SECTION 592 The Mussaf Prayers Recited Aloud and the Order of the Shofar Blasts [that are Sounded during Mussaf]. (1–11)

סימן תקצב תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף בְּקוֹל רָם וְסֵדֶר הַתְּקִיעוֹת וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 Our Sages ordained1 that when the congregation recites the Mussaf service, a series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah should be sounded for the Malchiyos blessings, and [repeated] for the blessings of Zichronos and Shofaros. When [the congregation recites] the whispered Mussaf prayer, every individual prays independently, and one does not conclude his blessings at the same time that another does. Accordingly, the shofar should not be sounded during this prayer, just as it is not sounded when this prayer is recited by an individual [without a congregation], as will be explained.2 Instead, we wait [and do not] sound the shofar until the sheliach tzibbur repeats the Shemoneh Esreh.

There are places that follow the custom of sounding the shofar twice: once when [the congregation] prays in a whisper and once when the sheliach tzibbur repeats [the Shemoneh Esreh]. In a place where there is no [fixed] custom, however, this practice should not be initiated.3

א כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף בְּצִבּוּר א תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים ב,1 לִתְקֹעַ תר"ת לְמַלְכֻיּוֹת תר"ת לְזִכְרוֹנוֹת ותר"ת לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת,ג וּלְפִי שֶׁבִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף בְּלַחַשׁ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִתְפַּלֵּל לְעַצְמוֹ וְאֵין אֶחָד מְסַיֵּם בִּרְכוֹתָיו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ מְסַיֵּם, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין תּוֹקְעִין בִּתְפִלָּה זוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין תּוֹקְעִין בְּיָחִיד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,ד,2 אֶלָּא מַמְתִּינִין מִלִּתְקֹעַ עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה.ה

וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לִתְקֹעַ ב' פְּעָמִים אַחַת בִּתְפִלַּת לַחַשׁ וְאַחַת בַּחֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,ו אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִנְהָג אֵין לִנְהֹג כֵּן לְכַתְּחִלָּה:ז,3

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2 These shofar blasts are called tekios me’umad, “the shofar blasts [sounded] while standing,”4 because [not only the person sounding the shofar but] also those listening must stand when hearing these shofar blasts. With regard to tekios meyushav (“the shofar blasts [during which one may] sit”), only the person sounding the shofar must stand, as stated in sec. 585[:1-2].

ב תְּקִיעוֹת אֵלּוּ נִקְרָאִים תְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד,ח,4 לְפִי שֶׁאַף הַשּׁוֹמְעִין צְרִיכִין לַעֲמֹד בְּעֵת שְׁמִיעַת תְּקִיעוֹת הַלָּלוּ,ט מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲמֹד אֶלָּא הַתּוֹקֵעַ בִּלְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ה:י

3 The Sages ordained that the shofar should be sounded in a manner that fulfills one’s obligation according to all the different possible interpretations of the term teruah; see sec. 590[:2]. Now, therefore, it would be appropriate to sound a sequence of tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah and tekiah-shevarim-tekiah and tekiah-teruah-tekiah for the Malchiyos blessings, and similarly for the blessings of Zichronos and Shofaros,5 in order to fulfill all the possible interpretations of teruah.6

Nevertheless, since one may not overburden a congregation,7 it is customary to sound only the series tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah for the Malchiyos blessings, and similarly for the blessings of Zichronos and Shofaros. [The rationale is that] according to this approach, all the possible interpretations of teruah have been covered. The only difficulty is that perhaps (a teruah is only shevarim or only [our] teruah, and hence) one would be making an interruption between the teruah and the simple note that precedes it or that follows it. We are not concerned with this matter, since we already fulfilled the Scriptural obligation by hearing the tekios meyushav. By [hearing] these blasts we have steered clear of all the possible causes of doubt [regarding the term teruah], as was explained in sec. 590[:2].

