SECTION 174 The Laws Governing [the Recitation of] the Blessing Over Wine During a Meal. (1–11)

קעד דִּין בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן בִּסְעוּדָה, וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1One should recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created the fruit of the vine”) over wine, even when he drinks wine in the midst of a meal.1 Wine is not covered by the blessing recited over bread.2 True, one drinks [wine] in order to saturate the food in his digestive system.3 Thus, it is [considered as] food that comes because of the meal, in the midst of the meal, which is covered by the blessing recited over bread, as will be explained.4 Nevertheless, wine is an important entity, [its significance resulting from the institution of] a requirement to recite a blessing over it in a number of instances,2 e.g., Kiddush, Havdalah, and the blessing during the marriage ceremony, at which time, the blessing Borei pri hagafen isrecited, even though there is no necessity to drink wine.

Therefore, with regard to the blessing recited before partaking of it, Borei pri hagafen, wine is not considered as secondary to the bread so as to be covered by its blessing. True, [when one drinks wine during a meal,] it is considered secondary to [the bread] insofar as the blessing to be recited after it is covered by the Grace after Meals. [The rationale for the distinction is that, in the special instances cited,] the wine does not require a blessing for itself afterwards, only a blessing before it.5 (For whenever a cup of wine is [specifically] required, it is brought primarily to have the blessing [Borei pri hagafen] recited before partaking of it.)

א יַיִן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּא לִשְׁתּוֹת תּוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",א,1 וְאֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת,ב,2 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה לִשְׁרוֹת הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו ג,3 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּדְבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה ד שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,ה,4 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הוֹאִיל וְהַיַּיִן הוּא חָשׁוּב ו שֶׁגּוֹרֵם בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמוֹ ז בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת,ח,2 כְּגוֹן בְּקִדּוּשׁ ט וְהַבְדָּלָה י וּבִרְכַּת אֵרוּסִין,יא שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִים לִשְׁתִיָּתוֹ,יב לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל לַפַּת לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ יג מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּפֵל אֵלֶיהָ לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,יד לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גּוֹרֵם לְעַצְמוֹ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה (א) אֶלָּא בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה טו,5 (לְבַדָּהּ, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִילָהּ הִיא עִקַּר הֲבָאַת הַכּוֹס בְּכָל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן כּוֹס):

2 One should not, however, recite a blessing over water or other beverages in the midst of a meal, even if he drinks them to quench his thirst, since they are being consumed because of the meal. For it is impossible to eat without drinking. [Moreover,] even if one eats something to offset the [sharp] taste of a beverage, it is considered as secondary to the beverage, which [itself] is considered as secondary to the bread. Hence, [even the food] is included in the blessing over the bread.

Even if the person was thirsty before [beginning] the meal, [he need not recite a blessing over the water he drinks during the meal]. Since he did not desire to drink beforehand [— out of fear that] the water would cause him harm6 — the reason he is drinking [now] is because he is partaking of bread. Hence, the blessing over bread covers the water as well.

(True, the bread is only a far-removed cause for [drinking the water. In that way, drinking water] does not resemble eating fruit at the end of a meal in order to assist the food’s digestion. [Partaking of] bread is a more direct cause for [partaking of fruit].7 Nevertheless, a blessing is required before [partaking of fruit], as will be explained in sec. 177[:2. The rationale is that, in general,] fruit is considered as food that does not come because of the meal, since it is commonly eaten throughout the day.8 Therefore, if one partakes of it at the time of a meal, it is not considered as secondary to the bread, unless it comes for the purpose of [enabling bread to] be eaten, e.g., to accompany the bread or to arouse one’s appetite, as will be explained.9 [This is not the case with regard to fruit eaten in order to facilitate] the digestion of the food that one has already eaten. [It cannot be considered as coming because of the bread, because the person] has already completed [eating bread].

[Different principles apply, however, with regard to] water and other beverages that are consumed throughout the day [primarily] because of a meal [of which one partook previously]. For primarily, a person’s thirst results from having eaten [beforehand]. Even beverages that one drinks without being thirsty, e.g., beer or mead, are not commonly consumed before eating, but afterwards. Thus they also can be considered coming as a result of having eaten food previously. Therefore, when they are consumed in the midst of a meal, although [the bread] is a far-removed cause, they are considered as secondary to the meal. [Accordingly,] the blessing of the bread — the primary element of the meal — covers them.)

[The above applies] provided the bread serves as the basis for the meal. If, by contrast, the person eats a little bread so that [drinking] the water alone will not harm him, he must recite the blessing Shehakol on the bread, as will be explained.10

ב אֲבָל עַל מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,טז וַאֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹתֶה לִצְמָאוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם בָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה,יז שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַאֲכִילָה בְּלֹא שְׁתִיָּה.יח וְגַם אִם אוֹכֵל אֵיזֶה דָּבָר לְמַתֵּק הַשְּׁתִיָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה טָפֵל לַמַּשְׁקֶה וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה לַלֶּחֶם, וְנִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַלֶּחֶם.יט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה צָמֵא קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה לִשְׁתּוֹת אָז כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ לוֹ הַמַּיִם6 – נִמְצָא כִּי שְׁתִיַּת הַמַּיִם בְּסִבַּת הַפַּת הִיא, וּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת פּוֹטַרְתָּם.כ

