַּלַּיְלָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּתּוֹסֶפֶת שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ בֵּין מִלְּפָנָיו ב בֵּין מִלְּאַחֲרָיו ג – אֲסוּרִים כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּעִקַּר הַיּוֹם:2

2 What activities are forbidden? Performing work, eating and drinking, washing, anointing oneself, wearing shoes, and marital relations.3 One is liable for kares,4 however, only for performing work, eating, or drinking.

[These concepts are derived as follows:] It is written,5 “[As to] any person6 who will perform any work [on that very day], I will cause [that person] to perish [from among his people].” It is also written,7 “For any person who will not afflict himself [on that very day] will be cut off [from his people].” And the term “affliction,” when unqualified,8 refers to withholding food and drink, as is evident from the verse,9 “And He afflicted you and subjected you to hunger, and fed you [the manna].” Eating includes drinking.

Washing, anointing oneself, and marital relations are also sometimes called “affliction,” as our Sages derived through the interpretation of Scriptural verses.10 Nevertheless, when the term “affliction” is used without qualification, in most cases it signifies abstention from food and drink alone. At the same time, since [these other activities] are also occasionally called “affliction,” they are also forbidden on Yom Kippur according to Scriptural Law.11 [This is derived from the description of Yom Kippur as]12 “a Shabbos of absolute rest,” for the Sages13 received the tradition that this signifies the cessation of any activity [whose deprivation] is sometimes termed “affliction.”

ב וּמָה הֵן הַדְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים? מְלָאכָה, אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, רְחִיצָה וְסִיכָה, נְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל, תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה.ד,3 אֲבָל אֵין חִיּוּב כָּרֵת4 אֶלָּא עַל מְלָאכָה וַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה,ה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ו,5 "וְכָל הַנֶּפֶשׁ6 אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה כָּל מְלָאכָה ז וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי וגו'", וְנֶאֱמַר ח,7 "כִּי כָל הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא תְעֻנֶּה ט וְנִכְרְתָה וגו'", וּסְתַם עִנּוּי הוּא8 מְנִיעַת אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה,י כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יא,9 "וַיְעַנְּךָ וַיַּרְעִיבֶךָ וַיַּאֲכִילְךָ וגו'", וּשְׁתִיָּה בִּכְלַל אֲכִילָה.יב

אֲבָל רְחִיצָה וְסִיכָה וּנְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל וְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם הֵם נִקְרָאִים עִנּוּי לִפְעָמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁלָּמְדוּ חֲכָמִים יג מִמִּדְרַשׁ הַפְּסוּקִים,10 מִכָּל מָקוֹם סְתַם עִנּוּי לֹא נֶאֱמַר בְּרֹב הַפְּעָמִים אֶלָּא עַל מְנִיעַת אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה בִּלְבַד. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁגַּם הֵם נִקְרָאִים עִנּוּי לִפְעָמִים, לְפִיכָךְ גַּם הֵם אֲסוּרִים בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה,יד,11 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר טו,12 "שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן", וְקִבְּלוּ חֲכָמִים טז,13 בְּפֵרוּשׁ הַפָּסוּק שְׁבוּת מִכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁנִּקְרָא עִנּוּי לִפְעָמִים:

3 The Torah entrusted [the interpretation of] the prohibition of these matters to the Sages, who allowed certain leniencies as appeared appropriate to them, as will be explained below,14 with G‑d’s help.

ג וְאִסּוּר דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ יז מָסַר הַכָּתוּב לַחֲכָמִים, וְהֵם הֵקֵלּוּ בָּהֶם כַּמָּה קֻלּוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה נִרְאֶה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל,יח וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְפָנֵינוּ יט,14 בְּעֶזְרַת ה':

4 What does [the prohibition against] work imply? Any [activity] for which one is liable15 on Shabbos, one is liable for on Yom Kippur. Any activity for which one is not liable if it is performed on Shabbos, but which is nevertheless forbidden,16 is in the same category on Yom Kippur. [One difference is that a person who] intentionally performs [a forbidden labor on] Shabbos is liable for execution by stoning, while with regard to Yom Kippur he is liable for kares.17

[In addition], all the prohibitions against transferring [articles from one domain to another] that apply on Shabbos18 apply as well on Yom Kippur.19 And any article that may not be moved [within one’s own domain]20 on Shabbos may not be moved on Yom Kippur.

