SECTION 607 The Order of the Confessional Prayer in the Afternoon Service of Erev Yom Kippur. (1–16)

סימן תרז סֵדֶר הַוִּדּוּי בְּמִנְחָה בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וּבוֹ ט"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 Yom Kippur is a day of forgiveness and atonement,1 as it is written,2 “For on this day He will grant atonement….” Accordingly, every individual must confess his sins.3 [This is derived from a comparison with] all the sacrifices that are offered in order to secure atonement, and concerning them it is written,4 “And they shall confess [the] sin that they have committed.”

According to law, the mitzvah of confession applies at the beginning of the time of atonement,5 i.e., at nightfall on the eve of Yom Kippur. Nevertheless, the Sages feared that an undesirable matter such as drunkenness might occur during the meal preceding the fast and one might not be able to confess at the beginning of the time for atonement. They therefore ordained that every individual should confess during the Afternoon Service on the day preceding Yom Kippur, before partaking of the meal preceding the fast.

Even though one confessed during the Afternoon Service, he must confess again during the Evening Service, for this is the beginning of the time of atonement and this is the primary time for the confession of Yom Kippur.

And even though one confessed during the Evening Service, he must confess again during the Morning Service, lest something sinful befell him after the confession during the Evening Service. For the same reason he should repeat the confession during the Mussaf, Minchah, and Neilah services,6 lest something sinful befell him in the course of the day, for the atonement granted by Yom Kippur [continues to] take effect until its conclusion, at nightfall.

א כֵּיוָן שֶׁיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הוּא יוֹם הַסְּלִיחָה וְכַפָּרָה,1 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר א,2 "כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר וגו'", לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ כָּל אָדָם שֶׁיִּתְוַדֶּה עַל חֲטָאָיו,3 כִּי כֵּן מָצִינוּ בְּכָל קָרְבָּנוֹת הַבָּאִים לְכַפֵּר,ב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ג,4 "וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ".

וּמִצְוַת וִדּוּי מִן הַדִּין הוּא בְּהַתְחָלַת זְמַן הַכַּפָּרָה,5 דְּהַיְנוּ מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ ד לֵיל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁחָשׁוּ חֲכָמִים ה שֶׁמָּא יֶאֱרַע דְּבַר קַלְקָלָה ו שֶׁל שִׁכְרוּת ז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ ח בִּסְעוּדָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת וְלֹא יוּכַל לְהִתְוַדּוֹת ט בְּהַתְחָלַת זְמַן הַכַּפָּרָה, לְכָךְ תִּקְּנוּ שֶׁיִּתְוַדֶּה כָּל אָדָם בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּמִנְחָה י קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל בִּסְעוּדָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת.יא

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה בְּמִנְחָה – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְוַדּוֹת בְּעַרְבִית,יב שֶׁהִיא הַתְחָלַת זְמַן הַכַּפָּרָה, וְהוּא עִקַּר זְמַן הַוִּדּוּי שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים,יג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה עַרְבִית – חוֹזֵר וּמִתְוַדֶּה בִּתְפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית,יד שֶׁמָּא אֵרַע לוֹ דְּבַר עֲבֵרָה אַחַר הַוִּדּוּי שֶׁל עַרְבִית, וּמִטַּעַם הַזֶּה הוּא צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְוַדּוֹת בְּמוּסָף וּבְמִנְחָה וּבִנְעִילָה6 שֶׁמָּא אֵרַע לוֹ דְּבַר עֲבֵרָה בְּכָל הַיּוֹם,טו שֶׁיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר עַד סוֹפוֹ עִם חֲשֵׁכָה:טז

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2 However, some authorities maintain that according to law, the time for the mitzvah of confession is before the beginning of the time of atonement, i.e., just before nightfall,7 so that one will enter the day in a state of penitence and will not have the opportunity to sin between the confession and the beginning of the time of atonement. Nevertheless, the Sages were concerned lest an undesirable matter might occur during the meal and one might not be able to confess before nightfall. They therefore ordained that one should confess during the Afternoon Service.

Although one confessed in the Afternoon Service, he should confess again just before nightfall, for according to law, this is the primary time for confession, since it is possible that something sinful befell him after the Afternoon Service. And even though one confessed before nightfall, he should confess again during the Evening Service and during all the services of the day, for certainly on Yom Kippur itself one is also obligated to confess and repent in complete teshuvah.