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפַּת הִיא סִבָּה רְחוֹקָה לָהֶם, וְאֵינָם דּוֹמִים לְפֵרוֹת שֶׁאוֹכְלִים בִּגְמַר הַסְּעוּדָה לְעַכֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל,כא שֶׁהַפַּת הוּא סִבָּה קְרוֹבָה לָהֶם,7 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טְעוּנִים בְּרָכָה לִפְנֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז,כב לְפִי שֶׁהַפֵּרוֹת הֵם דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְאָכְלָם כָּל הַיּוֹם,כג,8 לְפִיכָךְ אִם אוֹכְלָם בִּשְׁעַת סְעוּדָה אֵינָם חֲשׁוּבִים טְפֵלָה לַפַּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּאוּ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָהּ שֶׁיֹּאכַל עֲדַיִן, כְּגוֹן לְלַפֵּת הַפַּת, אוֹ לְעוֹרֵר תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל,כד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,כה,9 וְלֹא לְעַכֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁכְּבָר אָכַל, כִּי מַה שֶּׁהָיָה כְּבָר הָיָה, אֲבָל מַיִם וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁשְּׁתִיָּתָם כָּל הַיּוֹם הִיא מֵחֲמַת סְעוּדָה, שֶׁרֹב הַצִּמָּאוֹן הִיא מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁשּׁוֹתִין אוֹתָם אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצִמָּאוֹן, כְּגוֹן שֵׁכָר כו וּמֵי דְּבַשׁ כז – אֵין דַּרְכָּם לִשְׁתּוֹתָם קֹדֶם אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא אַחֲרֶיהָ, נִמְצָא שֶׁבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁבָּאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי סִבָּה רְחוֹקָה – הֲרֵי הֵם טְפֵלִים לַסְּעוּדָה, וּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר הַסְּעוּדָה פּוֹטַרְתָּם).

וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹבֵעַ סְעוּדָה עַל פַּת,כח אֲבָל אִם אוֹכֵל מְעַט פַּת בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ לוֹ הַמַּיִם בִּלְבַד – מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפַּת "שֶׁהַכֹּל", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: כט,10

3 [The following rules apply when one drinks an] alcoholic beverage [other than wine] during a meal. If one drinks it in order to whet his appetite, it is considered as secondary to the meal and it is not necessary to recite a blessing over it.11 If one drinks it in order to warm his stomach so as to [better] digest the food, he should recite a blessing over it, (just like one must recite a blessing over fruit that comes to [aid] digestion). [The rationale is that,] unlike other beverages, alcoholic beverages are never consumed for the sake of eating. Moreover, most people do not [drink alcoholic beverages] with the intent of arousing their desire for food, as evidenced by the fact that people are accustomed to drink [such beverages] every morning without [eating] a meal.12 Therefore, [such beverages] are not considered as secondary except when they are served specifically for food that is yet to be eaten.13 The laws that apply when one steeps a piece of bread in such a beverage are discussed later.14

On Shabbos, one need not recite a blessing on these beverages in any case, because they are covered by the blessing recited over the cup of Kiddush, even if one recites Kiddush over wine [and not over these beverages], as will be explained.15 (The only exception is when one recites Kiddush at night over bread.)16

There are authorities who maintain that like wine, a blessing is required for water and other beverages when they are consumed in the midst of a meal.17 The reason that a rationale had to be given for the recitation of a blessing for wine — that it requires a blessing for itself in certain instances18 — is only because wine stimulates a person’s appetite and thus is a necessity of the meal.19 Other beverages, however, do not arouse the appetite. Hence, [they are not associated directly with the meal] and a blessing is [surely] required for them, even though they are not important like wine.

There are also authorities who require that one recite a blessing over water20 every time one partakes of it, for it can be assumed that he changed his mind each time [he again decided to drink water].21 [The rationale is that,] generally, one drinks water only when thirsty. The person did not know [when he originally drank the water] that he would become thirsty again. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.22

If one seeks to remove the possibility of doubt [whether to recite the blessing], he may give a person who is not partaking of the meal [some of the beverage to drink. When] that person recites a blessing over it, he should have the intent that he is [also] fulfilling the obligation [of the one who seeks to drink in the midst of his meal].23 Alternatively, before washing [to partake of the meal], that person who wants to drink should sit in the place where he will partake of the meal and recite a blessing over some water or other beverages, with the intent of drinking all he desires during the meal. (Even if he changes his mind and desires to drink more before the meal, he is not required to recite a second blessing, because this is not considered as changing one’s mind, for he intended to drink afterwards — during the meal — on the basis of this [original] blessing.)24

He should not drink a reviis25[before the meal] so that he will not be required to recite a blessing after the beverages in the manner to be explained.26 [Were he to do so, the blessing recited then] would not cover the obligation for the [blessing over the] beverages he will drink during the meal.27 He should also be careful not to go outside before the meal, because changing one’s place28 requires the recitation of an additional blessing [if one wishes to drink again] upon returning to his place, as will be explained later.29 The [prevailing] custom, however, is to follow the first opinion.22

ג וְיֵין שָׂרָף שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אִם שׁוֹתֵהוּ כְּדֵי לְעוֹרֵר תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל – הֲרֵי הוּא טָפֵל לַסְּעוּדָה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו.ל,11 וְאִם שׁוֹתֵהוּ כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּם הָאִצְטוֹמְכָא לְעַכֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו לא (כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבָּאִים לְעַכֵּל),לב לְפִי שֶׁגַּם הַיֵּין שָׂרָף אֵין שְׁתִיָּתוֹ מֵחֲמַת אֲכִילָה לְעוֹלָם כִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, וְגַם אֵין כַּוָּנַת רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לְעוֹרֵר בּוֹ תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי רְגִילִים לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּכָל בֹּקֶר אַף בְּלֹא סְעוּדָה,לג,12 לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁבָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה שֶׁיֹּאכַל עֲדַיִן.לד,13

וְאִם שׁוֹרֶה בּוֹ פַּת (ב) – יִתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן.לה,14

וּבְשַׁבָּת אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּכָל עִנְיָן, שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ, וַאֲפִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן,לו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לז,15 (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קִדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה עַל הַפַּת).לח,16

