SECTION 595 [The Laws that Apply to] one who Knows neither How to Sound the Shofar nor How to Recite the Blessings. (1–2)

סימן תקצה מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי בַּתְּקִיעוֹת וְלֹא בַּתְּפִלָּה וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply if one] does not know the order of the Mussaf prayer [of Rosh HaShanah],1 nor does he know how to sound a shofar or there is no shofar available, and there are two towns in his region — in one they know how to sound the shofar but do not know how to recite the Mussaf prayers, and in the other, they know how to recite the Mussaf prayers, but do not possess a shofar or do not know how to sound it. [A person in this situation] should go to the place where they will sound the shofar.2

The above applies even if he is uncertain that the shofar will be sounded [in that town], and the Mussaf prayers will certainly be recited [in the other town. The rationale is that hearing] the shofar blasts is a Scriptural obligation, while [reciting] the Mussaf prayers is a Rabbinic obligation, and the doubtful [opportunity for the] observance of a Scriptural obligation takes precedence over the certain observance of a Rabbinic obligation.

א מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי בְּסֵדֶר תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף1 וְגַם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִתְקֹעַ א אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שׁוֹפָר, וּלְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי עֲיָרוֹת בְּאַחַת יוֹדְעִין לִתְקֹעַ אֲבָל אֵין בְּקִיאִין בִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף וּבְאַחַת בְּקִיאִין בִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף ב אֲבָל אֵין לָהֶם שׁוֹפָר ג אוֹ שֶׁאֵין יוֹדְעִין לִתְקֹעַ ד – יֵלֵךְ לִמְקוֹם הַתְּקִיעוֹת,2 אֲפִלּוּ אִם שֶׁל תְּקִיעוֹת הוּא בְּסָפֵק לוֹ וְשֶׁל מוּסָף בְּוַדַּאי,ה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתְּקִיעוֹת הֵן מִן הַתּוֹרָה וּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ו וְסָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה קוֹדֵם לְוַדַּאי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:ז

2 However, if it is possible for [such a person] to go to the place where they pray and still have time to hear the shofar blasts that day in the place where they sound the shofar — either because [both places] are within his [Shabbos] limits, or because he could send a non-Jew to bring him the shofar in the place at which he is located, even from outside the [Shabbos] limits — he should [endeavor] to observe both mitzvos.

[He may delay hearing the shofar,] because the entire day is fit for the sounding of the shofar. He should not go first to the place where they sound the shofar and then to the place where they recite the prayers, because there is less time allowed for the Mussaf prayers than for the sounding of the shofar, since the initial and preferred option is not to delay [the Mussaf prayers] beyond the seventh hour of the day,3 as stated in sec. 286[:2].

ב וְאִם יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לִמְקוֹם הַמִּתְפַּלְלִים וְיֵשׁ שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע אַחַר כָּךְ הַתְּקִיעוֹת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין,ח כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם אוֹ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִשְׁלֹחַ נָכְרִי אַחַר הַשּׁוֹפָר לַהֲבִיאוֹ לְכָאן אֲפִלּוּ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם ט – יְקַיֵּם שְׁתֵּי הַמִּצְוֹת, שֶׁכָּל הַיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר לִתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר.י אֲבָל לֹא יֵלֵךְ תְּחִלָּה לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין וְאַחַר כָּךְ לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים, לְפִי שֶׁתְּפִלַּת מוּסָף זְמַנָּהּ קָצָר מִזְּמַן תְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לְאַחֲרָהּ יוֹתֵר מִשֶּׁבַע שָׁעוֹת יא,3 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רפ"ו:יב