The halachah follows the first view. Nevertheless, it is appropriate for every individual to undertake the stringency of following the second opinion as well. Hence, as he sees twilight approaching, he should stand up8 and confess.9

ב וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים יז שֶׁזְּמַן מִצְוַת וִדּוּי מִן הַדִּין הוּא קֹדֶם הַתְחָלַת זְמַן הַכַּפָּרָה, דְּהַיְנוּ עִם חֲשֵׁכָה,7 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִכְנֹס לַיּוֹם בִּתְשׁוּבָה וְלֹא יְהֵא שְׁהוּת לַחֲטֹא בֵּין הַוִּדּוּי לְהַתְחָלַת זְמַן הַכַּפָּרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁחָשׁוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁמָּא יֶאֱרַע לוֹ דְּבַר קַלְקָלָה בַּסְּעוּדָה וְלֹא יוּכַל לְהִתְוַדּוֹת עִם חֲשֵׁכָה, לְכָךְ תִּקְּנוּ לְהִתְוַדּוֹת בְּמִנְחָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה בְּמִנְחָה – חוֹזֵר וּמִתְוַדֶּה עִם חֲשֵׁכָה, שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר זְמַן וִדּוּי מִן הַדִּין, שֶׁמָּא אֵרַע לוֹ דְּבַר עֲבֵרָה אַחַר מִנְחָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה עִם חֲשֵׁכָה – חוֹזֵר וּמִתְוַדֶּה בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית וּבְכָל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל הַיּוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי גַּם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עַצְמוֹ חַיָּב לְהִתְוַדּוֹת יח וְלָשׁוּב בִּתְשׁוּבָה שְׁלֵמָה.יט

וַהֲלָכָה כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.כ מִכָּל מָקוֹם, רָאוּי לְכָל אָדָם לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ כַּסְּבָרָא הַשְּׁנִיָּה,כא וּכְשֶׁרוֹאֶה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מְמַשְׁמֵשׁ וּבָא – יַעֲמֹד8 וְיִתְוַדֶּה:כב,9

3 When one confesses individually,10 whether during the Afternoon Service on the day before Yom Kippur, or during the Evening, Morning, Mussaf, Afternoon, or Neilah services of Yom Kippur, he should confess after completing Shemoneh Esreh, before leaving the place he was standing. The sheliach tzibbur, by contrast,11 recites the confession on Yom Kippur in the midst of Shemoneh Esreh.

However, in the Afternoon Service on the day before Yom Kippur, the sheliach tzibbur does not repeat the confession aloud.12 The rationale is that the confession was [placed] in the Afternoon Service only because of a concern that something undesirable might occur during the [following] meal. Now, the sheliach tzibbur repeats Shemoneh Esreh only to enable one who is not knowledgeable [with regard to prayer] to fulfill his obligation. Hence the Sages did not want to ordain that the sheliach tzibbur repeat the confession [only because] it is possible that something undesirable might occur to a person who is not knowledgeable, for [such] people are few.

ג כְּשֶׁהַיָּחִיד מִתְוַדֶּה,כג,10 בֵּין בִּתְפִלַּת מִנְחָה שֶׁל עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בֵּין בְּעַרְבִית שַׁחֲרִית מוּסָף מִנְחָה וּנְעִילָה שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כד – הוּא מִתְוַדֶּה אַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר תְּפִלָּתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁעָקַר רַגְלָיו, אֲבָל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר11 אוֹמֵר הַוִּדּוּי בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּפִלָּה.כה

אֲבָל בִּתְפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁל עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים – אֵין הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר אֶת הַוִּדּוּי בְּקוֹל רָם,כו,12 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ הַוִּדּוּי בְּמִנְחָה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֶאֱרַע דְּבַר קַלְקָלָה בַּסְּעוּדָה,כז וְהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אֵינוֹ מַחֲזִיר אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי – לֹא רָצוּ חֲכָמִים לְתַקֵּן שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אֶת הַוִּדּוּי שֶׁמָּא יֶאֱרַע דְּבַר קַלְקָלָה לְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי, שֶׁמּוּעָטִין הֵן שֶׁאֵינָן בְּקִיאִים:כח

4 If one did not enumerate his sins individually, but merely said, “I have sinned,” he has fulfilled the mitzvah of confession.13 Initially, however, it is preferable to mention his sins individually, saying, “I did such-and-such,” for by doing so he will be more embarrassed [by them] before the Holy One, blessed be He, and will regret them from the depths of his heart.

When one enumerates his sins, he should confess in a whisper. Were he to confess aloud, it would be forbidden for him to enumerate his sins in public, for it would not be respectful to the Omnipresent that one publicly reveal that he sinned against Him.