ד מְלָאכָה כֵּיצַד? כ כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁחַיָּבִים15 עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת – חַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְכָל שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת פָּטוּר אֲבָל אָסוּר16 – הוּא גַּם כֵּן בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁשַּׁבָּת זְדוֹנוֹ סְקִילָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים זְדוֹנוֹ כָּרֵת.כא,17 וְכָל אִסּוּרֵי הוֹצָאוֹת שַׁבָּת18 נוֹהֲגִין גַּם כֵּן בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים.כב,19 וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ20 בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:כג

5 [The Sages,] however, granted [several] leniencies [on Yom Kippur],21 allowing one to prepare a vegetable, i.e., to remove the leaves from the stalk to make them even, so that they will be ready to cut. Similarly, they may be rinsed so that they will be ready to cook immediately in the evening.22 Similarly, nuts may be cracked open23 so that they will ready to eat in the evening and there will be no need to take the trouble [to prepare them] in the evening.

All of these activities are forbidden on Shabbos because one would be taking the trouble of preparing for a weekday on Shabbos, [and] these foods are not needed that day until the evening. Nevertheless, [the Sages] permitted these activities on Yom Kippur because they are essential to life24 — so that one would not have to take the trouble of doing these tasks on the night [following Yom Kippur] before he eats, for it would cause him anguish25 to do them while [still] fasting.

ה אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּזֶה הֵקֵלּוּ בּוֹ,21 שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לִקְנֹב יֶרֶק,כד דְּהַיְנוּ לְנַתֵּק הֶעָלִים מִן הַקְּלָחִים כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁווֹתָם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מוּכָנִים לְחָתְכָם,כה וְכֵן לְהָדִיחַ אוֹתוֹ כו שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מוּכָן לְבַשְּׁלוֹ בָּעֶרֶב מִיָּד,22 וְכֵן לִפְצֹעַ אֱגוֹזִים כז,23 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מוּכָנִים לַאֲכִילַת עֶרֶב,כח וְלֹא יִצְטָרֵךְ לִטְרֹחַ בָּהֶן בָּעֶרֶב. וְכָל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא טוֹרֵחַ וּמֵכִין מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל כט כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִים הַיּוֹם עַד לָעֶרֶב, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הִתִּירוּ מִשּׁוּם פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ,ל,24 שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לִטְרֹחַ בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ בָּעֶרֶב קֹדֶם אֲכִילָתוֹ וְיִהְיֶה לוֹ עָגְמַת נֶפֶשׁ לא,25 בַּעֲנוֹת נַפְשׁוֹ בַּעֲשִׂיַּת דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְעֻנֶּה:

6 The Sages permitted these activities only when Yom Kippur falls on a weekday;26 they did not permit them when [it] falls on Shabbos. They enacted this ordinance lest one do these activities on the other Shabbasos of the year, preparing [food] during the day [of Shabbos] to be eaten at night, not realizing that permission was granted on Yom Kippur [only] in order to spare anguish.

ו וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁחָל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּחֹל,26 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת – לֹא הִתִּירוּ דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ,לב גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה לג שֶׁיָּכִין בַּיּוֹם מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לַאֲכִילַת עֶרֶב, שֶׁלֹּא יַבְחִין שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מִשּׁוּם עָגְמַת נֶפֶשׁ:

7 Even when Yom Kippur falls on a weekday, this permission was granted only from the late afternoon27 onward. At that time, there is no reason to be concerned lest one’s involvement with the preparation of food will cause him to forget that it is Yom Kippur and partake of it. For since it is in the late afternoon, close to the time when it is permitted to eat, i.e., the appearance of the stars, one will have the feeling that food is at hand.28 Before the late afternoon, by contrast, it is forbidden to become involved in the preparation of food for the night, lest one forget and partake of it.

