SECTION 190 The Drinking of the Wine After Grace and its Relevant Laws. (1–8)

קצ שְׁתִיַּת הַיַּיִן אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה וְדִינָיו, וּבוֹ ח' סְעִיפִים:

1 After concluding the recitation of Grace, one recites the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the cup [of wine] over which he recited Grace.1 [This applies] even if he already recited a blessing over wine during the course of the meal, because everything he eats or drinks after Grace is [considered part of] another meal.2 For the recitation of Grace brings about a cessation and a diversion of his attention from what [he ate or drank] beforehand. Moreover, one cannot eat or drink while reciting Grace.3

For this reason, Grace differs from all the other blessings that must be recited over a cup of wine, e.g., Kiddush, Havdalah, the blessings of a bridegroom,4 and [the blessing recited after a child’s] circumcision. In all those instances, the blessing over wine is recited first, while in this instance, the blessing Borei pri hagafen is recited after Grace and not beforehand, even if one did not make a blessing over wine in the midst of the meal. [Moreover,] even if he did recite a blessing over wine [during the meal, that blessing would no longer be effective, for] when he took the cup [of wine] in his hand to recite Grace, he diverted his attention from drinking before Grace. [Thus,] if he changed his mind and decided to drink [before Grace], he would have to recite another blessing [in any case]. If so, one could ask: Why shouldn’t he recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen before Grace [as is done before other blessings recited over a cup of wine? In resolution,] it can be explained that since by reciting Grace, a person is acknowledging and praising his Creator for what he ate and drank, it is a cessation and diversion of attention from [all] his previous [actions], including even [the recitation of the blessing Borei pri hagafen over]5 the cup of wine in hand [upon] which he is reciting Grace.6 Therefore, he must recite a blessing [on the wine after Grace], immediately before drinking.

א אַחֵר שֶׁסִּיֵּם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל הַכּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןא,1 אֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּבָר בֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,ב,1 שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶׁאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – סְעוּדָה אַחֶרֶת הִיא,ג,2 לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הִיא סִלּוּק וְהֵיסֶח הַדָּעַת לְמַה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ,ד וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁתּוֹת וְלֶאֱכוֹל בְּעוֹדוֹ מְבָרֵךְ.ה,3

וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה נִשְׁתַּנָּה בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִכָּל דְּבָרִים הַטְּעוּנִים כּוֹס, כְּגוֹן קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה,ו בִּרְכַּת חֲתָנִיםז וּמִילָה, שֶׁבְּכֻלָּם בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן קוֹדֶמֶת, וְכָאן מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אַחֵר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְלֹא לְפָנֶיהָ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא בֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,ח וַאֲפִלּוּ בֵּרַךְ, הֲרֵי כְּשֶׁנָּטַל הַכּוֹס בְּיָדוֹ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִלִּשְׁתּוֹת קוֹדֵם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,ט,2 וְאִם הָיָה נִמְלַךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת הָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁכֵּן, לָמָּה אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" קוֹדֵם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן? אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הוּא מוֹדֶה וּמְשַׁבֵּחַ לְבוֹרְאוֹ עַל מַה שֶׁאָכַל וְשָׁתָה – הוּאי סִלּוּק וְהֵיסֶח הַדַּעַת עַל מַה שֶׁעָשָׂה, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן6 שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְיא וְהַכּוֹס בְּיָדוֹ,5 לְכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ תֵּכֶף לִשְׁתִיָּתוֹ: יב

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Kehot Publication Society)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

2 Whenever [a blessing] must be recited over a cup of wine, it is not sufficient to merely hold the cup while reciting that blessing — [indeed,] that is not at all a binding prerequisite after the fact.7 Instead, the fundamental requirement of the cup is for one to drink from it8 after reciting that blessing. [In that way,] his recitation of the blessing is comparable to the recitation of the song chanted when wine was poured over the altar [in accompaniment to the communal sacrifices],9 the “drinking” of the altar, [to use an analogy]. Here as well, the song [i.e. the blessing,] is to be recited together with the drinking of the wine.