When does the above apply? To a sin which is not public knowledge. A sin which is public knowledge, by contrast, may be specifically mentioned in public, even aloud,14 though there is no obligation to [do so]. One may specify it in a whisper if he so desires.

ד אִם לֹא פֵּרֵט אֶת חֲטָאָיו אֶלָּא אָמַר סְתָם "חָטָאתִי" – יָצָא יְדֵי מִצְוַת וִדּוּי.כט,13 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה ל נָכוֹן לְפָרֵט אֶת הַחֵטְא לא שֶׁיֹּאמַר "עָשִׂיתִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ",לב מִפְּנֵי (שערב יוה"כ) [שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵּן לג] הוּא מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ יוֹתֵר לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵחֲטָאָיו וּמִתְחָרֵט עֲלֵיהֶם מֵעֹמֶק לִבּוֹ.לד

וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְפָרֵט חֲטָאָיו – יִתְוַדֶּה בְּלַחַשׁ,לה שֶׁאִם יִתְוַדֶּה בְּקוֹל רָם – אָסוּר לוֹ לְפָרֵט חֲטָאָיו בָּרַבִּים,לו לְפִי שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּבוֹד הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁמְּגַלֶּה לָרַבִּים שֶׁחָטָא כְּנֶגְדּוֹ.לז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּחֵטְא שֶׁאֵין מְפֻרְסָם, אֲבָל חֵטְא הַמְפֻרְסָם לָרַבִּים – מֻתָּר לְפָרְטוֹ בָּרַבִּים אֲפִלּוּ בְּקוֹל רָם.לח,14 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין חוֹבָה לְפָרְטוֹ בְּקוֹל רָם, אֶלָּא יִפְרְטֶנּוּ בְּלַחַשׁ אִם יִרְצֶה:לט

5 Reciting the confessional prayer Al Cheit according to its alphabetical pattern is not considered as enumerating one’s sins. Since everyone recites [this confessional] uniformly, it is considered as part of the standard prayer service. It may therefore be recited aloud.

ה וּמַה שֶּׁאוֹמְרִים "עַל חֵטְא" עַל סֵדֶר א"ב – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא פּוֹרֵט חֲטָאָיו, הוֹאִיל וְהַכֹּל אוֹמְרִים בְּשָׁוֶה – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּנֻסַּח תְּפִלָּה, וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְאָמְרוֹ בְּקוֹל רָם:מ

6 The order of the confessions in the Al Cheit prayer should be “[And for the sins for which we are obligated to bring] a burnt-offering,” then “…a sin-offering,” “…an adjustable [guilt-] offering,”15 and then “…a guilt-offering or a conditional guilt-offering,” for the sacrifices are listed in this order in Parshas Vayikra.16

The sequence that follows is: “for the sins for which we incur [the penalty of] lashing for rebelliousness,”17 then “…[the penalty of] forty lashes,” “…[the penalty of] death by the hand of Heaven,” “…[the penalty of] excision and childlessness,” and then “…[the penalty of] the four forms of capital punishment.” The rationale is that requests should first be modest and only later should be expanded, as explained in sec. 582[:8].18

ו סֵדֶר הַוִּדּוּי בְּ"עַל חֲטָאִים", שֶׁאָנוּ חַיָּבִים עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹלָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ חַטָּאת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ קָרְבַּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד,15 וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָשָׁם וַדַּאי וְתָלוּי, לְפִי שֶׁכָּךְ סְדוּרִים הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת בְּפָרָשַׁת וַיִּקְרָא,16 וְאַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁאָנוּ חַיָּבִים עֲלֵיהֶם מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת,17 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַלְקוֹת אַרְבָּעִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ כָּרֵת וַעֲרִירִי, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אַרְבַּע מִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין, כִּי צָרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ עַל הַקַּל קַל תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹסִיף וְהוֹלֵךְ מא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ב:מב,18

7 As to the wording used [with regard to forgiveness], one should [request] atonement (kaparah) with regard to sins (chata’im), forgiveness (mechilah) with regard to iniquities (avonos), and pardon (selichah) with regard to transgressions (pesha’im).19 The rationale is that cheit is a lesser offense than avon, and avon is a lesser offense than pesha.20 Kaparah (atonement) is more effective than mechilah (forgiveness), and mechilah is more effective than selichah (pardon). Therefore it is appropriate to speak of sins being atoned, iniquity being forgiven, and transgression being pardoned.21

One must stand when confessing.22 Therefore, one should not lean on any object in such a way that he would fall if it were to be removed, as explained in sec. 585[:1].23 It is proper to bow when confessing, as is done [while reciting the passage that begins] Modim, so that one will confess with profound submissiveness.