ז אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחָל בְּחֹל לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה,לד,27 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא עַל יְדֵי הִתְעַסְּקוּתוֹ בְּתִקּוּן הַמַּאֲכָל יִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אַחַר הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁהוּא קָרוֹב לְעֵת הֶתֵּר אֲכִילָה דְּהַיְנוּ צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ כְּמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פַּת בְּסַלּוֹ.28 אֲבָל קֹדֶם הַמִּנְחָה – אָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְעַסֵּק בְּתִקּוּנֵי הַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁל עֶרֶב, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ:לה

8 In the present era, it has become universal Jewish custom to forbid the preparation of vegetables and the cracking of nuts. This also applies to other ways of preparing food for the evening, even in the late afternoon. [The rationale for this stringency is that] in the later generations, people wrongfully began to rush and perform these activities even before the late afternoon.29 [The Sages] therefore ruled stringently and forbade these activities even in the late afternoon.

ח עַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לֶאֱסֹר קְנִיבַת יֶרֶק וְהַפְצָעַת אֱגוֹזִים,לו וְהוּא הַדִּין שְׁאָר תִּקּוּנֵי מַאֲכָלִים שֶׁל עֶרֶב, אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר הַמִּנְחָה, לְפִי שֶׁבְּדוֹרוֹת אַחֲרוֹנִים הִתְחִילוּ לְקַלְקֵל לְמַהֵר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ קֹדֶם הַמִּנְחָה,29 לְפִיכָךְ הֶחְמִירוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וְאָסְרוּ אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר הַמִּנְחָה:לז

9 To what does [this prohibition] apply? To activities that involve the preparation of food. Throughout the day, however, food may be touched30 — unlike chametz,31 which may not be touched on Pesach. Since on Pesach one is allowed to eat other foods, there is reason for concern that [if he is allowed to] touch chametz he will forget the prohibition against it and partake of it, too, for during those days he is not at all withdrawn and isolated from eating.

On Yom Kippur, by contrast, since one is entirely withdrawn and isolated from eating, there is no cause for concern lest he forget and eat, unless he is involved in preparing food for consumption. When, by contrast, one merely touches food, this is no cause for concern.

For this reason it is permitted to serve children food, even though they could take it alone without the adults having to touch it. If a child cannot eat unless an adult prepares the food for him, the adult is allowed to prepare it,32 since it is impossible for the child to eat without this preparation.

ט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּהִתְעַסְּקוּת בְּתִקּוּנֵי הַמַּאֲכָל,לח אֲבָל לִגַּע בָּאֳכָלִין – מֻתָּר כָּל הַיּוֹם,לט,30 וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְחָמֵץ31 שֶׁאָסוּר לִגַּע בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח,מ לְפִי שֶׁבְּפֶסַח הוּא אוֹכֶל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים – חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח אִסּוּר חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח וְיֹאכַל גַּם אֶת זֶה שֶׁנּוֹגֵעַ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּיָמִים אֵלּוּ אֵינֶנּוּ פָּרוּשׁ וּמֻבְדָּל כְּלָל מֵאֲכִילָה, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁהוּא פָּרוּשׁ וּמֻבְדָּל מֵאֲכִילָה לְגַמְרֵי – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל,מא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מִתְעַסֵּק בְּתִקּוּן הַמַּאֲכָל לְתַקְּנוֹ וּלְהַכְשִׁירוֹ לַאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל בִּנְגִיעָה בְּעָלְמָא – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְכָךְ.

וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לַקְּטַנִּים לֶאֱכֹל,מב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקְּטַנִּים יְכוֹלִים לִטֹּל בְּעַצְמָן מִבְּלִי שֶׁיִּגְּעוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים בַּמַּאֲכָל.מג וְאִם אֵין הַקָּטָן יָכוֹל לֶאֱכֹל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִתְעַסֵּק הַגָּדוֹל בְּתִקּוּן הַמַּאֲכָל לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ וּלְתַקְּנוֹ לַאֲכִילַת הַקָּטָן – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְתַקְּנוֹ,32 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַקָּטָן לְאָכְלוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי תִּקּוּן זֶה:

10 It is customary to allow young children to play with nuts on a table, as spoken of in sec. 338[:6]. One should not raise any objection to this, even [if they play in this manner] before the late afternoon.

י וְנָהֲגוּ שֶׁהַתִּינוֹקוֹת מְשַׂחֲקִין בָּאֱגוֹזִים מד עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,מה עַיֵּן סִימָן של"ח,מו, וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם מִנְחָה:מז