ג וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ לָנוּ חֲכָמִים לָצֵאת מִידֵי כָּל הַסְּפֵקוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בִּתְרוּעָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"צ יא עַיֵּן שָׁם, הָיָה מֵהָרָאוּי לִתְקֹעַ תשר"ת תש"ת תר"ת לְמַלְכֻיּוֹת וְכֵן לְזִכְרוֹנוֹת וְכֵן לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת5 כְּדֵי לָצֵאת מִכָּל הַסְּפֵקוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּעָה,6 אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַטְרִיחִין עַל הַצִּבּוּר יב,7 אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לִתְקֹעַ אֶלָּא תשר"ת לְמַלְכֻיּוֹת וְכֵן לְזִכְרוֹנוֹת וְכֵן לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת,יג שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּדֶרֶךְ זוֹ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה כָּל הַסְּפֵקוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּעָה, וְאֵין כָּאן חֲשָׁשׁ אֶלָּא (שֶׁמָּא הַתְּרוּעָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁבָרִים לְבַד וּתְרוּעָה יד לְבַד וְנִמְצָא) שֶׁמָּא הוּא מַפְסִיק בֵּין תְּרוּעָה לִפְשׁוּטָה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ אוֹ שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ, וְאֵין אָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָזֶה טו כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָאנוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב,טז שֶׁבַּתְּקִיעוֹת הָהֵם יָצָאנוּ מִכָּל הַסְּפֵקוֹת יז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"צ:יח

4 There are those who follow the custom of sounding one series of tekiah-shevarim-te­ruah-tekiah for the Malchiyos blessings, one series of tekiah-shevarim-tekiah for the blessings of Zichronos, and one series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah for the Shofaros blessings.

[The rationale is that] according to Scriptural Law, both our shevarim and our teruah are referred to as teruah. No matter what one does, whether he sounds shevarim alone or our teruah alone, he has fulfilled his obligation. [Thus,] in the earlier generations, people in some places customarily sounded shevarim, and in others, people customarily sounded our teruah. Both these and those fulfilled their obligation according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, because this [diversity] was perceived as a conflict of opinion in the eyes of the common people, the Sages saw fit to ordain8 that the entire Jewish people follow a single practice [for the tekios meyushav], so there would not be [any divergence] that would appear to people at large to be a conflict of opinion. [Hence] they ordained that there be sounded three series of tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah, three series of tekiah-shevarim-tekiah, and three series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah so that there would be no doubt among people at large because of the different practices. For this reason,9 [the Sages] did not require [congregations] to take [such] trouble when sounding the tekios me’umad as well.

Instead, [when sounding] the tekios me’umad, we show that all the [possible interpretations of] teruah are called teruah, and one fulfills his obligation by [hearing any of] them. Hence we sound one series of tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah, one series of tekiah-shevarim-tekiah, and one series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah — to show that each one of these series is correct and acceptable.

ד וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין יט לִתְקֹעַ לְמַלְכֻיּוֹת תשר"ת פַּעַם אַחַת וּלְזִכְרוֹנוֹת תש"ת וּלְשׁוֹפָרוֹת תר"ת, לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה בֵּין שְׁבָרִים בֵּין תְּרוּעָה שֶׁלָּנוּ הַכֹּל נִקְרָא תְּרוּעָה, וְאֵיךְ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בֵּין שְׁבָרִים לְבַד בֵּין תְּרוּעָה שֶׁלָּנוּ לְבַד הוּא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. וּבַדּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ מִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁבָרִים וּמִקְצָת נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּרוּעָה שֶׁלָּנוּ, וְאֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ יוֹצְאִין יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה הַדָּבָר נִרְאֶה כְּמַחֲלֹקֶת בְּעֵינֵי הֶהָמוֹן, לָכֵן רָאוּ חֲכָמִים לְתַקֵּן8 שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין מַעֲשֶׂה אֶחָד וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה בֵּינֵיהֶם דָּבָר שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמַחֲלֹקֶת בְּעֵינֵי הֶהָמוֹן, הִתְקִינוּ לִתְקֹעַ תשר"ת ג' פְּעָמִים תש"ת ג' פְּעָמִים וְתר"ת ג' פְּעָמִים כְּדֵי לָצֵאת מִסְּפֵיקוֹת הֶהָמוֹן מֵחֲמַת חֲלֻקַּת מִנְהָגִים,כ לְפִיכָךְ9 לֹא הִטְרִיחוּ עַל הַצִּבּוּר לִתְקֹעַ כְּדֶרֶךְ הַזֶּה גַּם בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד,כא אֶלָּא מַרְאִין בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד שֶׁכָּל סְפֵקוֹת הַתְּרוּעָה הֵן נִקְרָאִים תְּרוּעָה וְאָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וּלְכָךְ תּוֹקְעִין פַּעַם אַחַת תשר"ת פַּעַם אַחַת תש"ת פַּעַם אַחַת תר"ת כְּדֵי לְהַרְאוֹת שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִסְּדָרִים הַלָּלוּ הֵן נְכוֹנִים וּכְשֵׁרִים:כב

