SECTION 591 The Order of the Mussaf Prayers [when Recited by a Person Praying] Alone. (1–15)

סימן תקצא סֵדֶר תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף בְּיָחִיד וּבוֹ ט"ו סְעִיפִים:

1 On Shabbasos and on festivals [throughout the year], seven blessings are recited [in Shemoneh Esreh]: the first three [standard blessings], the last three [standard blessings], and in the middle, [a blessing that speaks of] the holiness of the day. For Rosh HaShanah, however, our Sages ordained that nine blessings be recited in the Mussaf services of both days.1 In the blessings that speak of the sanctity of the day we incorporate verses on the theme of Malchiyos,2 in order to accept the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven. We then recite the blessing on the theme of Zichronos,3 that includes verses [recalling G‑d’s] remembrance [of us], so that a remembrance of us will ascend before Him and elicit Divine goodwill. How is this accomplished? By means of the shofar.4 We therefore next recite the blessing on the theme of Shofaros, whose component verses [recall] the sounding of the shofar.

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים אָדָם מִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁבַע בְּרָכוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁלֹשׁ רִאשׁוֹנוֹת וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַחֲרוֹנוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם בָּאֶמְצַע,א אֲבָל בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים ב לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּמוּסָף שֶׁל שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים תֵּשַׁע בְּרָכוֹת,ג,1 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם כּוֹלֵל פְּסוּקֵי מַלְכֻיּוֹת ד,2 כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל עָלֵינוּ עֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם,ה וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת זִכְרוֹנוֹת,3 וְאוֹמֵר בָּהּ פְּסוּקֵי זִכְרוֹנוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה זִכְרוֹנֵנוּ לְפָנָיו לְטוֹבָה, וְעַל יְדֵי מָה עַל יְדֵי שׁוֹפָר,ו,4 לְפִיכָךְ אוֹמֵר אַחַר כָּךְ בִּרְכַּת שׁוֹפָרוֹת וְאוֹמֵר פְּסוּקֵי שׁוֹפָרוֹת:

2 During the other days of the year, the sheliach tzibbur may, when he prays [aloud], fulfill the obligation [to recite Shemoneh Esreh] only for someone who is not proficient [in prayer].5 A person who is proficient [and can recite the prayers himself] may not fulfill his obligation [in this way], as stated in sec. 124[:1]. By contrast, even a person proficient [in prayer] can fulfill his obligation for the Mussaf service on Rosh HaShanah through the prayer of the sheliach tzibbur, because these are long blessings.

[Ordinarily, the above applies] provided the listener is in the synagogue together with the sheliach tzibbur and hears his recitation of [She­moneh Esreh] from the beginning until the end. If, however, a person is prevented from coming to the synagogue by forces beyond his control — as is the case with people who are out in the open,6 the elderly, and the sick — the sheliach tzibbur fulfills his obligation [on his behalf] even though he did not hear his recitation of [She­moneh Esreh].7

ב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה אֵין הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מוֹצִיא בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ אֶלָּא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי5 אֲבָל הַבָּקִי אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בִּתְפִלַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קכ"ד,ז אֲבָל בְּמוּסָף שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אַף הַבָּקִי יוֹצֵא בִּתְפִלַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,ח לְפִי שֶׁהֵן בְּרָכוֹת אֲרֻכּוֹת,ט וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר י וְיִשְׁמַע מִמֶּנּוּ הַתְּפִלָּה מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד סוֹף.יא וּמִי שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לָבוֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כְּגוֹן עַם שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת יב,6 וְזָקֵן וְחוֹלֶה יג – פּוֹטֵר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע מִמֶּנּוּ הַתְּפִלָּה:יד,7

3 In the present age, when the sheliach tzibbur interrupts [Shemoneh Esreh] with liturgical hymns,8 one cannot fulfill his obligation with the prayers of the sheliach tzibbur, even if he did not hear those hymns. [For even though he does not listen to this interruption,] he waits [while they are being recited] for a period of time long enough to have enabled him to complete the entire [She­moneh Esreh. And in such an instance] he [does not fulfill his obligation and] is required to return to the beginning [of Shemoneh Esreh], as stated in sec. 65[:1]. Even if he does not wait this long, [such an arrangement is undesirable because,] as an initial and preferred option, it is forbidden to make even brief interruptions during [Shemoneh Esreh].