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,לט שֶׁגַּם מַיִם וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים (ג)מ טְעוּנִים בְּרָכָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה כְּמוֹ יַיִן,17 וְלֹא הֻצְרְכוּ לִתֵּן טַעַם לְבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגּוֹרֵם בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמוֹ מא,18 אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַיַּיִן מַמְשִׁיךְ אָדָם לְתַאֲוַת אֲכִילָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא צֹרֶךְ סְעוּדָה,19 אֲבָל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים שֶׁאֵינָן מְעוֹרְרִים תַּאֲוַת הַמַּאֲכָל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כְּיַיִן.מב

וְיֵשׁ מַצְרִיכִים מג עוֹד לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמַּיִם מד,20 בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם,21 כִּי מִן הַסְּתָם נִמְלַךְ הוּא בְּכָל פַּעַם, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת מַיִם אֶלָּא לִצְמָאוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיִּצְמָא עוֹד. וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.22

וְהָרוֹצֶה לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק – יִתֵּן לְאַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל לְבָרֵךְ וְיִתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרוֹ,מה,23 אוֹ יֵשֵׁב קֹדֶם נְטִילָה בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָתוֹ וִיבָרֵךְ עַל מְעַט מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין עַל דַּעַת לִשְׁתּוֹת כָּל צָרְכּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ סְעוּדָתוֹ מו (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִמְלַךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁאֵין זֶה קָרוּי נִמְלָךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת אַחַר כָּךְ בַּסְּעוּדָה עַל סְמַךְ בִּרְכָתוֹ זוֹ).מז,24

וְלֹא יִשְׁתֶּה כְּשִׁעוּר רְבִיעִית,25 שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה,מח עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,מט,26 וְלֹא יִפְטֹר בָּזֶה מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׁתֶּה בְּתוֹךְ סְעוּדָתוֹ.נ,27 וְגַם יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת חוּצָה קֹדֶם סְעוּדָה,נא שֶׁכְּשֶׁמְּשַׁנֶּה מְקוֹמוֹ28 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר לִמְקוֹמוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן.נב,29 אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: נג,22

4 If one recited a blessing over wine, all author­ities agree that he need not recite a blessing on other beverages [consumed afterwards].30 For [reciting a blessing] on wine covers all types of beverages [consumed afterwards], whether during a meal or on other occasions. [The rationale is that] wine is the primary beverage, the foremost31 of all beverages. Therefore, it is of principal importance with regard to the blessing and all other beverages are secondary to it. [This ruling applies,] provided the other beverages were before the person at the time he recited the blessing over the wine (or he intended to drink them).32

Even if the person does not sit down to drink wine,33 but rather partakes of a small amount34 for the sake of a mitzvah, e.g., Kiddush or Havdalah, and [subsequently] drinks a large amount of other beverages, they are covered by the blessing over the wine (if he had them in mind, as will be explained).22

ד בֵּרַךְ עַל יַיִן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, שֶׁיַּיִן פּוֹטֵר כָּל מִינֵי מַשְׁקִים,נד,30 בֵּין בִּשְׁעַת הַסְּעוּדָה בֵּין בִּשְׁאָר פְּעָמִים,נה לְפִי שֶׁהַיַּיִן הוּא עִקַּר מַשְׁקֶה וְהוּא רֹאשׁ31 לְכָל מִינֵי מַשְׁקִין, לָכֵן הוּא עִקָּר לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה וְכֻלָּן טְפֵלִים אֵלָיו.נו וְהוּא שֶׁהָיוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין לְפָנָיו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן נז (אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם).נח,32

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ קוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ33 לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן, אֶלָּא שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מְעַט נט,34 לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, וְשׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין הַרְבֵּה אַחַר כָּךְ – נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן ס (אִם הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר): סא,22

5 If one drank wine before a meal35 — even if he did so before sitting down33 [to partake of] the meal — it is not necessary for him to recite a blessing over the wine he will drink within the meal, for it is covered by the blessing recited over the wine before the meal. An exception [to this rule]: One specifically intended not to drink wine during the meal and then changed his mind and decided [to resume drinking]. If, however, he had no specific intent [when he first drank], he is not considered to have changed his mind and made a new decision, because it is common to drink wine during a meal, even during the week,36 to saturate the food in one’s digestive system.37 Therefore when a person recites Havdalah at his table, i.e., close to his meal, in the place where he will eat the meal, it is not necessary for him to recite a blessing on the wine that he will drink during the meal.

There are authorities who maintain that since one does not partake of the wine consumed for Havdalah for the sake of drinking, but rather for the sake of the mitzvah, it does not cover the wine consumed during the meal, unless he recited Havdalah at the table [at which he will eat his meal],38 i.e., he established a setting for himself for a meal at the table, or after he washed his hands [for the meal]. For washing one’s hands marks the beginning of establishing a setting for a meal39 even though one did not yet sit down at the table, and even if one washed and then recited Havdalah in another room40 (in the manner to be explained).41

Weight should be given to their words at the outset. Thus when one recites Havdalah before establishing a setting for a meal, he should have the intent that the blessing [recited over the wine in Havdalah] does not cover the wine he will drink during the meal. After the fact, [if] one did not have this intent, he should not recite a blessing on the wine that he drinks during the meal, because when there is a question concerning blessings established by Rabbinic decree, we rule leniently.

