SECTION 200 The Laws Applying to One Who Interrupts [His Meal] to Participate in Grace. (1–3)

ר דִּין הַמַּפְסִיק כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 When three people ate together and two of them had already finished their meal, while the third had not yet finished [his meal], the third must interrupt his meal for the sake of the other two.1 He should respond to the blessing of the zimun with them and listen to [the leader’s recitation of Grace] until the words hazan es hakol,2 as stated in sec. 193.3

If he does not do so, he does not fulfill the obligation of zimun. The others may, however, recite the zimun with him in mind, whether he responds or not, as long as he is present [in their place], hears, and is capable of responding. If he is not standing among them, they should call him until he comes close enough to them to hear and to respond with them, as stated in sec. 194[:2]. (In contrast, when there is a deaf person who cannot hear4 or a mute who cannot respond, we do not recite a zimun with them in mind unless there are ten people present,5 as explained in sec. 199[:10].)

א שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ כְּאַחַתא וְגָמְרוּ [שְׁנַיִם] סְעוּדָתָם וְאֶחָד לֹא גָּמַרב – הָאֶחָד מַפְסִיק עַל כָּרְחוֹג לְהַשְּׁנַיִם1 וְעוֹנֶה עִמָּהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַזִּמּוּן, וְשׁוֹמֵעַ עַד "הַזָּן אֶת הַכֹּל",ד,2 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ג.ה,3

וְאִם לָאו – הוּא לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת זִמּוּן.ו אֲבָל הֵם מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו בֵּין עוֹנֶה בֵּין אֵינוֹ עוֹנֶה, כָּל שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד שָׁם וְשׁוֹמֵעַ וְיָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת.ז וְאִם אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד עִמָּהֶם – קוֹרִין לוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתְקָרֵב אֲלֵיהֶם וְיוּכַל לִשְׁמֹעַ וְלַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"דח (מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּחֵרֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשְׁמֹעַ4 וְאִלֵּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת – אֵין מְזַמְּנִין עֲלֵיהֶם אֶלָּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה,5 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ט) ט:

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2 Two people, by contrast, are not required to interrupt [their meal] for the sake of one [who already concluded his meal and desires to recite Grace]. Therefore the obligation of zimun does not fall upon them unless they agree to interrupt [their meal] for the sake of that one individual.6 If they did not want to interrupt [their meal], yet he recited a zimun with them in mind, but they did not respond to him or did not listen until he recited the words Hazan es hakol, his actions are of no consequence and he did not fulfill the obligation of zimun. Accordingly, a person [who concludes his meal before others] does not have license to recite Grace until the other two complete their meal and he recites a zimun with them in mind, for he already became obligated in the zimun from the beginning of the meal, if the three began eating together, as stated in sec. 193.7

If they acquiesced to interrupt [their meal] for his sake and he recited the zimun with them in mind, and then a [fourth] person came from the marketplace and sat down8 to eat with them, should they complete their meal with him, they do not recite a zimun again. For the obligation of the zimun already departed from them once they participated in a zimun the first time.

If, by contrast, one person interrupted his meal for two [others who had already completed their meal], and then two others came from the marketplace and sat down to eat with him9 and he completed his meal with them,10 he may recite a zimun again with them. [The rationale:] He is considered as secondary to these two people who have yet to recite a zimun, as explained in sec. 193.11 The same concept applies if this pattern is repeated a second, third, or more times. He may interrupt his meal and recite a zimun with any two [new] individuals who sit down to eat with him, with whom he eats an olive-sized portion.

Similar concepts apply if there were nine people12 who initially sat down to eat together, and two of them [asked] one to interrupt [his meal for a zimun]. That person may interrupt [his meal] for another two of those [who dined with him and recite a zimun with them].13This pattern can be repeated for another two. [At this point,] however, the obligation of the zimun hasalready departed from the two remaining individuals when the previous individuals recited the zimun, and no concept of reciting a zimun in a group remained.14 [The above rule] would not apply [if those remaining] ate further after the earlier ones had recited the zimun, as explained in sec. 193. There, all the particular laws applying to a situation where the obligation of the zimun departed are explained.

ב אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם אֵינָן חַיָּבִים לְהַפְסִיק לְאֶחָד.י,1 לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין חִיּוּב זִמּוּן חָל עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל עַד שֶׁיִּתְרַצּוּ לְהַפְסִיק לְאֶחָד וּלְבָרֵךְ.6 וְאִם לֹא רָצוּ לְהַפְסִיק וְזִמֵּן הוּא עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא עָנוּ אַחֲרָיו, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמְעוּ עַד "הַזָּן אֶת הַכֹּל" – לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וְלֹא יָצָא יְדֵי זִמּוּן. לְפִיכָךְ, אַף הוּא אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְבָרֵךְ עַד שֶׁיִּגְמְרוּ הַשְּׁנַיִם סְעוּדָתָם וִיזַמֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר נִתְחַיֵּב בְּזִמּוּןיא מִתְּחִלַּת הַסְּעוּדָה אִם הִתְחִילוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּם יַחַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ג.יב,7