ג וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מַפְסִיק בְּפִיּוּטִים8 בְּאֶמְצַע הַתְּפִלָּה – אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בִּתְפִלַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,טו אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא לֹא שָׁמַע הַפִּיּוּטִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הוּא שׁוֹהֶה כְּדֵי לִגְמֹר אֶת כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לָרֹאשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"ה,טז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶה כָּל כָּךְ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לִפְסֹק אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט בַּתְּפִלָּה:

4 Even in a community where it is not customary to recite liturgical hymns in the midst of Shemoneh Esreh, it is preferable that every person pray individually. [The rationale is that] a person who desires to fulfill his obligation through the prayer [recited by] the sheliach tzibbur must concentrate on everything the sheliach tzibbur says. If he misses hearing even one word from the sheliach tzibbur, he has not fulfilled his obligation. Not everyone can meet this requirement. It has therefore become the universal Jewish custom [for every individual] to recite the nine blessings of the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf in a whisper before [the sheliach tzibbur recites the prayer aloud].9 The sheliach tzibbur should also pray together with them in order to prepare his prayers, as stated in sec. 124.10

ד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים פִּיּוּטִים בְּאֶמְצַע הַתְּפִלָּה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מוּטָב שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בְּעַצְמוֹ, כִּי מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לָצֵאת בִּתְפִלַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּכַוֵּן לְכָל מַה שֶּׁאוֹמֵר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,יז וְאִם חִסֵּר אֲפִלּוּ תֵּבָה אַחַת שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע אוֹתָהּ מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר – לֹא יָצָא, וְאֵין כָּל אָדָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בָּזֶה,יח לְפִיכָךְ נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף תֵּשַׁע בְּרָכוֹת בְּלַחַשׁ תְּחִלָּה,יט,9 וְגַם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר יִתְפַּלֵּל עִמָּהֶם כְּדֵי לְהַסְדִּיר תְּפִלָּתוֹ כ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קכ"ד:כא,10

5 The verses [from the Torah that prescribe] the additional festive sacrificial offerings11 must be mentioned in all the Mussaf services, whether on Shabbos, on Rosh Chodesh, on festivals, on Rosh HaShanah, or on Yom Kippur, so that our remembrance [of these offerings] will be accepted in place of their actual sacrifice.12

If, [instead of reading the verses that describe the sacrifices,] a person says, “We will prepare and offer [the sacrifices] before You as You have prescribed for us in Your Torah,” he has fulfilled his obligation, and there is no further need to read the verses concerning the Mussaf offerings. For this reason, it is customary in the Sephardic [community] to recite the verses [prescribing] the Mussaf offerings only on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh, because people are familiar with [these verses], and they will not come to err. On the other festivals, however, they do not recite the verses concerning the Mussaf offerings, lest the people err and their prayers thereby become confused.13

In these countries14 this [possibility] does not arouse concern, and it is customary to recite the verses concerning the Mussaf offerings even on the festivals. On Rosh HaShanah, however, we do not recite the verses concerning the Mussaf offering of Rosh Chodesh,15 because the phrase that we say — “in addition to the burnt-offering of [Rosh] Chodesh”16 — suffices, since it includes all the Mussaf burnt-offerings of Rosh Chodesh. In order to mention the goat [offered on Rosh Chodesh] as a sin-offering, we say “and two goats for atonement.”17 Similarly, we say es musfei Yom HaZikaron — “the Mussaf offerings of the Day of Remembrance” — in the plural, in order to also include Rosh Chodesh, which is also called [a time of] “remembrance,” as stated in sec. 582[:9].

Even on the second day [of Rosh HaShanah], which is not Rosh Chodesh, we nevertheless say [in the plural] es musfei — “the Mussaf offerings”18 — “and two goats for atonement.” [This was ordained so that] people should not demean the second day [of Rosh HaShanah] once they realize that the second day is the second of the month, and [consequently] not Rosh HaShanah.19

ה צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר פְּסוּקֵי קָרְבְּנוֹת הַמּוּסָפִים11 בְּכָל תְּפִלּוֹת שֶׁל מוּסָף, בֵּין שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בֵּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בֵּין שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב בֵּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה לָנוּ הַזְכָּרָתָן בִּמְקוֹם הַקְרָבָתָם.כב,12 וְאִם אָמַר "נַעֲשֶׂה וְנַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתָּ עָלֵינוּ בְּתוֹרָתֶךָ" – יָצָא, וְשׁוּב אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מִקְרָאוֹת הַמּוּסָפִין.כג

לְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִין בִּסְפָרַד שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים פְּסוּקֵי הַמּוּסָפִין אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁרְגִילִין בָּהֶם וְלֹא יָבוֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת, אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר הַמּוֹעֲדִים אֵין אוֹמְרִים פְּסוּקֵי הַמּוּסָפִין שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת עַל יְדֵי כָּךְ כד וְתִתְבַּלְבֵּל תְּפִלָּתָם.13

אֲבָל בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ14 אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְכָךְ וְנוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר פְּסוּקֵי הַמּוּסָפִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,כה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים פְּסוּקֵי מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה,15 לְפִי שֶׁדַּי בְּמַה שֶּׁאוֹמְרִים "מִלְּבַד עוֹלַת הַחֹדֶשׁ וגו'",16 שֶׁבָּזֶה נִכְלְלוּ כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת שֶׁל מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, וּכְדֵי לְהַזְכִּיר גַּם הַשָּׂעִיר שֶׁהוּא חַטָּאת אוֹמְרִים "וּשְׁנֵי שְׂעִירִים לְכַפֵּר",כו,17 וְכֵן אוֹמְרִים "אֶת מוּסְפֵי יוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן" לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, כְּדֵי לִכְלֹל גַּם מוּסָף שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כז שֶׁנִּקְרָא זִכָּרוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ב.כח

וְאַף בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אוֹמְרִים "אֶת מוּסְפֵי וכו' כט,18 וּשְׁנֵי שְׂעִירִים לְכַפֵּר",ל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְזַלְזְלוּ בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי לא מֵאַחַר שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ שֶׁיּוֹם שֵׁנִי הוּא שֵׁנִי בַּחֹדֶשׁ וְאֵינוֹ רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה:19

6 Why is it customary not to mention Rosh Cho­desh explicitly on Rosh HaShanah? So that people will not say that the second day of Rosh Chodesh is the principal day, as is the case with regard to other Rashei Chadashim, and then they would reckon the [dates of the coming] festivals from [the second day of Rosh Chodesh].20 If Rosh Chodesh were to be mentioned on the second day [of Rosh HaShanah], for the reason stated above, they would say that there were two days of Rosh Chodesh.

[Rosh Chodesh is not mentioned explicitly for] an additional reason — to confuse Satan so that he will not know that this day is Rosh Chodesh Tishrei (and thus will not come to level accusations).21 For the same reason, [in the preliminary morning prayers,] we do not say the passage beginning U’VeRashei Chadsheichem — “On your Rosh Chodesh days”22 — before [the Mishnayos beginning] Eizehu [Mekoman].

ו וְלָמָה אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְהַזְכִּיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בְּפֵרוּשׁ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה? כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ יוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ עִקָּר כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְיִמְנוּ מִמֶּנּוּ הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת,לב,20 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיַּזְכִּירוּ רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ גַּם בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי לג מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לד – יֹאמְרוּ שֶׁרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵי יָמִים, וְעוֹד לְעַרְבֵּב הַשָּׂטָן שֶׁלֹּא יֵדַע שֶׁהַיּוֹם הוּא רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ תִּשְׁרֵי לה (וְלֹא יָבוֹא לְקַטְרֵג),21 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין אוֹמְרִים פָּרָשַׁת "וּבְרָאשֵׁי חָדְשֵׁיכֶם"22 קֹדֶם "אֵיזֶהוּ":לו

7 We should recite no fewer than three verses on the theme of Malchiyos, three verses on the theme of Zichronos, and three verses on the theme of Shofaros.23 One of the verses [in each bracket] should be from the Torah,24 another from the Sacred Writings, and the third from the Prophets25 — and if fewer verses were recited, one has not fulfilled his obligation. The initial and preferred option, however, is that a person recite ten verses of Malchiyos, ten verses of Zichronos, and ten verses of Shofaros, corresponding [in each case] to the Ten [Divine] Utterances with which the world was created.26

The first three verses [in each bracket of ten] should be from the Torah, the [next] three from the Sacred Writings, and the last three from the Prophets. One should then conclude with a verse from the Torah. If [instead] one concluded with a verse from the Prophets — i.e., he recited four verses from the Prophets — he has [nevertheless] fulfilled his obligation.