When does the above apply? With regard to the wine of Havdalah, since it is not associated with the meal.42 The wine of Kiddush, by contrast, is associated with the meal, for Kiddush may be recited only in the place where one will eat his meal.43 Hence, all authorities agree that [the blessing over wine for Kiddush] also covers the wine consumed during the meal. [This ruling applies] even when one recites Kiddush before he establishes a setting for the meal although [he drinks] the wine for the sake of the mitzvah [of Kiddush] and not for the sake of [simply] drinking. How much more so does it apply when one recites a blessing over wine before a meal during the week!44 Since [one is drinking] for the sake of drinking,45 it covers the wine that he drinks during the meal, even if he recited a blessing over it before he sat down33 to partake of the meal.46

(The above applies provided one recites the blessing in the same room in which he partakes of the meal. If, however, [he moves] from room to room [even if he remains in the same building], he is required to recite another blessing [over the wine he drinks during the meal] unless he drank an amount that required him to recite the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al hagefen),47 but did not yet recite that blessing. In such an instance, there are authorities who maintain that he is not required to recite another blessing [over the wine he drinks during the meal]. After the fact, one may rely on their words, as stated in sec. 178[:3]. Moreover, even if [one drank in] the same room [as he will eat his meal], if he left the room in the interim and then returned, it is as if he moved from room to room, as will be explained there.)48

When does the above apply? When one did not have any specific intent [when reciting the blessing]. If, however, when one recites the blessing over wine in one room, he has the explicit intent that this blessing cover the wine that he will drink during the meal which he will eat in another room, his intent is effective, even as an initial preference, provided the two rooms are in one building, as will be explained there.48

ה אִם שָׁתָה יַיִן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,סב,35 אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ33 לַסְּעוּדָה סג – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁנִּפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,סד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ תְּחִלָּה לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ.סה אֲבָל בִּסְתָם אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא נִמְלָךְ, כִּי רְגִילוּת הוּא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בַּסְּעוּדָה (ד) אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל סו,36 לִשְׁרוֹת הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו.סז,37 וְלָכֵן הַמַּבְדִּיל עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ סָמוּךְ לִסְעוּדָתוֹ וּבִמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה סח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.סט

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים,ע שֶׁיֵּין הַבְדָּלָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ בָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה עא – אֵינוֹ פּוֹטֵר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבַּסְּעוּדָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִבְדִּיל עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ מַמָּשׁ,38 דְּהַיְנוּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ לַסְּעוּדָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,עב אוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנָּטַליָדָיו,עג (ה) שֶׁנְּטִילַת יָדַיִם הִיא הַתְחָלַת קְבִיעוּת הַסְּעוּדָה,עד,39 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָשַׁב בַּשֻּׁלְחָן עֲדַיִן, וַאֲפִלּוּ נָטַל יָדָיו וְהִבְדִּיל בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר עה,40 (וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר).עו,41

וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּבְדִּיל קֹדֶם שֶׁקּוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ לִסְעוּדָה – יְכַוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לִפְטֹר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה. וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁלֹּא כִּוֵּן לְכָךְ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁסְּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.עז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיֵין הַבְדָּלָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ שַׁיָּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה,42 אֲבָל יֵין קִדּוּשׁ הוֹאִיל וְהוּא שַׁיָּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה עח,43 – פּוֹטֵר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,עט אֲפִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ לַסְּעוּדָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּיִן זֶה אֵינוֹ לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה.פ (ו) וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן יַיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בְּחֹל44 שֶׁהוּא לִשְׁתִיָּה45 שֶׁפּוֹטֵר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אֲפִלּוּ אִם בֵּרַךְ עָלָיו קֹדֶם שֶׁקָּבַע עַצְמוֹ33 לַסְּעוּדָה.פא,46

(וְהוּא שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר שֶׁסּוֹעֵד בּוֹ, אֲבָל מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר פב – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁתָה כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב לְבָרֵךְ "בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג'" פג,47 וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ח.פד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר, אִם יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ בֵּינְתַיִם וְחָזַר – הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּמֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם).פה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּסְתָם, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן בְּחֶדֶר זֶה לִפְטֹר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁיִּסְעֹד בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר פו – פּוֹטֵר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם שְׁנֵי הַחֲדָרִים הֵם בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם: פז,48

6 Whenever [the blessing over] wine that one drinks before a meal covers wine that one drinks during a meal, it is not necessary to recite a blessing after the wine at all. This applies even if, before the meal, one drank an amount of wine that would require such a blessing. [The rationale: The wine before the meal] is covered by the Grace after Meals just like the wine he drank during the meal.49 Since they were covered by the same blessing recited before drinking, they are considered a single act of drinking [and, hence, covered by Grace].

When, however, a person recites Havdalah before partaking of a meal50 and had the intent not to cover the wine he would drink during the meal, or he did not intend to drink wine during the meal, he is required to recite a blessing after the wine he drank before the meal, if he drank a measure that requires such a blessing.47 (If he forgot and did not recite this blessing before the meal and remembered before he recited Grace, he must recite the blessing Al hagefen immediately.)51 If he did not remember until after he recited Grace, he need not recite the blessing [Al hagefen], for, after the fact, Grace also covers one’s responsibility fortheone blessing that encapsulates three, [in this instance, the blessing Al hagefen], as will be explained.52

When does the above apply? With regard to the wine of Havdalah,which a person drinks solely because of the mitzvah. When, however, one drinks wine before his meal during the week, he is not required to recite the blessing [Al hagefen] afterwards, even if he has no intent of drinking wine in the midst of the meal. [The rationale:] The wine consumed before the meal comes to stimulate a person’s digestive system [and] arouse his appetite. [Thus,] it is [considered] part of the meal and is covered by Grace like other foods that are served because of the meal. The same law applies to [other] alcoholic beverages.

In contrast, one who drinks other beverages before a meal during the week must recite a blessing after drinking them,53 even if he intended to drink [these beverages] during the meal as well. [The rationale:] The blessing recited before partaking of these beverages before the meal does not cover the beverages he drinks during the meal, for the beverages he drinks during the meal do not require a blessing at all. (If he forgot and did not recite a blessing [after drinking] and only remembered afterwards — even after Grace — he must recite the blessing. For Grace does not cover the blessing Borei nefashos rabbos, even after the fact.)