[Drinking a very small amount] is not sufficiently important [to warrant] the recitation of song. Instead, one must drink an amount sufficient to settle a person’s mind, i.e., a cheekful,10 for drinking [this amount] brings a person satisfaction. [If one drinks] less than this amount, he did not fulfill the mitzvah of [reciting the blessing over] a cup [of wine] at all.

[There are blessings for which] a cup [of wine] is a binding prerequisite, e.g., Kiddush or Havdalah, i.e.,even after the fact, if one recited the blessing without a cup [of wine], he must repeat the blessing over a cup [of wine]. In all such instances, even if one recited [the blessing] over a cup [of wine], but did not partake of a cheekful of it immediately before leaving his place, without diverting his attention, he must recite [the blessing, i.e.,] Kiddush again, as stated in sec. 271[:26].11 Similarly, with regard to Grace, [if he did not partake of the cup immediately thereafter,] he did not fulfill the mitzvah [of reciting the blessing over] a cup [of wine] at all.12

ב כָּל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן כּוֹס לֹא דַּי בַּאֲחִיזַת הַכּוֹס לְבַדָּהּ בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר, שֶׁזֶּה אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב כְּלָל בְּדִיעֲבַד,יג,7 אֶלָּא עִקַּר מַה שֶׁהִטְעִינוּ כּוֹס הוּא לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּיד,8 אַחַר אֲמִירַת אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר, שֶׁתְּהֵא אוֹתָהּ אֲמִירָה כְּעֵין שִׁירָה הַנֶּאֱמֶרֶת עַל הַיַּיִןטו שֶמְנַסְכִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ,טז,9 שֶׁהִיא שְׁתִיַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ,יז אַף כָּאן תְּהֵא נֶאֱמֶרֶת שִׁירָה עַל שְׁתִיַּת הַיַּיִן.

וְאֵין שְׁתִיָּה חֲשׁוּבָה לוֹמַר שִׁירָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שׁוֹתֶה שִׁעוּר הָרָאוּי לֵישֵׁב דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם,יח שֶׁהוּא כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו,יט,10 שֶׁהִיא שְׁתִיָּה שֶׁל הֲנָאָה,כ וּבְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר זֶה לֹא קִיֵּם מִצְוַת הַכּוֹס כְּלָל.כא

וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהַכּוֹס מְעַכֵּב בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁאִם אָמַר בְּלֹא כּוֹס צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וְלוֹמַר עַל הַכּוֹס, כְּגוֹן קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, הוּא הַדִּין אִם אָמַר עַל הַכּוֹס וְלֹא שָׁתָה מִמֶּנּוּ כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו מִיָּד קוֹדֵם שֶׁעָקַר מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וּבְלֹא הֵיסֶח הַדַּעַת בֵּינְתַיִם – צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"א.כב,11 וְכֵן בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לֹא קִיֵּם מִצְוַת הַכּוֹס כְּלָל: כג,12

3 During the recitation of [Grace], the wine must also be on the table or on another entity in that room, ready for one to drink. This is a binding prerequisite, even after the fact. For if the wine is not in the person’s presence at the time of the recitation [of Grace], it is not considered as [the recitation of a] song over wine. Holding the cup in one’s hand [at the time of Grace], by contrast, is not a binding prerequisite after the fact. It is merely one of the ten [desirable factors] mentioned with regard to the cup [of wine]; these are not binding prerequisites, as stated in sec. 183[:7].13

ג וְצָרִיךְ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַיַּיִן בִּשְׁעַת הָאֲמִירָה אֶצְלוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר מוּכָן לִשְׁתִיָּה,כד וְזֶהוּ גַּם כֵּן מְעַכֵּב אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁאִם אֵין הַיַּיִן לְפָנָיו בִּשְׁעַת הָאֲמִירָה גַּם כֵּן – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא אוֹמֵר שִׁירָה עַל הַיַּיִן, מַה שֶׁאֵין כֵּן אֲחִיזַת הַכּוֹס בְּיָדוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מֵעֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בְּכוֹס לְמִצְוָה וְלֹא לְעַכֵּב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ג: כה,13