When one confesses he should beat his heart with his fist, as if to say, “You caused me to sin.” There are those who follow the custom of beating their breasts for reasons known to them.24

ז יֹאמַר לְשׁוֹן כַּפָּרָה לַחֲטָאִים וּלְשׁוֹן מְחִילָה לָעֲווֹנוֹת וּלְשׁוֹן סְלִיחָה לַפְּשָׁעִים,מג,19 כִּי הַחֵטְא קַל מֵעָווֹן וְעָווֹן קַל מִפֶּשַׁע מד,20 וְהַכַּפָּרָה גְּדוֹלָה מֵהַמְּחִילָה וְהַמְּחִילָה גְּדוֹלָה מֵהַסְּלִיחָה,מה לְפִיכָךְ הַחֵטְא הוּא מִתְכַּפֵּר וְנִמְחָל הֶעָווֹן וְנִסְלָח הַפֶּשַׁע.מו,21

וְצָרִיךְ לְהִתְוַדּוֹת מְעֻמָּד,מז,22 לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִסְמֹךְ עַל דָּבָר בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יִנָּטֵל אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו הָיָה נוֹפֵל מח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ה.מט,23 וְטוֹב לִשְׁחוֹת בְּעֵת הַוִּדּוּי כְּמוֹ בְּ"מוֹדִים",נ כְּדֵי לְהִתְוַדּוֹת בְּהַכְנָעָה גְּדוֹלָה.נא

וּכְשֶׁמִּתְוַדֶּה – יַכֶּה בְּאֶגְרוֹפוֹ עַל הַלֵּב, כְּלוֹמַר אַתָּה גָּרַמְתָּ לִי הַחֵטְא.נב וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַכּוֹת עַל הֶחָזֶה מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם:נג,24

8 Even though one has already confessed when reciting the whispered Shemoneh Esreh, when the sheliach tzibbur reaches the confession11 one must stand up and repeat [it] together with him. In this confession one need not enumerate one’s sins; it is sufficient to say together with the sheliach tzibbur, “Indeed, we… have sinned.” He may then sit, but not speak25 while the sheliach tzibbur is confessing.26

ח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה בִּתְפִלַּת לַחַשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מַגִּיעַ לְוִדּוּי11 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלַעֲמֹד נד וּלְהִתְוַדּוֹת עִמּוֹ,נה וּבְוִדּוּי זֶה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵט הַחֵטְא, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אֲבָל אֲנַחְנוּ חָטָאנוּ – דַּי,נו וְרַשַּׁאי לֵישֵׁב אַחַר כָּךְ, וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לְדַבֵּר25 בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מִתְוַדֶּה:נז,26

9 Even though sins that one confessed on a previous Yom Kippur were atoned for, one may nevertheless enumerate them again in his present confession.27 Indeed, it is praiseworthy to [do so], as [indicated by] the verse, “My sin is always before me.”28 [Doing so] implies: “I do not think that You have granted me atonement; it is as if [the sin] is always standing before me.”29

ט עֲווֹנוֹת שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה עֲלֵיהֶן בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁעָבַר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְכַּפְּרוּ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְפָרְטָן בְּוִדּוּיוֹ,נח,27 וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחוֹזֵר וּפוֹרְטָן – הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח,נט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ס "וְחַטָּאתִי נֶגְדִּי תָמִיד",28 כְּלוֹמַר אֵינִי סָבוּר שֶׁכִּפַּרְתָּ לִי וַהֲרֵי הוּא תָּמִיד כְּאִלּוּ הוּא נֶגְדִּי עוֹמֵד:סא,29

10 We do not conclude the confession [with the wording of a blessing].30 [This applies] both with regard to the confession recited in the Afternoon Service of the day preceding Yom Kippur and with regard to the confessions recited by every individual [at the conclusion of] Shemoneh Esreh in the prayer services of Yom Kippur itself.