ו וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה פּוֹטֵר אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּלָל,פח אֲפִלּוּ שָׁתָה לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה כַּשִּׁעוּר, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָר הוּא בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּמוֹ הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה פט,49 שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם הֵם שְׁתִיָּה אַחַת,צ כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּפְטְרוּ בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה אַחַת. אֲבָל הַמַּבְדִּיל לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה צא,50 וְכִוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לִפְטֹר הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּלָל לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה צב – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה צג אִם שָׁתָה כַּשִּׁעוּר צד,47 (וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ מִיָּד "מֵעֵין ג'").צה,51 וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן פּוֹטֶרֶת "מֵעֵין ג'" עַל הַיַּיִן בְּדִיעֲבַד,צו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.צז,52

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיֵין הַבְדָּלָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה,צח אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹתֶה יַיִן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בְּחֹל – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּלָל לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בָּא לִפְתֹּחַ בְּנֵי מֵעַיִם לְהַמְשִׁיךְ אָדָם לְתַאֲוַת אֲכִילָה, וּמִכְּלַל הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא, לָכֵן נִפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה.צט וְהוּא הַדִּין לְיֵין שָׂרָף.ק

אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹתֶה (ז) שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה בְּחֹל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶם,53 וַאֲפִלּוּ דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת גַּם כֵּן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ פּוֹטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה אֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֵין צְרִיכִים בְּרָכָה כְּלָל קא (וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ וְנִזְכַּר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ פּוֹטֶרֶת "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד): קב

7 When does the above apply? When one does not have a cup of wine over which to recite the Grace after Meals. If, however, he intends to recite Grace over a cup of wine,54 even as an initial preference, it is not necessary to recite a blessing after partaking of the beverages that one drinks before the meal, because they are covered by the blessing that one will recite after the cup [of wine] over which he recites Grace.55

Nevertheless, one should drink less than a reviis before the meal and, in that way, remove any doubt [about the necessity of making a blessing after drinking]. If one did drink a reviis, he should recite Grace over a cup [of wine] so that he will recite a blessing after partaking of it, thereby covering the beverages he drank before the meal. [In this way,] he will remove the doubt raised by those author­ities who require a blessing [to be recited over] beverages [consumed during a meal] as explained.56 For, according to their words, it is not necessary to recite a blessing after partaking of the beverages one drank before the meal because [reciting the blessing before partaking of] them exempts one from reciting a blessing before partaking of beverages during the meal.57

ז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲבָל אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל הַכּוֹס54 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה קג אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בִּבְרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אַחַר הַכּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.קד,55

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יִשְׁתֶּה פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קה וּבָזֶה יִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק. וְאִם שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית – יִהְיֶה לוֹ כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה לִפְטֹר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁשָּׁתָה לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קו אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִסְּפֵק קז סְבָרַת הַמַּצְרִיכִים בְּרָכָה לְמַשְׁקִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קח,56 שֶׁלְּפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחַר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם פּוֹטְרִים אֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה:57

8 All of the above applies during the week. On Shabbos and festivals, by contrast, when one recites Kiddush on a cup [of wine] — or even on other beverages58 — all authorities agree that it is not necessary to recite a blessing afterwards.59 [The rationale:] Kiddush may be recited only in the place of a meal.43 Therefore, [the wine] is covered by the Grace after Meals, like wine that one drinks before the meal that comes because of the meal.

[The wine of Kiddush] is not comparable to foods that are served because of the meal, [but] after the [main part of the] meal, before Grace. For example, in [the Talmudic]era, before the end of the meal, it was common [for the participants in a meal] to cease partaking of bread and sit down to partake of fruit and beverages. [They would also partake] of all [types of food] that were served then, even foods that are served because of a meal, e.g., types of accompanying foods or vegetables that are eaten for the sake of nourishment and satiation and not as dessert [which is eaten] for the sake of pleasure. Despite that intent, it is required to recite a blessing after partaking of them and they are not covered by Grace, since they were not served during the main part of the meal, [when bread was served], as will be explained in sec. 177[:6]. Any food that comes after [the participants in the meal] have ceased partaking of bread is not considered as secondary to the bread and thus is not covered by its blessings, HaMotzi and Grace.

When, by contrast, foods are served because of the meal when [the participants are still] intending to partake of bread and have not withdrawn their attention from it, even though they have yet to partake of it, these foods are considered secondary to it and are covered by the blessing recited after it. [This logic] does not apply with regard to the blessing recited before them, lest one benefit from this world without reciting a blessing, as stated there.60

ח וְכָל זֶה בְּחֹל, אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו קט לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,59 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין,קי,58 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא שַׁיָּךְ לַסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָה,43 וְלָכֵן נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּמוֹ יַיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁהוּא בָּא מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה.קיא

וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִדְבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה לְאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים בִּימֵיהֶם אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה לִמְשֹׁךְ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת וְלִקְבֹּעַ לַאֲכִילַת פֵּרוֹת וְלִשְׁתִיָּה, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּבִיאִים אָז לִפְנֵיהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה, כְּגוֹן מִינֵי לִפְתָּן וּמִינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱכָלִים לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע וְלֹא לְקִנּוּחַ וּלְתַעֲנוּג, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טְעוּנִים גַּם בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, וְאֵינָן נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא בָּאוּ בְּתוֹךְ עִקַּר הַסְּעוּדָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז,קיב לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁבָּא לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר סִלְּקוּ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת, אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב טָפֵל לַפַּת לְהִפָּטֵר עִמָּהּ בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁהֵן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲבָל דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁדַּעְתָּם עַל הַפַּת וְאֵין יְדֵיהֶם מְסֻלָּקוֹת הֵימֶנָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְחִילוּ בָּהּ – הֵם טְפֵלִים אֵלֶיהָ לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכָתָהּ מִבְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה.קיג