4 Even though drinking of the cup of blessing is a binding prerequisite, it is not imperative that the person who recites Grace partake of the cup of wine himself; it suffices for another to drink it.14 [Indeed,] even if the cup is given to a child to drink (and he will drink a child’s cheekful15 [from it]), one fulfills his obligation.16 (For the measure of a cheekful is an individual one, each person according to his size, a large person according to his size, and a small person according to his size.)17 Although the child is not obligated [to drink the cup, for he is not obligated in the observance of the mitzvos], that is of no consequence. For even the leader of Grace is not personally obligated [to drink the wine] at all. He is only obligated to “recite a song over wine,” from which any Jewish person (even a newborn baby) will drink an amount that the one [who drinks] will consider as satisfying.

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one must [at least] give [the wine] to a child who is somewhat mature, i.e., one who has reached [the age when he] should be trained in [the recitation of] the blessings [recited over receiving] benefit, so that [the person leading Grace] will be able to recite the blessing over the wine and it will not be [a blessing] in vain, because the child will hear [and understand] his blessing and drink.18 If, by contrast, he would give the wine to a child who has not yet reached [the age] to be trained [in the recitation of the blessings, the leader of Grace] would forfeit the blessing over the wine, for he would not be able to recite it,19 even though, after the fact, [reciting the blessing] is not a binding prerequisite.20

(If [the leader of Grace] does not drink wine because he dislikes it or because of a vow, he may, however, give the cup over which Grace was recited to another adult who will recite the blessing over the wine himself.21 When, by contrast, [the person leading Grace] does drink wine, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is for him to drink [the wine] himself. Similarly, all those who dined with him who participated in the zimun [should partake of the wine]. They, however, need not eachdrink a cheekful; it is sufficient for them to merely taste it.)

Other authorities [differ and] maintain thatthe only reason why it is necessary to taste the wine used for any [blessing] that must [be recited over] a cup [of wine] — with the exception of Kiddush — was so that there be no disgrace to the blessing [recited] over the wine, i.e., that people not say that there is no purpose for the recitation of this blessing and that it appears like a blessing recited in vain. In truth, however, there is a purpose in its recitation, for our Sages ordained that every song recited over wine should be arranged together with the blessing for wine, for it is the fundamental song designated for wine.

Accordingly, one may recite the blessing for wine and give it to a child to taste even though he did not reach [the age of being] trained [in the recitation of] the blessings, indeed, even if he does not know how to speak. Since partaking [of the wine] is necessary only so as not to disgrace [the wine], it is sufficient for even such a young child [to partake of it].22

This approach is followed with regard to the circumcision [of an infant] on Yom Kippur, since there is no other alternative, as stated in sec. 621[:4–5].23 When, however, there is another alternative, e.g., when Kiddush is recited in a synagogue on Shabbos or on festivals, weight should be given to the first opinion and [the wine should be] given to a child who reached [the age when he is] trained [in the recitation of] the blessings, as stated in sec. 269[:3].

(When, by contrast, Kiddush is recited at home24 and a person fulfills his obligation through its recitation, there are authorities who maintain that, even according to the second opinion, it is not sufficient to give a child to drink, or even to give another adult to drink. Instead the person reciting the Kiddush must himself partake of [at least] a cheekful of wine. If he does not, he does not fulfill his obligation. [The rationale:] It is written:25 “Remember the Shabbos day, to sanctify it.” And our Sages said:26 “Remember it over wine,” i.e., by drinking wine in honor of the day. Therefore the one “remembering” [the Shabbos] over wine, i.e., the person reciting Kiddush, should drink from the wine himself. It is appropriate to give weight to this opinion as an initial preference, as stated in sec. 271[:25].)27