ז אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקֵי מַלְכֻיּוֹת וּמִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקֵי זִכְרוֹנוֹת וּמִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקֵי שׁוֹפָרוֹת,לז,23 פָּסוּק אֶחָד שֶׁל תּוֹרָה24 וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁל כְּתוּבִים וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל נְבִיאִים,לח,25 וְאִם פָּחַת – לֹא יָצָא. אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמַר עֲשָׂרָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁל מַלְכֻיּוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁל זִכְרוֹנוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁל שׁוֹפָרוֹת לט כְּנֶגֶד עֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת שֶׁבָּהֶן נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם,מ,26 שְׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁל כְּתוּבִים, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה הָאַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁל נְבִיאִים,מא וּמְסַיֵּם בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,מב וְאִם סִיֵּם בְּנָבִיא שֶׁאָמַר אַרְבָּעָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁל נְבִיאִים – יָצָא:מג

8 When does the above apply? When one has begun to recite at least one verse [of the bracket] of Malchiyos, of Zichronos, or of Shofaros. [In such an instance,] he should recite all ten verses. If, however, one had not begun to recite any verse, [different rules apply]. Should he so desire, he is not required to mention any of the verses at all. Instead, he could say: “And forever and ever reign in glory, as it is written in Your Torah, and so it is written in Your Sacred Writings, and so it was stated by Your servants, the prophets. Our G‑d, and G‑d of our fathers, reign over the entire world….”27 A similar pattern may be followed with regard to the blessings on the themes of Zichronos and Shofaros.

When did the above apply? In the earlier generations. In the present era it is forbidden to do this as an initial option, because the Jewish people have universally accepted it as an obligation to recite all ten verses. No deviation should be made.

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִיל לוֹמַר פָּסוּק אֶחָד שֶׁל מַלְכֻיּוֹת אוֹ שֶׁל זִכְרוֹנוֹת אוֹ שֶׁל שׁוֹפָרוֹת, אָז צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר כָּל הָעֲשָׂרָה פְּסוּקִים, אֲבָל אִם לֹא הִתְחִיל עֲדַיִן בְּשׁוּם פָּסוּק, אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר כְּלָל הַפְּסוּקִים, אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר "וּלְעוֹלְמֵי עַד תִּמְלֹךְ בְּכָבוֹד כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרָתֶךָ,מד וְכֵן כָּתוּב בְּדִבְרֵי קָדְשֶׁךָ, וְכֵן נֶאֱמַר עַל יְדֵי עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים,מה אֱלֹקֵינוּ וֵאלֹקֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ מְלֹךְ עַל כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ מו וכו'",27 וְכֵן בְּזִכְרוֹנוֹת וְכֵן בְּשׁוֹפָרוֹת.מז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בַּיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, אֲבָל בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן לְכַתְּחִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר קִבְּלוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם חוֹבָה לוֹמַר כָּל הָעֲשָׁרָה פְּסוּקִים וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת:מח

9 In none of the blessings — whether on the themes of Malchiyos, Zichronos or Shofaros — do we include verses that speak of retribution to be visited upon the Jewish people. We may, however, include verses that mention retribution to be visited upon the non-Jew nations.28

ט אֵין אוֹמְרִים לֹא בְּמַלְכֻיּוֹת וְלֹא בְּזִכְרוֹנוֹת וְלֹא בְּשׁוֹפָרוֹת פְּסוּקִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן פֻּרְעָנִיּוֹת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,מט אֲבָל אוֹמְרִים פְּסוּקִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת שֶׁל נָכְרִים:נ,28

10 We do not say verses of remembrance that involve only individuals, e.g., “Remember me, O my G‑d, for good,”29 or “Remember me, O G‑d, when Your people are favored.”30

י אֵין אוֹמְרִים פָּסוּק זִכְרוֹנוֹת שֶׁל יָחִיד,נא כְּגוֹן "זָכְרָה נב לִּי אֱלֹהַי לְטוֹבָה",29 "זָכְרֵנִי נג ה' בִּרְצוֹן עַמֶּךָ":נד,30

11 The verse beginning Shema Yisrael — “Hear O Israel, G‑d is our L‑rd, G‑d is One” — is considered as one of the verses of Malchiyos, for the word echad (“one”) communicates the theme of sovereignty.31 [The implication is that] He is unique and unified [with all existence]; there is none that can be likened to Him, and His Kingship reigns over all. For this reason we complete [the bracket of] Malchiyos with this verse, in order to conclude with a verse from the Torah.