אֲבָל לֹא מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, (ח)קיד שֶׁלֹּא לֵהָנוֹת מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה בִּתְחִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם: קטו,60

9 Even when wine is served after [the participants in the meal] ceased partaking of bread, one need not recite a blessing afterwards, for it is covered by the Grace after Meals, even though it is not considered as part of the meal per se. [The rationale:] Since wine satiates the heart, it would have been appropriate to ordain the recitation of three full blessings after partaking of it, as was done for bread. Nevertheless, since [generally] people are not accustomed to serving wine as the basis of a meal, it is sufficient to recite the blessing Al hagefen afterwards.61 When, however, one drinks wine after sitting down for a meal,33 it is considered as if he sat down to drink as well as to eat. [Therefore, the wine] is covered by Grace, even as an initial preference. By contrast, other beverages that are consumed after the [main body of the] meal, when [the partici­pants] have already withdrawn their attention from bread, require that a blessing be recited after partaking of them.62 Further in this text, sec.177[:6], it is explained whether this law concerning [beverages served] after a meal is relevant in these countries.63

(Even in [the Talmudic] era,) it was not necessary to recite a blessing before partaking of wine served after the meal,64 before Grace, because it is covered by the blessing recited over wine recited before the meal:65

a) if the person had the intent to drink wine after the meal when he recited that blessing, or b) on the following days — Shabbos, festivals, a day on which one let blood or entered a bathhouse — even when he did not have a specific intent,66 because it is common practice to make wine a fundamental element of one’s meal on such days.

[This ruling applies] even in places where wine is not so commonly available. On these days, a person is not considered as one who [had decided not to drink and then] changed his mind [and decided to drink again], unless he is certain that he did change his mind.

If, however, one only recited a blessing over wine during the meal, but did not recite a blessing over it before the meal, it does not cover wine he drinks after the meal, unless he explicitly intended to cover it [when he originally recited that blessing. The rationale:] Wine that one drinks during the meal is of an inferior [halachic] status, for one does not partake of it for the sake of drinking per se, but to saturate the food he has eaten. For, [in the Talmudicera,] it was common to drink only a small amount of wine in the midst of the meal in order to saturate [one’s food]. Wine served after the meal, by contrast, [is considered significant, because] one drinks it for the sake of drinking per se. It is not fitting that [the blessing recited for drinking of an inferior halachic status] cover drinking that is significant [and thus of superior halachic status] without one having an explicit intent.67

At present, our practice is not to withdraw our attention from bread until after Grace.68 [Accordingly,] even wine served [before Grace] after the conclusion of the meal is considered as coming to saturate one’s food. Thus it is covered by the blessing recited over wine during the meal.

(Large feasts are an exception to the above. [At such gatherings,] it is common practice to withdraw one’s attention from bread, prepare a table with sweets, and sit down to drink before reciting Grace. [In such a situation,] the wine served is not covered by the blessing one recited over wine in the midst of a meal, unless one explicitly intended to do so.69

There is no need, however, to recite a blessing on other beverages, just as there is no need to recite a blessing on other foods that are served because of the meal, when served after the meal [before Grace]. For the reason explained [above],70 they are covered by the blessing HaMotzi.

In places where it is not common at large feasts to sit down to drink after the meal, but before the recitation of Grace, even though wine is consumed at the end of the meal when sweets are eaten, since the people do not sit down to drink, there is no need to recite another blessing. For this drinking is also considered as necessary for the meal and, [it is assumed that] at the outset, when a person recited the blessing over wine during the meal, he had the intent to cover this wine as well.)

All of the above applies to wine that one drinks after the meal [and before Grace]. One blessing is sufficient for any wine that one drinks during the meal, even if one had no specific intent [when reciting the blessing], unless one knows that [he resolved not to drink anymore and then] changed his mind, [and decided to resume drinking].71

ט וַאֲפִלּוּ יַיִן הַבָּא לִפְנֵיהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר מָשְׁכוּ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,קטז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב מִכְּלַל הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיַּיִן סוֹעֵד הַלֵּב – הָיָה רָאוּי לְתַקֵּן לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו שָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת כְּמוֹ אַחַר הַפַּת, אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עָלָיו דַּי לוֹ בְּ"מֵעֵין ג'",קיז,61 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֵהוּ בִּסְעוּדָה שֶׁל קֶבַע, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִיא קְבִיעוּת לַאֲכִילָה33 – הֲרֵי זוֹ קְבִיעוּת לִשְׁתִיָּה,קיח וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קיט אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה.קכ

אֲבָל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה לְאַחַר שֶׁמָּשְׁכוּ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת – טְעוּנִים בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם קכא,62.

וּלְקַמָּן סִימָן קע"ז קכב יִתְבָּאֵר אִם שַׁיָּךְ בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ דִּין זֶה שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה.63

(וְאַף בִּימֵיהֶם) לֹא הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה64 קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה,קכג,65 אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ אָז לִשְׁתּוֹת גַּם אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה,קכד אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְתָם, אִם הוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב קכה אוֹ יוֹם הַקָּזָה אוֹ יוֹם שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמֶּרְחָץ, שֶׁסְּתָם כָּל אָדָם דַּרְכּוֹ לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָתוֹ עַל הַיַּיִן בְּיָמִים אֵלּוּ,קכו,66 אַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַיַּיִן מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ,קכז וְלָכֵן אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא נִמְלָךְ מִן הַסְּתָם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹדֵעַ בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא נִמְלַךְ.קכח