According to this opinion,28 i.e., that our Sages ordained that all blessings whose recitation requires a cup of wine be arranged together with the blessing over wine, a person who does not drink wine himself may not recite Grace over a cup of wine, unless he gives it to a child who reached [the age when he] is being trained [in the recitation of the blessings]. He may not, however, give it to an adult who will recite the blessing over it himself. For, according to this opinion, the one who recites Grace must also recite the blessing over the wine and one person is not permitted to recite the blessing over wine for another. [This stringency applies] even according to the authorities who maintain that the recitation of Grace requires a cup [of wine],29 and thus, according to their opinion, the blessing over the wine is an obligation like the blessing of the mitzvos, in which instance a person may fulfill an obligation on behalf of another person, as stated in sec. 167[:23]. Nevertheless, since the other person can recite the blessing [over the wine] himself, one may not recite the blessing for him.30 (Kiddush and Havdalah [are exceptions to this principle. In those in­stances,] one may [recite the blessing over wine with the intent that another person drink it]. Since he is obligated to recite the blessings of Kiddush and Havdalah [to fulfill] his own [obligation], he may also recite the blessings over the wine that was ordained to be recited before Kiddush and Havdalah, as stated in sec. 272[:12].)31

(Nevertheless, one who “greatly desires His commandments”32 [and seeks] to recite Grace in a zimun over a cup [of wine] may rely on the first opinion,33 adopting a lenient approach with regard to a matter of Rabbinic Law.

Similarly, with regard to Havdalah, one who did not drink a cheekful [of wine] is not obligated to recite Havdalah again. For when there is uncertainty regarding [a requirement involving] blessings that were ordained by Rabbinic decree, one should rule leniently, [and rely on] the second opinion.)34

ד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁתִיַּת כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה מְעַכֶּבֶת, אֵין מְעַכֵּב שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה הַמְבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא דַּי בִּשְׁתִיַּת אַחֵר,כו,14 וַאֲפִלּוּ מַטְעִים מִמֶּנּוּ לַתִּינוֹקכז (כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו שֶׁל תִּינוֹק) כח,15 – יֵצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָה16 (שֶׁשִּׁעוּר מְלֹא לֻגְמָיו הוּא בְּכָל אָדָם לְפִי מַה שֶׁהוּא, הַגָּדוֹל לְפִי גָּדְלוֹ, וְהַקָּטֹן לְפִי קָטְנוֹ) כט.17 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁגַּם עַל הַמְבָרֵךְ לֹא חָל הַחִיּוּב כְּלָל, שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבוּהוּ אֶלָּא לוֹמַר שִׁירָה עַל הַיַּיִן, שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ אֵיזֶה אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׁתִיָּה שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה הֲנָאָה לוֹ (וַאֲפִלּוּ תִּינוֹק בֵּן יוֹמוֹ) ל.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְהַטְעִים לְתִינוֹק גָּדוֹל קְצָת שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לִכְלָל חִנּוּךְ בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן וְלֹא תְּהֵא בִּרְכָתוֹ לְבַטָּלָה,לא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק שׁוֹמְעָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְבָרֵךְ וְשׁוֹתֶה,לב,18 מַה שֶׁאֵין כֵּן אִם יַטְעִים לְקָטָן שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ – יַפְסִיד בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן, שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְאָמְרָהּ,19 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת.לג,20