יא "שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד" נה הוּא עוֹלֶה לְמִנְיַן הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת,נו דְּמִלַּת אֶחָד הוּא עִנְיַן מַלְכוּת,31 כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא יָחִיד וּמְיֻחָד וְאֵין דּוֹמֶה לוֹ וּמַלְכוּתוֹ בַּכֹּל מָשָׁלָה,נז וּלְפִיכָךְ אָנוּ מַשְׁלִימִין בּוֹ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת כְּדֵי לְסַיֵּם בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה:נח

12 [Verses which include the term] teruah, e.g., “It shall be a day of sounding [the shofar] for you,”32 are considered equivalent to those that include the term shofar and may be counted among the verses of the blessing on the theme of Shofaros.33 Similarly, [verses that include the term] tekiah, e.g., “And you shall sound the trumpets,”34 [are considered equivalent to those that include the term shofar]. Although that verse mentions “the trumpets” [and not the shofar], this is not significant. Since it uses the expression tekiah, it can be considered as one of the verses of the Shofaros blessing. Hence we complete [the bracket of] Shofaros with this verse in order to conclude with a verse from the Torah.

[In the conclusion of the Zichronos blessing,] some people make a point of saying, “And remember this day the Binding of Yitzchak for the descendants of Yaakov,” for if one would say “for his [i.e., Yitzchak’s] descendants,” Esav’s [descendants] would also be included.

Others maintain that the ancient wording [of the blessing] should not be changed. Even though we say “for his descendants,” Esav is not included. This is reflected in [the verse],35 “To you and to your descendants will I give all of these lands” — yet Esav was not given [a share of those lands]. This indicates that he is not at all considered a descendant of Yitzchak.

The first opinion is to be preferred,36 because in the prayers of the Days of Awe we should be explicit in their wording so that there will be no ambiguity in our requests, as stated in sec. 582[:7].

יב תְּרוּעָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשׁוֹפָרוֹת, כְּגוֹן "יוֹם תְּרוּעָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם" נט,32 עוֹלֶה לְמִנְיַן הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת.ס,33 וְכֵן תְּקִיעָה הוּא כְּשׁוֹפָרוֹת, כְּגוֹן "וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וגו'",סא,34 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ "חֲצוֹצְרוֹת" – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ לְשׁוֹן תְּקִיעָה עוֹלֶה לְמִנְיַן שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וּלְפִיכָךְ אָנוּ מְסַיְּמִין בּוֹ הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת כְּדֵי לְסַיֵּם בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה.סב

יֵשׁ מְדַקְדְּקִים סג לוֹמַר סד "וַעֲקֵדַת יִצְחָק לְזַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הַיּוֹם תִּזְכֹּר", דְּאִם יֹאמַר "לְזַרְעוֹ תִּזְכֹּר" יִהְיֶה גַּם עֵשָׂו בִּכְלָל.סה וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים סו שֶׁאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַנֻּסְחָא הַיְשָׁנָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "לְזַרְעוֹ תִּזְכֹּר" אֵין עֵשָׂו בִּכְלָל זֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר סז,35 "לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵל", וּלְעֵשָׂו לֹא נִתַּן, מִכְּלָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב מִזַּרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק כְּלָל.סח וּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הוּא עִקָּר,סט,36 מִשּׁוּם דְּבִתְפִלַּת יָמִים נוֹרָאִים יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְפָרֵשׁ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שׁוּם סָפֵק בְּבַקָּשׁוֹתֵינוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ב ע עַיֵּן שָׁם:

13 A person praying alone should not recite the Mussaf service on Rosh HaShanah until three hours of the day have passed.37 [The rationale is that] since he recites the blessings on the themes of Malchiyos, Zichronos, and Shofaros, he should be concerned that his conduct will be investigated and his prayer may be rejected. For the Holy One, blessed be He, does not extend consideration beyond the limits of the law during these hours, since He is then occupied with the Torah, which is called truth.38

After three hours have passed, He judges the entire world. When He sees that the world will not be able to survive [the rigidity of] judgment, He goes beyond the measure of the law. [At this time, therefore,] an individual’s prayer will not be rejected.

יג לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל אָדָם בְּיָחִיד תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה עא עַד אַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת עַל הַיּוֹם,עב,37 הוֹאִיל וְהוּא אוֹמֵר מַלְכֻיּוֹת זִכְרוֹנוֹת וְשׁוֹפָרוֹת עג יֵשׁ לוֹ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְעַיְּנוּ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו וְתִדָּחֶה תְּפִלָּתוֹ, שֶׁבַּשָּׁעוֹת הַלָּלוּ אֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לִפְנִים מִשּׁוּרַת הַדִּין, לְפִי שֶׁעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּקְרָא אֱמֶת,38 אֲבָל אַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת הוּא דָּן אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרוֹאֶה שֶׁאֵין הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בַּדִּין נִכְנָס עִמָּהֶם לִפְנִים מִשּׁוּרַת הַדִּין וְלֹא תִּדָּחֶה תְּפִלָּתוֹ:עד

14 [This concept does not apply to] the Mussaf services recited throughout the year, nor to the Shacharis service even of Rosh HaShanah. Since [these services] involve merely the praise of the Holy One, blessed be He, or the description of the sacrificial offerings, then even if they are recited by an individual [praying without a minyan], his conduct will not be investigated.