5 There are some who follow the custom of sounding three series of tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah for the Malchiyos blessings, three series of tekiah-shevarim-tekiah for the blessings of Zichronos, and three series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah for the Shofaros blessings. Others follow the custom of sounding a series of tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah, then a series of tekiah-shevarim-tekiah, and then a series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah for the Malchiyos blessings. They then repeat this sequence for the blessings of Zichronos and Shofaros. This is the preferred custom.5

ה יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין כג לִתְקֹעַ ג' פְּעָמִים תשר"ת לְמַלְכֻיּוֹת ג' פְּעָמִים תש"ת לְזִכְרוֹנוֹת וְג' פְּעָמִים תר"ת לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת. וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין כד לִתְקֹעַ תשר"ת תש"ת תר"ת לְמַלְכֻיּוֹת וְכֵן לְזִכְרוֹנוֹת וְכֵן לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת. וּמִנְהָג זֶה הוּא הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁבַּמִּנְהָגִים:כה,5

6 Whenever the shofar is sounded [in the repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf], it is customary to recite [thereafter] the passage beginning Hayom haras olam10 and the passage beginning Areshes sefaseinu. Even on Shabbos, when the shofar is not sounded, we recite the passage Hayom haras; we do not, however, recite the passage Areshes sefaseinu.11

ו וְנוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר בְּכָל פַּעַם שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין "הַיּוֹם הֲרַת עוֹלָם וכו'",כו,10 "אֲרֶשֶׁת שְׂפָתֵינוּ וכו'". וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין תּוֹקְעִין אוֹמְרִים "הַיּוֹם הֲרַת כו'",כז אֲבָל אֵין אוֹמְרִים "אֲרֶשֶׁת כו'":כח,11

7 If one recites the Mussaf service alone, he should not make an interruption to sound the shofar in the midst of the blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh].12 Even if he has someone to sound the shofar for him, he should not make an interruption to listen to [the shofar blasts], for this practice was instituted only for communal [prayer].

Nevertheless, it is preferable that [such a person, like others,] should hear the shofar blasts that he is obligated to hear according to Scriptural Law — i.e., three series of tekiah-shevarim-teruah-tekiah, three series of tekiah-shevarim-tekiah, and three series of tekiah-teruah-tekiah — [specifically] before the Mussaf prayers.13

Although the tekios me’umad are a mitzvah instituted by the Sages, no blessing is recited before [they are sounded] as is done before the observance of other Rabbinic mitzvos, because they are covered by the blessing that was recited over the tekios meyushav. Since [both these sets of shofar blasts] are included in one blessing, one should be careful not to make an interruption by speaking between them. [This applies] not only to the person who sounded the shofar and who recited its blessings, but even to the congregants who did not recite the blessings themselves, but [merely] heard them from [him]. They, too, should not speak from the beginning of the tekios meyushav until the end of the tekios me’umad.