(אֲבָל רַשַּׁאי הוּא לְהַטְעִים לְגָדוֹל, שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן,21 אִם הוּא אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשּׂוֹנֵא אוֹתוֹ אוֹ מִשּׁוּם נֶדֶר.לד אֲבָל מִי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן – מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁיִטְעוֹם בְּעַצְמוֹ, וְכֵן לְכָל הַמְּסֻבִּים שֶׁזִּמֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם,לה אַךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו, אֶלָּא דַּי בִּטְעִימָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא) לו.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלז שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן כּוֹס, חוּץ מִקִּדּוּשׁלח – לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לִטְעֹם מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא גְּנַאי לְבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן, שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הוּא בְּרָכָה זוֹ, וְנִרְאֵית כִּבְרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, אֲבָל בֶּאֱמֶת הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ, שֶׁכָּךְ תִּקְנוּ חֲכָמִים בְּכָל שִׁירָה הַנֶּאֱמֶרֶת עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁיְּסַדְּרוּ אוֹתָהּ אֵצֶל בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן, שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר שִׁירָה הַמְּיֻחֶדֶת לַיַּיִן, לְפִיכָךְ רַשַּׁאי לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן וּלְהַטְעִים לְקָטָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ בְּרָכוֹת, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְדַבֵּר, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַטְּעִימָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּנַאי – דַּיָּהּ בְּתִינוֹק קָטָן כָּזֶה.22

וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בְּמִּילָה שֶׁבְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, הוֹאִיל וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיַן אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרכ"א.לט,23 אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר, כְּגוֹן קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהַטְעִים לְקָטָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ בְּרָכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רס"ט.מ

(אֲבָל קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבַּבַּיִת,24 שֶׁאָדָם יוֹצֵא בּוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,מא אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, שֶׁלֹּא דַּי בַּמֶּה שֶׁיַּטְעִים לְתִינוֹק, וְלֹא אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁיַּטְעִים לְגָדוֹל, אֶלָּא הַמְּקַדֵּשׁ בְּעַצְמוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטְעֹם כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו, וְאִם לָאו – לֹא יָצָא, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרמב,25 "זָכוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ", וְאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: מג,26 זָכְרֵהוּ עַל הַיַּיִן, כְּלוֹמַר עַל שְׁתִיַּת הַיַּיִן לִכְבוֹד הַיּוֹם, לְפִיכָךְמד הַמַּזְכִּירוֹ עַל הַיַּיִן, הוּא הַמְּקַדֵּשׁ – שׁוֹתֶה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּעַצְמוֹ. וְרָאוּי לָחוּשׁ לָזֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"א) מה.27

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ28 שֶׁתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הוּא בְּכָל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן כּוֹס שֶׁיְּסַדְּרוּ אוֹתוֹ עַל בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן, אִם כֵּן מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל הַכּוֹס אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יַטְעִים מִמֶּנּוּ לְקָטָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְחִנּוּךְ,מו אֲבָל לֹא לְגָדוֹל שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַמְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן לְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן לַחֲבֵרוֹ,מז אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן טְעוּנָה כּוֹס,מח,29 שֶׁלְּדִבְרֵיהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן הִיא חוֹבָה כְּבִרְכַּת הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁאָדָם יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא חֲבֵרוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז,מט מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ – אֵין לְאַחֵר לְבָרֵךְ לוֹ.נ,30 (אֲבָל בְּקִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה רַשַּׁאי, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ – יָכוֹל לוֹמַר גַּם בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁנִּתְקְנָה קוֹדֵם בִּרְכַּת קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן עֶרֶ"ב) נא.31

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִי שֶׁבְּמִצְוֹתָיו חָפֵץ מְאוֹד32 לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּזִמּוּן עַל הַכּוֹס – יוּכַל לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה33 לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.נב

וְכֵן בְּהַבְדָּלָה, אִם לֹא טַעַם כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיונג – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְהַבְדִּיל, שֶׁסָּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל, כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה):34

5 Although the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is that all those dining sip from the cup over which Grace was recited, it is not necessary that they drink from the cup [held by] the one who recites Grace. Instead, each one may have a cup [of wine] placed before him.35 [Indeed,] it is preferable to do this if possible, because the cup [held by] the one who recites Grace will be impaired36 once he has drunk from it. Although [the impairment] could be rectified by adding more wine so that each of those dining could drink,37 it is preferable for them to drink from the wine of blessing. And when each one has his own cup at the time Grace is recited, all the cups are deemed cups of blessing, just like the cup of the leader of Grace.38