Likewise with regard to a weekday Shacharis service: Though a person requests his needs and there is reason for concern that his conduct will be investigated, we can assume that there is a congregation [elsewhere] that is praying at [this] time, for this is the time of the morning prayer. His prayer will therefore be accepted together with the prayers of the multitude, “for the Holy One, blessed be He, will never spurn the prayers of the multitude, as it is written, ‘G‑d is mighty and will not spurn.’ ”39

By contrast, the Mussaf service [of Rosh HaShanah] can be recited throughout the day,40 so that some [congregations] recite it earlier and others recite it later. It is thus possible that at the time that a particular individual is praying, no other congregation in the world will be praying, and hence his prayer may be rejected.

For the same reason, in the summer, one should make a point of not reciting the weekday Morning Service [alone] during the first hour of the day, for without a doubt no congregation in the present age is praying at that [early] hour. Similarly, in the winter, a person [praying alone] should not delay his prayers beyond the end of the second hour of the day, for [communal] prayer everywhere has certainly been completed by that time. A person praying without a minyan should [therefore] make a point of not praying during the third hour.

Likewise, for the reason explained above, a person sounding the shofar alone should not sound the blasts required for [the fulfillment of] the mitzvah until three hours of the day have passed.41

יד אֲבָל מוּסָפִין שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׁנָה,עה וְכֵן שַׁחֲרִית אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה,עו הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן אֶלָּא שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְסִפּוּרֵי מַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת – אַף אִם יִתְפַּלֵּל בְּיָחִיד לֹא יְעַיְּנוּ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו.

וְכֵן תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית שֶׁל חֹל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבַקֵּשׁ בָּהּ צְרָכָיו וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְעַיְּנוּ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו,עז מִכָּל מָקוֹם הוֹאִיל שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם יֵשׁ צִבּוּר אֶחָד שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא מִתְפַּלֵּל עח שֶׁהֲרֵי זְמַנָּהּ בַּבֹּקֶר תְּקֻבַּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ עִם תְּפִלַּת הָרַבִּים,עט שֶׁאֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מוֹאֵס בִּתְפִלַּת הָרַבִּים פ לְעוֹלָם פא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פב "הֵן אֵל כַּבִּיר לֹא יִמְאָס".פג,39

אֲבָל בִּתְפִלַּת הַמּוּסָף הוֹאִיל וּזְמַנָּהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם40 וְיֵשׁ מַקְדִּימִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל וְיֵשׁ מְאַחֲרִין פד – יֵשׁ לוֹ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא מִתְפַּלֵּל אֵין מִתְפַּלְלִים תְּפִלָּה זוֹ שׁוּם צִבּוּר בָּעוֹלָם וְתִדָּחֶה תְּפִלָּתוֹ.פה

וּלְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר בַּקַּיִץ שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית שֶׁל חֹל בְּשָׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, דִּבְוַדַּאי אֵין הַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְלִים בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה,פו וְכֵן בַּחֹרֶף לֹא יְאַחֵר לְאַחַר שְׁתֵּי שָׁעוֹת עַל הַיּוֹם, דִּבְוַדַּאי כְּבָר הִתְפַּלְלוּ כָּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת,פז וְצָרִיךְ הַיָּחִיד לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּשָּׁעָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁית.פח

וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר הַיָּחִיד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַע תְּקִיעַת מִצְוָה עַד אַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת עַל הַיּוֹם,פט מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:צ,41

15 [In the repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf,42 the sheliach tzibbur] should say ein lefaresh eilum shmecha — “One cannot explain the hidden [dimensions] of Your name.” He should not say ve’ein peirush… — “There is no explanation…,” for there is an explanation of the hidden dimensions of His name.

טו יֵשׁ42 לוֹמַר "וְאֵין לְפָרֵשׁ עִלּוּם שְׁמֶךָ",צא אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר "וְאֵין פֵּרוּשׁ כו'", כִּי יֵשׁ פֵּרוּשׁ לְעֵלּוּם שְׁמוֹ:צב