[Nevertheless,] if either the person sounding the shofar or those listening did transgress and speak, there is no need to recite a blessing over the tekios me’umad.14 [This would appear to contradict a ruling stated elsewhere, for] when one includes [the observance of] two mitzvos in a single blessing, and speaks [before observing the second mitzvah], he is obligated to recite a blessing over the second mitzvah, as stated in sec. 8[:21]15 and sec. 25[:18].16 Nevertheless, [a different rationale applies here, for] the shofar blasts that are sounded while we are standing, and those during which we may sit, are like a single mitzvah: the Torah obligated us to hear nine shofar blasts on Rosh HaShanah and the Sages ordained that they be heard in the course of the blessings Malchiyos, Zichronos, and Shofaros. However, in order to confuse Satan17 (i.e., in order that he be confused immediately during the shofar blasts that precede the prayers and thus will not level any accusations during prayer), Jews everywhere have adopted the custom of separating the shofar blasts required by Scriptural Law and those ordained by the Sages, sounding them at two different times. [First,] the shofar is sounded when [the congregation has license] to sit, in order to fulfill the mitzvah required by Scriptural Law. The blessings are recited over these shofar blasts. The mitzvah as ordained by the Sages is then completed by the tekios me’umad, which are sounded during the recitation of the blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh], as they ordained.

Since [the two soundings of the shofar] are one mitzvah that appears to be two mitzvos, one should not indulge in idle conversation between [the first and second sounding. At that time,] however, it is permitted to speak about the prayer service or about the sounding of the shofar, since [both requirements] in fact constitute one mitzvah. Similarly, if one transgressed and spoke, even about idle matters, there is no need to repeat the blessing, because there is no concept of making an interruption in the midst of an [ongoing] mitzvah. This resembles the case of a person who is sitting in a sukkah or wearing tefillin: he is permitted to speak, even though every moment that he sits in the sukkah or wears the tefillin he is fulfilling a mitzvah prescribed by the Holy One, blessed be He.18

If, however, one spoke between [the recitation of] the blessing and the tekios meyushav — even if he spoke about the prayers — he is required to recite the blessing again, because he made an interruption between the blessing and [the mitzvah] over which it was recited. If, however, he spoke about the sounding of the shofar, he does not have to repeat the blessing.19 Initially, however, it is forbidden to speak — even about the sounding of the shofar — between reciting the blessing and sounding the shofar, unless the mitzvah cannot be fulfilled without [first] speaking, by saying “Give me the shofar,” or the like.

ז הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף בְּיָחִיד – אֵין מַפְסִיק כְּדֵי לִתְקֹעַ סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת,כט,12 וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ מִי שֶׁתּוֹקֵעַ לוֹ ל אֵין מַפְסִיק לא לְשָׁמְעָם, שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ אֶלָּא בְּצִבּוּר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁחַיָּב לִשְׁמֹעַ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, דְּהַיְנוּ תשר"ת ג' פְּעָמִים תש"ת ג' פְּעָמִים תר"ת ג' פְּעָמִים,לב טוֹב שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע אוֹתָן קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף.לג,13

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד הֵן מִצְוָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לד אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶן לה כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל כָּל מִצְוָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,לו לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָרִין בִּבְרָכָה שֶׁבֵּרְכוּ עַל תְּקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב.

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵן נִפְטָרִין בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת לָכֵן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם בְּשִׂיחָה,לז וְלֹא הַתּוֹקֵעַ בִּלְבַד שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַשּׁוֹפָר, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרְכוּ לְעַצְמָן אֶלָּא שָׁמְעוּ בִּרְכַּת הַשּׁוֹפָר מֵהַתּוֹקֵעַ אַף הֵן לֹא יָשִׂיחוּ לח מִתְּחִלַּת תְּקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב עַד אַחַר תְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד.לט