If the others dining have empty cups, [the leader of Grace] may pour a small amount from the cup of blessing into each of their cups after he recites the blessing Borei pri hagafen, before he drinks from it,39 so that they will drink from a cup that is not impaired. [Pouring the wine into their cups] is not considered as an interruption between the recitation of the blessing and drinking, because it is necessary [to enable] the others dining to drink [from the wine while it is still unimpaired]40 and his blessing is considered as if they are reciting the blessing, for they fulfill their obligation with his blessing.41 Similarly, if those dining have cups that contain wine, but they have been impaired, [the leader of Grace] may pour [wine] from his cup [into theirs] to rectify their [impairment] before he drinks.

Since they require [wine from] his cup, they should not drink before he does, as stated in sec. 167[:23]. If, however, they do not require his cup, because their cups are full and not impaired, they may drink before he does.42

ה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁכָּל הַמְּסֻבִּים יִטְעֲמוּ מִכּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָהנד – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִטְעֹם מִכּוֹס הַמְבָרֵךְ, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל כָּל אֶחָד לִתֵּן כּוֹסוֹ לְפָנָיו.נה,35 וְיוֹתֵר טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אִם אֶפְשָׁר, לְפִי שֶׁכּוֹס הַמְבָרֵךְ הוּא פָּגוּם36 לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁתָה מִמֶּנּוּ הַמְבָרֵךְ.נו

וְאַף שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיּוֹסִיפוּ בּוֹ יַיִןנז לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּין,37 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, יוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁיִּטְעֲמוּ מִיָּיִן שֶׁל בְּרָכָה, שֶׁכְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לִפְנֵי כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כּוֹסוֹ בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – הֲרֵי כֻּלָּם הֵן כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל בְּרָכָה כְּמוֹ כּוֹס הַמְבָרֵךְ.נח,38

וְאִם לִפְנֵי הַמְסֻבִּין הֵן כּוֹסוֹת רֵיקָנִים, יָכוֹל לִתֵּן מִכּוֹס הַבְּרָכָה מְעַט לְכָל כּוֹס וְכוֹס שֶׁלָּהֶםנט אַחֵר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" קוֹדֵם שְׁתִיָּתוֹ,39 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטְעֲמוּ מִכּוֹס שֶׁאֵינוֹ פָּגוּם.ס וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵק בֵּין בְּרָכָה לִשְׁתִיָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ שְׁתִיַּת הַמְּסֻבִּים,סא,40 וּמַה שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ – הוּא כְּאִלּוּ הֵם מְבָרְכִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם יוֹצְאִים בְּבִרְכָתוֹ.41 וְכֵן אִם כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם מְלֵאִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵם פְּגוּמִים – יָכוֹל לִשְׁפֹּךְ מִכּוֹס שֶׁלּוֹ לְתַקְּנָםסב קוֹדֵם שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה.סג

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵם זְקוּקִים לְכוֹסוֹ, אֵין לָהֶם לִטְעֹם עַד שֶׁיִטְעוֹם הוּא,סד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז.סה אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם זְקוּקִים לְכוֹסוֹ, שֶׁכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם מְלֵאִים וְאֵינָן פְּגוּמִים – יְכוֹלִים לִטְעֹם קוֹדֵם שֶׁיִטְעוֹם הוּא:42

6 Although it is sufficient to drink a cheekful from the cup of blessing for Grace, it is preferable for one to drink a reviis43 so as to extricate himself from uncertainty with regard to the obligation to recite a blessing after partaking of the wine. [The difficulty:] An ordinary person’s cheekful is the majority of a reviis which is larger than an olive-sized portion.44 [Now,] there is uncertainty whether one is required to recite a blessing after partaking of an amount between an olive-sized portion and a reviis, as stated in sec. 210.45 There is no need — even for a large person whose cheekful is greater than a reviis — to partake of more than that amount.46

It is a mitzvah to drink [from the cup of blessing] in large gulps [to show that one] cherishes the mitzvah.47