י אֵין חוֹתְמִין בְּוִדּוּי,סב,30 בֵּין וִדּוּי שֶׁל עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁל מִנְחָה,סג בֵּין וִדּוּי שֶׁל הַיָּחִיד אַחַר תְּפִלָּתוֹ בִּתְפִלּוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עַצְמוֹ:סד

11 It is customary that after the Afternoon Service31 on the day before Yom Kippur, all the congregants receive 39 lashes.32 Lashes are not effective [in securing expiation for sins] in the present age, since we do not have judges who have been granted [the classical ordination of] semichah.33 Moreover, [a transgressor] is not liable for lashes unless he was warned that the Court would punish him by lashes.34 Nevertheless, it is customary to give lashes in order that one should take to heart [the task of] repenting for the sins he has committed, and in order to humble his heart and prepare it to serve the revered and awesome G‑d with dread and fear.

יא נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁאַחַר תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה31 בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לוֹקִין כָּל הַקָּהָל סה ל"ט מַלְקוֹת,סו,32 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מַלְקוֹת מוֹעִיל בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ דַּיָּנִים סְמוּכִין,סז,33 וְגַם אֵין חַיָּב מַלְקוֹת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִתְרוּ בּוֹ שֶׁהַבֵּית דִּין מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ,סח,34 מִכָּל מָקוֹם נוֹהֲגִין לִלְקוֹת, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ יִתֵּן אֶל לִבּוֹ לָשׁוּב מֵעֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ,סט וְעוֹד כְּדֵי לְהַכְנִיעַ לְבָבוֹ וּלַהֲכִינָהּ לַעֲבֹד הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה:ע

12 It is customary for the one receiving the lashes to recite the confession while being lashed, and for the person administering the lashes to recite the verse VeHu Rachum35 three times. This totals 39 words, paralleling the 39 lashes.36

יב וְנָהֲגוּ שֶׁהַנִּלְקֶה אוֹמֵר וִדּוּיִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּלְקֶה, וְהַמַּלְקֶה אוֹמֵר "וְהוּא רַחוּם יְכַפֵּר עָוֹן וגו'" עא,35 ג' פְּעָמִים, שֶׁהֵם ל"ט תֵּבוֹת נֶגֶד ל"ט מַלְקוֹת:עב,36

13 It is customary to use a strap of any [width], for these are not lashes in the strict sense of the term, requiring a strap a handbreadth wide.

יג וְנָהֲגוּ לְהַלְקוֹת בִּרְצוּעָה כָּל דְּהוּא, שֶׁאֵין זֶה מַלְקוֹת גָּמוּר עג שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת רְצוּעָה רְחָבָה טֶפַח:עד

14 A strap of calf’s leather is used; [this] spurs one to repentance by [recalling] the verse, “[Even] an ox knows its master….”37 However, there is no need to use two straps, one [from an ox and the other] from a donkey,38 as were used for the actual lashes, for lashes in the present age are not effective [in absolving one of liability].39

יד וְלוֹקְחִין רְצוּעָה שֶׁל עֵגֶל,עה לְעוֹרְרוֹ בִּתְשׁוּבָה,עו עַל דֶּרֶךְ עז "יָדַע שׁוֹר קוֹנֵהוּ".עח,37 אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקַּח שְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת אַחַת שֶׁל חֲמוֹר עט,38 כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ בְּמַלְקוֹת גָּמוּר,פ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מַלְקוֹת מוֹעִיל בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה:פא,39

15 The person receiving the lashes should neither stand nor sit but should crouch forward, with his back to the south and his face to the north, because a person’s sins are primarily due to money, and it is written,40 “Gold comes from the north.” One should therefore humble oneself in that direction, which was the source of his sin.

טו וְהַנִּלְקֶה לֹא יַעֲמֹד וְלֹא יֵשֵׁב רַק מֻטֶּה פב אֲחוֹרָיו לַדָּרוֹם וּפָנָיו לַצָּפוֹן,פג לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר חֵטְא הָאָדָם הוּא מֵחֲמַת מָמוֹן, וּכְתִיב פד,40 "מִצָּפוֹן זָהָב יֶאֱתֶה", עַל כֵּן יַכְנִיעַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ רוּחַ לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁמִּשָּׁם בָּא לוֹ הַחֵטְא:פה

16 Yom Kippur atones only for those who repent and believe in the atonement it conveys.41 If a person holds it in disdain and thinks in his heart, “What will Yom Kippur do for [me]?” — Yom Kippur will not atone for him.

טז יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אֵינוֹ מְכַפֵּר אֶלָּא עַל הַשָּׁבִים הַמַּאֲמִינִים בְּכַפָּרָתוֹ,,41 אֲבָל הַמְבַעֵט בּוֹ וּמְחַשֵּׁב בְּלִבּוֹ מַה מּוֹעִיל לוֹ יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים זֶה – אֵין יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר לוֹ:פו