וְאִם עָבַר וְשָׂח בֵּין הַתּוֹקֵעַ בֵּין הַשּׁוֹמְעִין – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל תְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד.מ,14 וְאַף שֶׁהַפּוֹטֵר שְׁתֵּי מִצְּוֹת בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת וְשָׂח בֵּינֵיהֶם צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל מִצְוָה הַשֵּׁנִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ח' מא,15 וּבְסִימָן כ"ה,מב,16 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵלּוּ הַתְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד וּמְיֻשָּׁב הֵן כְּעֵין מִצְוָה אַחַת,מג שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה חִיְּבָה אוֹתָנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ תֵּשַׁע תְּקִיעוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה,מד וְתִקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לִשְׁמֹעַ אוֹתָן עַל סֵדֶר בִּרְכוֹת מַלְכֻיּוֹת זִכְרוֹנוֹת וְשׁוֹפָרוֹת,מה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְעַרְבֵּב אֶת הַשָּׂטָן מו,17 (פֵּרוּשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַרְבֵּב מִיָּד בַּתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַתְּפִלָּה וְלֹא יְקַטְרֵג בַּתְּפִלָּה מז) עַל כֵּן נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחַלֵּק אֶת הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְשֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לִשְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, וְתוֹקְעִין מְיֻשָּׁב כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם מִצְוָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה וּמְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶן, וְגוֹמְרִין אֶת הַמִּצְוָה שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד שֶׁעַל סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים.

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵן מִצְוָה אַחַת וְנִרְאִין כִּשְׁתֵּי מִצְּוֹת,מח לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְהָשִׂיחַ בֵּינֵיהֶם דְּבָרִים בְּטֵלִים, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהָשִׂיחַ בֵּינֵיהֶם מֵעִנְיְנֵי הַתְּפִלָּה מט וְהַתְּקִיעוֹת,נ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן בֶּאֱמֶת מִצְוָה אַחַת. וְכֵן אִם עָבַר וְשָׂח אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים בְּטֵלִים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, דְּאֵין שַׁיָּךְ הֶפְסֵק בְּאֶמְצַע מִצְוָה אַחַת,נא כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַיּוֹשֵׁב בַּסֻּכָּה נב וְהַלָּבוּשׁ תְּפִלִּין מֻתָּר לָשׂוּחַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל רֶגַע וָרֶגַע שֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב בַּסֻּכָּה נג וְלָבוּשׁ בַּתְּפִלִּין נד הוּא מְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא.18

אֲבָל אִם שָׂח בֵּין בְּרָכָה לִתְקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב, אֲפִלּוּ שָׂח מֵעִנְיְנֵי הַתְּפִלּוֹת – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִפְסִיק בֵּין הַבְּרָכָה לְהַדָּבָר שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו. אֲבָל אִם שָׂח מֵעִנְיְנֵי הַתְּקִיעוֹת – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ.נה,19 אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לָשׂוּחַ בֵּין הַבְּרָכָה לַתְּקִיעָה אֲפִלּוּ מֵעִנְיְנֵי הַתְּקִיעוֹת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה אִם לֹא יָשִׂיחַ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹמֵר תְּנוּ לִי הַשּׁוֹפָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:נו

8 While the shofar is being sounded, whether the tekios meyushav or the tekios me’umad, it is forbidden to spit,20 for each shofar blast must be heard in its entirety from beginning to end, even if it is very long, as stated in sec. 590[:10]. Accordingly, children who have not reached the age at which they can be trained in the observance of the mitzvos should not be brought to the synagogue during the sounding of the shofar lest they disturb the concentration of the listeners. The women should take them [into their section], because [the women] are not obligated to observe this mitzvah, as stated in sec. 589[:2].

ח וּבִשְׁעַת הַתְּקִיעוֹת עַצְמָן, בֵּין תְּקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב בֵּין תְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד, אָסוּר לָרֹק,נז,20 לְפִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִשְׁמֹעַ כָּל הַתְּקִיעָה מֵרֹאשָׁהּ עַד סוֹפָהּ נח אֲפִלּוּ הִיא אֲרֻכָּה הַרְבֵּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"צ.נט וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְהָבִיא קְטַנִּים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּעֵת הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְבַלְבְּלוּ דַּעַת הַשּׁוֹמְעִים, אַךְ הַנָּשִׁים יִקְחוּ אוֹתָן אֶצְלָן שֶׁהֵן פְּטוּרִין ס כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ט:סא

9 It is customary that the person sounding the shofar ascend the platform at which the Torah is read and sound the tekios meyu­shav there as an expression of deference to the congregation.21 As to the tekios me’umad, since they are [sounded] in the midst of Shemoneh Esreh we do not trouble him to ascend; he may stand and sound the shofar [from his place].