ו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטְּעִימַת כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה דַּי בְּכִמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו, בְּכוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן טוֹב לִשְׁתּוֹת רְבִיעִית,43 לָצֵאת מִידֵי סָפֵק בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,סו שֶׁכִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו בָּאָדָם בֵּינוֹנִי הוּא רוֹב רְבִיעִית,סז שֶׁהוּא יוֹתֵר מִכַּזַּיִת,סח,44 וּמִכַּזַּיִת עַד רְבִיעִית יֵשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִים אִם צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רֵ"[י].סט,45

וְיוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת אַף אִם הוּא אָדָם גָּדוֹל, שֶׁכִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו הוּא יוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית.ע,46וּמִצְוָה לִגְמֹעַ גְמִיעוֹת גַּסּוֹת, מִשּׁוּם חִבּוּב מִצְוָה: עא,47

7 If a person has the intent of drinking more [after he partakes of the cup of blessing], he should not recite a blessing until he [completely] finishes drinking. This applies if one’s intent is to drink more immediately. If that is not the case, [he should recite the blessing after drinking,] because there is concern that he may begin to digest what he drank beforehand, as stated in sec. 184[:3].

If his intent was to drink more immediately, but by mistake,48 he recited a blessing [after partaking of the cup of blessing], he is not required to recite a blessing [before partaking of other wine or beverages], since he intended to drink more and recited the blessing in error. If, however, he intentionally recited the blessing even though he intended to drink more, he must recite a blessing before drinking. [The rationale]: Reciting a blessing after partaking of food or drink represents a cessation and diversion of attention from what proceeded it. [Hence, it is considered] an interruption, since it is impossible to drink while one is reciting the blessing, as explained above.49

ז אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַד לְבַסּוֹף.עב וְהוּא שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד מִיָּד, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְעַכֵּל מַה שֶׁשָּׁתָה,עג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ד.עד וְאִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִיָּד וְטָעָה וּבֵרַךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה48 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד וּבֵרֵךְ בְּטָעוּת.עה אֲבָל אִם בֵּרֵךְ בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁכָּל בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה הִיא סִלּוּק וְהֵיסֶח הַדַּעַת לְמַה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ וּמַפְסֶקֶת, הוֹאִיל וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּעוֹדוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה: עו,49

8 All the others dining fulfill their obligation by [listening to] the blessing recited over the wine by the person leading Grace, for he has the intent that his blessing fulfill their obligation. Although there will be somewhat of a delay until the cup reaches every person, this is not considered an interruption, providing one did not interrupt by speaking. Nevertheless, at large feasts, when many attend and those dining are unsure how far the cup of blessing will be passed, each person who is unsure whether the cup will reach him must recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen individually [before he drinks. The rationale:] He is considered as one who changed his mind, because when he heard the blessing of the person leading Grace, he did not know whether the cup would reach him.50 If, when listening [to that blessing], he had the intent that if the wine reaches him, he will fulfill his obligation by having listened to this [blessing], he fulfills his obligation and should not recite another blessing.

ח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַמְּסֻבִּים יוֹצְאִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ הַמְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיאָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן, וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה שֵׁהוּת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַכּוֹס לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד – אֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵק כָּל שֶׁלֹּא הִפְסִיק בְּדִבּוּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּסְעוּדָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁהַמְסֻבִּים רַבִּים וְאֵין יוֹדְעִים עַד הֵיכָן יַגִּיעַ כּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, הֲרֵי כָּל אֶחָד מְהַמְסוּפָּקִים אִם יַגִּיעַ לוֹ – צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" לְעַצְמוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּנִמְלַךְ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת שְׁמִיעָתוֹ בִּרְכַּת הַמְבָרֵךְ לֹא יָדַע אִם יַגִּיעַ לוֹ.עז,50 וְאִם נִתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁמִיעָתוֹ שֶׁאִם יַגִּיעַ לוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ – יָצָא, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ: עח