SECTION 198 [How] One Person Who Enters [the Place] Where Three People Ate [Together Should Conduct Himself]. (1–2)

קצח אֶחָד נִכְנַס אֵצֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ, וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following rules apply when] three people ate [together] and began reciting Grace with a zimun and another person who did not eat enters: If he enters when the leader says: Nevareich sheachalnu mishelo, “Let us bless Him of Whose [bounty] we have eaten,” he is obligated to respond: Baruch u’mevorach shmo tamid leolam vaed, “Blessed and praised be His name continually, forever and ever.”1 Afterwards, he does not respond Amen when the others [respond]: Baruch sheachalnu mishelo…, “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten…,” as stated in sec. 195[:4].2 If those dining are reciting a zimun with [a quorum of] ten, he should respond: Baruch Elokeinu u’movorach shmo tamid leolam vaed, “Blessed be our G‑d and praised be His name continually, forever and ever.” This law also applies if he was [with them] in the place where they ate, but did not eat with them.

If he did not respond to [the leader] in this manner, or if he entered as the people dining were responding: “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten…,” he may not respond, “Blessed and praised…,” because he did not hear the leader announce: “Let us bless….”

(Even according to the authorities who maintain that one who did not hear Barchu(“Bless…”)from the sheliach tzibbur may respond [Baruch A-donai HaMevorach…, “Blessed be G‑d Who is blessed…”] together with the congregation,3 in this instance, the person may not respond with those who dined, for they say: “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten…,” and he did not eat. Nor is it fitting for him to respond independently [“Blessed and praised…,”] since he did not hear [the announcement: “Let us bless….” Hence,] he should [merely] respond Amen after their response. Consequently, he should [also] not respond again after the leader repeats: “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten….”

Needless to say, one is obligated to respond Amen after actual blessings that contain G‑d’s name, even though he is not obligated to recite these [blessings].

If one enters as the leader is repeating: “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten…,” there are authorities who maintain that he is obligated to respond Amen afterwards. Other authorities maintain that he need not respond. [Their rationale:] Since the others who dined remain silent, there is no obligation for him [to respond] at all. (Weight should be given to the first opinion.)

א שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ וְהֵם מְבָרְכִים בְּזִמּוּן וְנִכְנַס אֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל, אִם נִכְנַס כְּשֶׁאָמַר הַמְבָרֵךְ: "נְבָרֵךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ" – חַיָּב לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרָיו: "בָּרוּךְ וּמְבֹרָךְא שְׁמוֹ תָּמִיד לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד",ב,1 וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ עוֹנֶה "אָמֵן" אַחַר "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קצ"ה.ג,2 וְאִם מְזַמְּנִים בַּעֲשָׂרָה – עוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו: "בָּרוּךְ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וּמְבֹרָךְ שְׁמוֹ תָּמִיד לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד".ד וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הָיָה שָׁם כְּשֶׁאָכְלוּ וְלֹא אָכַל עִמָּהֶם.ה

וְאִם לֹא עָנָה אַחֲרָיו כָּךְ,ו אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנַס כְּשֶׁהַמְסֻבִּין עוֹנִין: "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ", שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת: "בָּרוּךְ וּמְבֹרָךְ", כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע שֶׁאָמַר הַמְבָרֵךְ: "נְבָרֵךְ" (וְאַף לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםז שֶׁמִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע "בָּרְכוּ" מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִם הַצִּבּוּר3 – כָּאןח אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִם הַמְסֻבִּין, שֶׁהֵם עוֹנִים: "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ", וְהוּא לֹא אָכַל, וְלַעֲנוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ גַּם כֵּן אֵינוֹ רָאוּי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע) – יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֵיהֶם "אָמֵן",ט,1 וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ עוֹנֶה אַחַר "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ" שֶׁחוֹזֵר הַמְבָרֵךְ.י

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בַּבְּרָכוֹת הַגְּמוּרוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן הַזְכָּרַת הַשֵּׁם, שֶׁחַיָּב לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶם "אָמֵן" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בָּהֶם.יא

וְאִם נִכְנַס כְּשֶׁהַמְבָרֵךְ חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר: "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ" – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיב שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרָיו "אָמֵן". וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיג שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמְסֻבִּים שֶׁאָכְלוּ הֵם שׁוֹתְקִים – אֵין עָלָיו שׁוּם חִיּוּב כְּלָל (וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה):

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2 All the above applies when [the visitor] did not eat or drink [beforehand. A different rule applies,] however, if he ate an olive-sized portion of a vegetable or other food, or drank a reviis of any beverage and entered [the place where] the others [were eating] without having recited the blessing after partaking of them.4 Even though he did not eat in their company, as one group, but [ate] in another building, he may respond with them, “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten….”5

(Even if he entered [only] when all those dining were responding, he may respond with them, “Blessed be He of Whose [bounty] we have eaten …,” even though he did not hear the leader say “Let us bless….” [The rationale:] He is responding together with the others who heard [this announcement].6 This follows the opinion of the authorities who make similar statements with regard to Barchu.)

ב וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהוּא לֹא אָכַל וְלֹא שָׁתָה, אֲבָל אִם אָכַל כַּזַּיִת יָרָק אוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר, אוֹ שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית מֵאֵיזֶה מַשְׁקֶה, וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ עֲדַיִן בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָהיד,4 וְנִכְנַס אֶצְלָם – יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם: "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ",5 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל עִמָּהֶם בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחַת אֶלָּא בְּבַיִת אַחֵר.טו

(וַאֲפִלּוּ נִכְנַס בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁכָּל הַמְסֻבִּין עוֹנִין – עוֹנֶה עִמָּהֶם: "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע "נְבָרֵךְ", כֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹנֶה עִם הַמְסֻבִּין שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ,6 לְפִי דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים כֵּן בְּ"בָרְכוּ") טז:3