ט נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁבִּתְקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב עוֹלֶה הַתּוֹקֵעַ עַל הַבִּימָה סב וְתוֹקֵעַ שָׁם מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַצִּבּוּר,21 אֲבָל בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּפִלָּה אֵין מַטְרִיחִין אוֹתוֹ לַעֲלוֹת אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד [בִּמְקוֹמוֹ סג] וְתוֹקֵעַ:סד

10 The shofar blasts [that are heard] in the course of the blessings should not be sounded by the sheliach tzibbur reciting the Mussaf prayers, lest he become confused and be unable to resume his prayers undistracted. If, however, [the sheliach tzibbur] is confident that he can resume his prayers without his concentration being diverted, or if he recites his prayers from a Siddur, in which instance he is assured of this, he may sound the shofar. [This applies] even if there is another person present who can sound the shofar as well as he does, because sounding the shofar is not at all considered as an interruption in the midst of prayer. Since we are required to sound the shofar in the midst of the blessings, it is considered a necessary component of the prayers.22

[In view of the above-mentioned risk of distraction,23] it is appropriate for the person who sounded the tekios meyushav to sound the tekios me’umad, for “when someone has begun the performance of a mitzvah, we urge him to complete it.”24 [This does not apply to] a sheliach tzibbur reciting the Mussaf prayer who is unsure that he will be able to resume his prayers undistracted.

י הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁעַל סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת לֹא יִתְקַע אוֹתָן הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף, שֶׁמָּא יִתְבַּלְבֵּל וְלֹא יוּכַל לַחֲזֹר לִתְפִלָּתוֹ בְּלֹא טֵרוּף דַּעַת,סה אֲבָל אִם הוּא מֻבְטָח בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁחוֹזֵר לִתְפִלָּתוֹ בְּלֹא טֵרוּף דַּעַת,סו אוֹ שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל מִתּוֹךְ הַסִּדּוּר שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הוּא מֻבְטָח סז – יוּכַל לִתְקֹעַ אַף אִם יֵשׁ אָדָם אַחֵר שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לִתְקֹעַ כְּמוֹתוֹ,סח לְפִי שֶׁהַתְּקִיעָה אֵינָהּ הֶפְסֵק כְּלָל בַּתְּפִלָּה,סט כֵּיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ עַל סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת אִם כֵּן הוּא צֹרֶךְ הַתְּפִלָּה.ע,22

וְלָכֵן23 הַתּוֹקֵעַ תְּקִיעוֹת מְיֻשָּׁב רָאוּי שֶׁיִּתְקַע גַּם כֵּן תְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד,עא שֶׁהַמַּתְחִיל בְּמִצְוָה אוֹמְרִים לוֹ גְּמֹר,עב,24 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהוּא שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף וְאֵינוֹ מֻבְטָח שֶׁחוֹזֵר לִתְפִלָּתוֹ בְּלֹא טֵרוּף דַּעַת:עג

11 When did this apply?25 In the early generations, when it was customary to [accord the honor of] sounding the shofar to one person, and no distinctions were drawn. Such a person thus acquired the right to all the shofar blasts, even those sounded during the blessings [of Mussaf], for the reason explained above. [Accordingly,] the mitzvah should not be taken from him.

In the present era, by contrast, it is customary in some places to grant [the honor of sounding] the tekios me’umad to a different person. Hence, the previous person is not considered to have [also] acquired the right to sound the tekios me’umad, and in any community [this second honor] may be given to another person.

יא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?25 בַּדּוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹהֲגִים לִתְקֹעַ בִּסְתָם, וְאִם כֵּן זָכָה מִיָּד בְּכָל הַתְּקִיעוֹת אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,עד וְאֵין לְהַעֲבִיר הַמִּצְוָה מִמֶּנּוּ,עה אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת לִתֵּן הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁמְּעֻמָּד לְאַחֵר אִם כֵּן מֵעוֹלָם לֹא זָכָה הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּתְקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד, וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן אוֹתָן לְאָדָם אַחֵר בְּכָל מָקוֹם:עו