אֲבָל אִם לֹא בֵּרַךְ עַל יַיִן לִפְנֵי הַסְּעוּדָה אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵינוֹ פּוֹטֵר בִּסְתָם אֶת הַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה,קכט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְכַּוֵּן לְפָטְרוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ,קל לְפִי שֶׁהַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שְׁתִיָּתוֹ גְּרוּעָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לִשְׁרוֹת הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו,קלא שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ רְגִילִין לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אֶלָּא מְעַט לִשְׁרוֹת בִּלְבַד,קלב וְהַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא בָּא לִשְׁתִיָּה, וְאֵינוֹ בְּדִין שֶׁיִּפְטֹר הַגָּרוּעַ אֶת הֶחָשׁוּב קלג שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה.קלד,67

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ רְגִילִים לִמְשֹׁךְ יָדֵינוּ מִן הַפַּת עַד בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן68 – הֲרֵי גַּם הַיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה הוּא בָּא לִשְׁרוֹת, וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת יַיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.קלה

(רַק (ט) בִּסְעוּדוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת שֶׁרְגִילִים לִמְשֹׁךְ יְדֵיהֶם מִן הַפַּת וְלַעֲרֹךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּמִינֵי מְגָדִים וְלִקְבֹּעַ שְׁתִיָּה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קלו – אֵין הַיַּיִן נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְפָטְרוֹ.קלז,69

אֲבָל עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁמְּבִיאִים אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא",קלח מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קלט,70

אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם לִקְבֹּעַ שְׁתִיָּה אַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בִּסְעוּדוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת, אַף שֶׁשּׁוֹתִין יַיִן בִּגְמַר הַסְּעוּדָה כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִין מִינֵי מְגָדִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין קוֹבְעִין עַצְמָן לִשְׁתִיָּה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, כִּי גַּם שְׁתִיָּה זוֹ הִיא צֹרֶךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, וּמִתְּחִלָּה הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ גַּם עָלֶיהָ לְפָטְרָהּ בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה).קמ

וְכָל זֶה בַּיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעוּדָה, אֲבָל כָּל מַה שֶּׁשּׁוֹתֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה דַּי לוֹ בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְתָם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא נִמְלַךְ: קמא,71

10 Even when a person’s decision [whether or not to drink more does not depend on his [will alone] and hence,] is unresolved [in his mind, drinking again] is considered a change of mind.72 For example, a person entered a friend’s home where a group of people were assembled to drink. He was given a cup [of wine] and he recited a blessing upon it. Afterwards, he was given a second cup. He is required to recite a blessing on the second cup as well. [The rationale:] When he recited the blessing on the first cup, he did not know if he would be given another, since he had not sat down to drink33 with them. [Indeed,] even if before he finished drinking the first cup, he was already given a second cup of wine while he still had some wine in the first cup, he is required to recite another blessing on the second cup given to him.73

In contrast, when someone sat down [to drink]33 together with those assembled and another cup was brought to him while he still had wine from the first cup, [he need not recite another blessing]. True, he did not know whether more wine would be served at this meal after they had already begun drinking, (nor did [the others assembled] know whether more wine would be brought, as will be explained in sec. 206[:9]).74 Nevertheless, since he sat down [to drink] with those assembled and a fixed setting may be established [to drink] wine, it is considered that, initially, his intent was that [if more cups of wine would be] brought to him, he would drink them as well. [The rationale:] at times, a person sits down to drink wine and then is drawn from drinking one [cup] to drinking another and thus he may drink more than what was prepared originally. Hence, [when he continues drinking], he is not considered to have made a new decision [to drink], for he knew that if more [wine] was brought, he would also be served some [of the additional wine] as well.

If, however, he does not know at all that he will be given [wine], he is considered to have made a new decision [to drink] because of the doubt in his mind. Similarly, at large feasts, if there are people who are unsure whether they will be given cups of wine, those in doubt must recite a blessing over each cup [that they are given].

י וַאֲפִלּוּ הַמְלָכַת סָפֵק שְׁמָהּ הַמְלָכָה,קמב,72 כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבֵית חֲבֵרוֹ וְיֵשׁ שָׁם חֲבוּרָה שֶׁמְּסֻבִּין לִשְׁתִיָּה, וְהוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ כּוֹס וּבֵרַךְ עָלָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ כּוֹס אַחֵר – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשֵּׁנִי קמג כִּי כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ אִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ עִמָּהֶם לִשְׁתִיָּה.קמד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא שָׁתָה עֲדַיִן כָּל הַכּוֹס שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ תְּחִלָּה, וְהוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ כּוֹס אַחֵר בְּעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה אֶצְלוֹ יַיִן מִכּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס הָאַחֵר שֶׁהוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ.קמה,73

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן מִי שֶׁהָיָה קָבוּעַ33 עִם הַמְסֻבִּין קמו וְהֵבִיאוּ לוֹ כּוֹס בְּעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה לְפָנָיו מִכּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ עוֹד יַיִן בִּסְעוּדָה זוֹ אַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִילוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת (וְלֹא קמז הָיוּ יוֹדְעִים אִם יָבִיאוּ עוֹד יַיִן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ו),קמח,74 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֵאַחַר שֶׁהָיָה קָבוּעַ עִם הַמְסֻבִּין, וְיֵשׁ קֶבַע לִשְׁתִיַּת יַיִן קמט שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אָדָם קוֹבֵעַ עַצְמוֹ עַל הַיַּיִן וְנִגְרָר מִשְּׁתִיָּה לִשְׁתִיָּה קנ וְשׁוֹתֶה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהֵכִין בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, הֲרֵי הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה שֶׁאִם יָבִיאוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר יִשְׁתֶּה מֵהֶם, וְאֵין זֶה נִמְלָךְ, מֵאַחַר שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאִם יָבִיאוּ עוֹד יִתְּנוּ לוֹ גַּם כֵּן.

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כְּלָל אִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְלָךְ מִסָּפֵק.קנא וְכֵן בִּסְעוּדוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת שֶׁהַמְסֻבִּים רַבִּים, וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּקִים אִם יַגִּיעַ לָהֶם הַכּוֹס – צְרִיכִים הַמְסֻפָּקִים לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל כּוֹס:

11 If, however, when he recited the blessing on the first cup [of wine], the person had the specific intent that he would include in this blessing all [the cups] that he would [subsequently] be given, he does not have to recite a blessing on the cups [of wine that] he will be given in the future. [This ruling applies] even if he is in doubt whether he will be given any more [wine] at all. His intent is that if he will be given more, he will fulfill his obligation with [the blessing made over] this cup.

Similarly, if one person recited the blessing for all participants in the manner to be explained in sec. 213[:1] and a person who is in doubt [whether or not he will receive wine] has the intent that if he is given wine, he will fulfill his obligation with the blessing recited by that person [who recited the blessing on behalf of all the participants], he need not recite a blessing on the wine that he will be served.75 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is not proper to conduct oneself in this manner, i.e., that one person should recite a blessing on behalf of others in the midst of a meal, because one’s palate is not free,76 and thus the attention [of those present] will not be focused on hearing the blessing from the person reciting it. Moreover, they will not be able to respond Amen so they can fulfill their obligation through his blessing,77 because one may not speak in the midst of eating, lest [the food] enter the windpipe rather than the esophagus and endanger the person.78

Therefore one person may recite a blessing on behalf of all the participants if he says: Savri maranan (“Attention, gentlemen”), i.e., focus your attention on the blessing so that you may fulfill your obligation. [This will enable the participants] to free their palates, take a respite from eating, and focus their attention on hearing the blessing and answering Amen. This is the common practice.

For this reason, the custom has spread universally that when a blessing is recited on wine, e.g., Kiddush or Havdalah, and one person recites the blessing so that all assembled can fulfill their obligation through his blessing, he says Savri maranan [(“Attention, gentlemen”)], and not Bereshus maranan (“With your permission, gentlemen”),79 so as not to make a distinction with regard to the blessing recited on wine whether it is recited outside a meal or over wine that comes during a meal.

Sections 175 and 176 [of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch] are not extant. Nevertheless, one who seeks to understand the fundamental principles involved can find them in [Seder Birkas HaNehenin in the Alter Rebbe’s] Siddur. There everything is stated and fully explained. What is relevant to sec. 175 [in accord with the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro] can be found in ch. 12, laws 13-21. What is relevant to sec. 176 [in accord with the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro] is found in ch. 4, from law 11 until the end of that chapter.80

יא אֲבָל אִם הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַכּוֹס הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּבִרְכָתוֹ עַל כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּתְּנוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה סָפֵק לוֹ אִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁאִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ יוֹתֵר יֵצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס הָאַחֵר שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ.קנב

וְכֵן אִם בֵּרַךְ אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"ג,קנג וְנִתְכַּוֵּן הַמְסֻפָּק שֶׁאִם יִתְּנוּ לוֹ יֵצֵא בְּבִרְכָתוֹ שֶׁל הַמְבָרֵךְ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיטוּ לוֹ.קנד,75

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה קנה אֵין לִנְהֹג כָּךְ שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אֶחָד לְכֻלָּם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,קנו מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵין בֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה פָּנוּי,קנז,76 וְאֵין דַּעְתָּם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַבְּרָכָה מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ,קנח וְגַם לֹא יוּכְלוּ לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן קנט שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ בְּבִרְכָתוֹ,קס,77 כִּי אֵין מְשִׂיחִין בַּסְּעוּדָה, שֶׁמָּא יַקְדִּים קָנֶה לְוֶשֶׁט וְנִמְצָא בָּא לִידֵי סַכָּנָה.קסא,78

לְפִיכָךְ, אִם אוֹמֵר לָהֶם: "סַבְרִי מָרָנָן", כְּלוֹמַר תְּנוּ דַּעְתְּכֶם לַבְּרָכָה לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבַתְכֶם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּפַנּוּ בֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה וְיָנִיחוּ אֲכִילָתָם וְיִתְּנוּ דַּעְתָּם לִשְׁמֹעַ הַבְּרָכָה וְיַעֲנוּ אָמֵן – אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם.קסב וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין.קסג

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן, כְּגוֹן בְּקִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, אִם אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם לָצֵאת בְּבִרְכָתוֹ – אוֹמֵר "סַבְרִי מָרָנָן",קסד וְלֹא "בִּרְשׁוּת מָרָנָן",קסה,79 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲלֹק בְּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן בֵּין אִם מְבָרְכִין שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַסְּעוּדָה וּבֵין יַיִן הַבָּא לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה: קסו

חָסֵר בַּהֶעְתֵּק סִימָן קע"ה וקע"ו. אַךְ הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲמֹד עַל עִקָּרָן שֶׁל דְּבָרִים, יִמְצָא בַּסִּדּוּר [לְקַמָּן בְּסֵדֶר בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַכֶּרֶךְ], הַכֹּל כָּתוּב וּמְפֹרָשׁ בְּלִי שׁוּם חִסָּרוֹן, דְּהַיְנוּ מַה שֶּׁשַּׁיָּךְ לְסִימָן קע"ה יִמְצָא בְּפֶרֶק י"ב מִסְּעִיף י"ג עַד סְעִיף (י"ט) [כ"א], וּמַה שֶּׁשַּׁיָּךְ לְסִימָן קע"ו יִמְצָא בְּפֶרֶק ד' מִסְּעִיף י"א עַד סוֹף הַפֶּרֶק.80