וְאִם נִתְרַצּוּ לְהַפְסִיק לוֹ וְזִמֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא אֶחָד מִן הַשּׁוּק וְקָבַע8 עִמָּהֶם וְגָמְרוּ סְעוּדָתָם עִמּוֹ – אֵינָן חוֹזְרִין וּמְזַמְּנִין, שֶׁכְּבָר פָּרַח מֵהֶם זִמּוּן כְּשֶׁזִּמְּנוּ פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה.יג אֲבָל אֶחָד הַמַּפְסִיק לִשְׁנַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאוּ שְׁנַיִם מִן הַשּׁוּק וְקָבְעוּ אֶצְלוֹ9 וְגָמַר סְעוּדָתוֹ עִמָּהֶם10 – חוֹזֵר וּמְזַמֵּן עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁהוּא נַעֲשָׂה טָפֵל לִשְׁנַיִם אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא זִמְּנוּ עֲדַיִן,יד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ג.11 וְהוּא הַדִּין פַּעַם ב' וְג' אוֹ יוֹתֵר, יָכוֹל לְהַפְסִיק וּלְזַמֵּן עִם כָּל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁבָּאוּ וְקָבְעוּ אֶצְלוֹטו וְאָכַל עִמָּהֶם כַּזַּיִת.טז

וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הָיוּ תִּשְׁעָה12 קְבוּעִים יַחַד מִתְּחִלָּה וְהִפְסִיק אֶחָד לִשְׁנַיִם מֵהֶם – יָכוֹל [הָ]אֶחָד לַחֲזֹר וּלְהַפְסִיק לִשְׁנַיִם אֲחֵרִים מֵהֶם,13 וְלַחֲזֹר וּלְהַפְסִיק לִשְׁנַיִם,יז אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם הָאַחֲרוֹנִים פָּרַח זִמּוּן מֵהֶם כְּשֶׁזִּמְּנוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר זִמּוּן בַּחֲבוּרָהיח,14 אִם לֹא שֶׁאָכְלוּ עוֹד אַחַר זִמּוּן הָרִאשׁוֹנִים,יט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם בְּסִימָן קצ"ג,כ,7 וְשָׁם נִתְבָּאֲרוּ כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּינֵי "פָּרַח זִמּוּן":

3 When a person interrupts [his meal to participate in a zimun], he need not recite the blessing HaMotzi again when he returns to [partake of] his meal, for he is not considered to have interrupted and diverted his attention from his meal at all. Even when he was listening to the blessing Hazan, his intent was to continue eating and not to fulfill his obligation with this blessing. Therefore, [even] if afterwards, he changed his mind and decided not to eat any more, he must himself recite Grace.

If the person did not have the intent to eat any more bread, only accompanying foods, he fulfilled his obligation for the blessing Hazan [by listening to the blessing of the leader of Grace. When he concludes his meal,] he should begin Grace from the blessing [Al ha]aretz.15Nevertheless, he should be careful not to speak in the interim.16 After [reciting] Grace, [if the accompanying foods were of the five species of grain,] he should recite the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al hamichyah), for it is the blessing appropriate to be recited for such foods. They were not covered by Grace, since the person did not recite the blessing Hazan when he recited Grace.17

If, after [listening to the leader’s blessing and] fulfilling his obligation for the blessing Hazan, he changed his mind [once more] and again decided to eat bread again, he is required to wash his hands and recite the blessing HaMotzi beforehand. For he already removed and diverted his attention [from eating bread] by [listening to] the recitation of [the first] blessing of Grace. (Diverting one’s attention alone, by contrast, does not require one to recite the blessing HaMotzi, as stated in sec. 179[:1, 4].)

ג הַמַּפְסִיק לְזִמּוּן אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר לִסְעוּדָתוֹ, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן הֶפְסֵק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת כְּלָל,כא כִּי גַּם בִּשְׁמִיעָתוֹ בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן" הָיְתָה כַּוָּנָתוֹ לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד וְשֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ. וּלְפִיכָךְ, אִם אַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.כב

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד פַּת רַק פַּרְפֶּרֶת – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן",כג וּמַתְחִיל בִּרְכוֹת הַמָּזוֹן מִבִּרְכַּת הָאָרֶץ.כד,15 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָ[שִׂ]יחַ בֵּינְתַיִם,כה,16 וְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן יְבָרֵךְ מֵעֵין ג', שֶׁהִיא בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל הַפַּרְפֶּרֶת, שֶׁהִיא מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִין, כִּי לֹא נִפְטְרָה בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,כו הוֹאִיל וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ בָּהּ בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן".כז,17

וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת בִּרְכַּת "הַזָּן" נִמְלַךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל פַּת – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו וּלְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁכְּבָר עָשָׂה סִלּוּק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת בְּבָרְכוֹ בְּרָכָה אַחַת מִבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןכח (אֲבָל הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת לְבַדּוֹ אֵינוֹ זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ט) כט: