SECTION 168 [Rulings] Regarding the Loaves on which to Recite the Blessing [HaMotzi]. (1–23)

קסח עַל אֵיזֶה מִינֵי פַּת מְבָרְכִין, וּבוֹ כ"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 If both a sliced piece of bread and a whole loaf were brought before a person, the optimal manner of performing the mitzvah is to recite the blessing over the whole loaf.1 This applies even if the whole loaf is made from coarse flour and is small, while the slice is made from fine flour and is larger than the whole loaf.

The above applies provided both are made from the same species of grain. If, however, the whole loaf is made from barley and the sliced piece from wheat, even if the slice is small, it is given precedence with regard to the blessing. [The rationale:] The verse that relates the seven species for which Eretz Yisrael was praised mentions wheat first;2 any species that is mentioned earlier in the verse is given precedence with regard to the blessing, as stated in sec. 211.3 Nevertheless, a G‑d-fearing person should satisfy both opinions [by] placing the slice within the whole loaf4 and slice5 a piece from both at the same time. [This course of action is followed] because barley is also one of the seven species [for which Eretz Yisrael was praised] and the loaf of barley bread is whole. If, however, the whole loaf is made from rye, even though it is a sub-species of barley,6 since it is not mentioned explicitly in the verse as wheat is, there is no need at all to place [the loaf made from] it next to the sliced piece [made from] wheat.

א הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל פַּת וּפַת שְׁלֵמָה – מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַשְּׁלֵמָה,א,1 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא פַּת קִבָּר ב וּקְטַנָּה ג וְהַחֲתִיכָה פַּת נְקִיָּה וּגְדוֹלָה מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה.

וְהוּא שֶׁהַכֹּל מִין אֶחָד, אֲבָל אִם הַשְּׁלֵמָה מִשְּׂעוֹרִים וְהַחֲתִיכָה מֵחִטִּים,ד אֲפִלּוּ הִיא פְּרוּסָה קְטַנָּה ה – הִיא קוֹדֶמֶת לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ,1 הוֹאִיל וְהַחִטָּה מֻקְדֶּמֶת בַּפָּסוּק, בְּשִׁבְעַת הַמִּינִין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּבְּחָה בָּהֶם אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל,ו,2 וְכָל הַמֻּקְדָּם בְּפָסוּק זֶה – מֻקְדָּם לִבְרָכָה,ז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"א.ח,3 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן,ט שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ הַפְּרוּסָה בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁלֵמָה4 וּבוֹצֵעַ י,5 מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן יַחַד,יא,1 הוֹאִיל וְגַם הַשְּׂעוֹרָה הִיא מִז' הַמִּינִין וְהִיא שְׁלֵמָה. אֲבָל אִם הַשְּׁלֵמָה הִיא שֶׁל שִׁיפוֹן,יב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִין שְׂעוֹרִים,יג,6 כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּירוֹ הַכָּתוּב בְּפֵרוּשׁ כְּמוֹ חִטִּים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחוֹ כְּלָל עִם הַפְּרוּסָה שֶׁל חִטִּים: יד

2 All the above applies provided one desires to partake of both [types of bread]. If, however, he only desires to partake of one of them, he should recite the blessing on it and not be concerned about the other, even though the other type [is made from a species] mentioned earlier in the [abovementioned] verse, is [generally] more important, and/or is more cherished by the person himself. For he is not obligated to partake of it because it is mentioned earlier [in the verse] or because it is more important. Needless to say, if he desires to partake [only] of [the bread made from the species] mentioned earlier in the verse, he need not be concerned about the other loaf, even though it is whole. For he is not obligated to partake of it [simply] because it is whole. Even if he desires to eat a sliced piece of bread that is not made from one of the seven species,7 he is still not obligated to partake of the whole loaf [made from wheat or barley, simply] because it is whole and more important.

ב וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל אֶלָּא מֵאַחַת מֵהֶן – יְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ, וְאֵין לוֹ לָחֹשׁ לְהַשֵּׁנִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מֻקְדֶּמֶת בַּפָּסוּק וְהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה וַחֲבִיבָה עָלָיו, שֶׁמִּשּׁוּם קְדִימָתָהּ וַחֲשִׁיבוּתָהּ אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּה כְּלָל.טו וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל הַמֻּקְדֶּמֶת בַּפָּסוּק, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לָחֹשׁ לַשֵּׁנִית הַשְּׁלֵמָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּה מִשּׁוּם שְׁלֵמוּתָהּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל פְּרוּסָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִז' הַמִּינִים טז,7 – אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּה מִפְּנֵי שְׁלֵמוּתָהּ וַחֲשִׁיבוּתָהּ:

3 If a person has two half loaves of bread, but lacks a whole loaf [with which to fulfill the obligation of] two [whole] loaves on Shabbos, he should join them together with a piece of wood that is considered a k’li, [a useful article,]8 or with another article that is not muktzeh,in a manner that their attachment is not apparent. This loaf is considered as whole with regard to [the obligation of] two [whole] loaves, just as it is considered as a whole loaf with regard to eruv chatzeiros [joining homes in a courtyard together as a single domain],9 as explained in sec. 366:[10].

If, however, a person has a whole loaf, he may not rely on this ploy, for it could be said that [such a “loaf”] is considered as whole only with regard to eruv chatzeiros, for in that instance, a whole loaf was required only [to avoid] strife, i.e., lest one homeowner complain: “I gave a whole loaf while you only gave a slice.” As long as the joining of the pieces is not apparent there is no need for concern. With regard to [the obligation of] two [whole] loaves on Shabbos, by contrast, [it could be said] that the [joined] pieces are not considered as a whole loaf, just as joining them in this manner does not cause them to be considered as one loaf with regard to the laws of ritual impurity and purity.10 During the week, there is no need to join them at all.

ג אִם יֵשׁ לְאָדָם ב' חֲצָאֵי לֶחֶם וְאֵין לוֹ לֶחֶם שָׁלֵם לְלֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת – יְחַבְּרֵם יַחַד בְּעֵץ יז שֶׁיֵּשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי8 עָלָיו, אוֹ בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקְצֶה,יח וְלֹא יְהֵא חִבּוּרָם נִרְאֶה,יט וְדִינוֹ כְּשָׁלֵם לְעִנְיַן לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁדִּינוֹ כְּשָׁלֵם לְעִנְיַן עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת,9 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שס"ו.כ אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ לֶחֶם שָׁלֵם – אֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל זֶה, כִּי יֵשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב כְּשָׁלֵם כא אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת בִּלְבַד, שֶׁלֹּא הִצְרִיכוּ בּוֹ שָׁלֵם אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם אֵיבָה בִּלְבַד, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא אֶחָד לוֹמַר: אֲנִי נוֹתֵן שָׁלֵם וְאַתָּה נוֹתֵן פְּרוּסָה,כב וּכְשֶׁאֵין חִבּוּרוֹ נִרְאֶה – אֵין לָחֹשׁ לְכָךְ, אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב כְּשָׁלֵם עַל יְדֵי חִבּוּר זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב כִּכָּר אֶחָד לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה עַל יְדֵי חִבּוּר זֶה.כג,10 וּבְחֹל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְחַבְּרוֹ כְּלָל: כד

4 When two rolls are attached to each other, i.e., they were baked together in an oven and became attached there, if one had been sliced, while the other remained whole, it is preferable to separate the sliced loaf from the whole loaf so that [the latter loaf] will appear whole instead of leaving them attached [and having it appear sliced], even though it appears larger. [This ruling is supported by the law11 that] a small, whole loaf is given precedence over a larger slice of bread with regard to the recitation of the blessing. Nevertheless, [after reciting the HaMotzi] one should not slice the whole loaf from the place where it was attached to the other piece, because that part appears to have been [previously] sliced. Instead, one should slice it from the place where it appears whole.

With regard to a sliced loaf, however, there is no need to be careful to slice it [after reciting the HaMotzi] from the side where it is [still] whole. For, regardless, it has already been sliced on the opposite side. The loaf that has been separated from another, by contrast, is truly whole. It merely appears to be sliced at the place where [the other loaf originally] had been attached [to it] and was separated.

ד שְׁתֵּי גְּלוּסְקָאוֹת הַדְּבוּקוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱפוּ וְנִדְבְּקוּ בַּתַּנּוּר כָּךְ, וְנֶחְתַּךְ מִן הָאַחַת וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה נִשְׁאֲרָה שְׁלֵמָה – טוֹב יוֹתֵר לְהַפְרִיד הַחֲתִיכָה מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא נִרְאֵית שְׁלֵמָה, מִמַּה שֶּׁיַּנִּיחֶנָּה דְּבוּקָה בָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּרְאֵית יוֹתֵר גְּדוֹלָה,כה,11 שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁלֵמָה קְטַנָּה קוֹדֶמֶת לִבְרָכָה מִפְּרוּסָה גְּדוֹלָה.כו מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַל יִבְצַע מִמֶּנָּה בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיְתָה דְּבוּקָה בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, שֶׁשָּׁם נִרְאֵית כִּפְרוּסָה, אֶלָּא יִבְצַע מִמָּקוֹם הַשָּׁלֵם שֶׁבָּהּ.כז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בַּפְּרוּסָה מַמָּשׁ אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה לִבְצֹעַ בַּצַּד הַשָּׁלֵם שֶׁבָּהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִכָּל מָקוֹם פְּרוּסָה הִיא מִצַּד שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּגְלוּסְקָא שֶׁנִּפְרְדָה מֵחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, שֶׁשְּׁלֵמָה הִיא אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּרְאֵית כִּפְרוּסָה בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּדְבְּקָה וְנִפְרְדָה: כח

5 When two whole loaves or two sliced pieces were brought before a person to eat and one was large and one was small, he should recite the blessing on the larger one. [This ruling applies] provided they were both of the same species of grain and of the same grade of flour. If, however, the smaller one was from fine flour and the larger one, from coarse flour, he should recite the blessing on the one from fine flour.12 If, however, they were equal in size and they were both made from fine flour, but one was made from whiter flour than the other, he should recite the blessing on the whiter one. If the second one was not as white, but was larger than the other [whiter] one, there is a question which one receives precedence with regard to the blessing.

All of this applies with regard to bread [made] from the same species [of grain]. If, however, one loaf was made from barley and one, from spelt, he should recite the blessing on the [bread made from] barley, even though the [bread made from] spelt is of higher quality and finer. [The rationale:] Barley is explicitly mentioned as one of the seven species [for which Eretz Yisrael was praised]. Spelt, by contrast, although a subspecies of wheat and thus included [by association] in the seven species, as stated in sec. 208,13 is not mentioned explicitly in the verse as barley is.

When does the above apply? When the person likes both of them equally. If, however, he favors spelt [over barley], there are authorities who maintain that he should recite the blessing on the species he prefers. Other authorities maintain that he should recite the blessing on the species that is one of the seven mentioned in the verse, as explained in sec. 211.14

ה הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו לֶאֱכֹל שְׁתֵּי שְׁלֵמוֹת אוֹ שְׁתֵּי פְּרוּסוֹת, אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה וְאַחַת קְטַנָּה – מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַגְּדוֹלָה.כט,1 וְהוּא שֶׁשְּׁתֵּיהֶן מִמִּין אֶחָד וְשָׁווֹת בִּנְקִיּוּת, אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה ל הַקְּטַנָּה לא פַּת נְקִיָּה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה פַּת קִבָּר לב – מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַנְּקִיָּה.12 אֲבָל לג אִם שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת בְּגַדְלוּתָן וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן נְקִיּוֹת, רַק שֶׁזּוֹ לְבָנָה יוֹתֵר מִזּוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַלְּבָנָה יוֹתֵר.לד אֲבָל אִם הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לְבָנָה כָּל כָּךְ הִיא גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אֵיזֶה מֵהֶן קוֹדֶמֶת לִבְרָכָה.לה

וְכָל זֶה בְּמִין אֶחָד, אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים וְאֶחָד שֶׁל כֻּסְּמִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכֻּסְּמִין יָפִים וּנְקִיִּים מִשְּׂעוֹרִים – מְבָרֵךְ עַל שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים,לו לְפִי שֶׁהַשְּׂעוֹרָה מְפֹרֶשֶׁת בְּז' הַמִּינִים, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כֻּסְּמִין שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵן מִין חִטִּים וּמִכְּלַל ז' הַמִּינִים הֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ח לז,13 – לֹא הִזְכִּירָם הַכָּתוּב בְּפֵרוּשׁ כִּשְׂעוֹרִים.לח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁשְּׁתֵּיהֶן חֲבִיבוֹת עָלָיו בְּשָׁוֶה, אֲבָל אִם שֶׁל כֻּסְּמִין חָבִיב עָלָיו יוֹתֵר – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים לט שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל הֶחָבִיב, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מ שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל מִין ז' שֶׁבַּפָּסוּק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"א: מא,14

6 When a loaf of bread baked by a non-Jew15 and another baked by a Jew were brought before a person, he should recite the blessing on the loaf baked by the Jew, even if [generally] he is not meticulous about [refraining from eating] bread baked by a non-Jew. Should the bread baked by a non-Jew be made from fine flour and the bread baked by a Jew be made from coarse flour, he may recite the blessing on whichever bread he desires, if both loaves are whole — or both sliced — equal in size, and of the same species [of grain].

[The above applies] provided the person is not meticulous about [avoiding] bread baked by a non-Jew. If, however, he is meticulous about [avoiding] such bread, he should not break bread on it in any instance. Other authorities maintain that even if [generally] he is meticulous about [avoiding] such bread, he is permitted to break bread on [the non-Jew’s loaf] if it is made from fine flour and desired by him. [They explain] that the prohibition against partaking of a non-Jew’s bread is slight and was relaxed because of the dearness of the mitzvah, [i.e.,] to allow the person to recite a blessing on a loaf that he desires. [To prevent such a question from arising,] the bread baked by the non-Jew should be removed from the table until after [the recitation of] the blessing HaMotzi.

[A more lenient ruling applies] if [the head of a household] is eating with a guest who is not meticulous about [avoiding] bread baked by a non-Jew and the guest brought with him to the table a loaf of fine flour baked by a non-Jew.16 Since the guest desires to partake of the fine loaf baked by the non-Jew and he cannot partake of it without reciting a blessing, and the obligation to recite the blessing is incumbent on the head of the household,17 permission is granted to the head of the household to break bread [and recite the blessing HaMotzi] over [the bread baked by the non-Jew] because of the dearness of the mitzvah. Since he was permitted to break bread with that loaf, he is permitted to eat from it during the entire meal, for it is an expression of disrespect for G‑d to recite a blessing on this [loaf] and then refrain from partaking of it [during the rest of the meal].

[This conclusion could be disputed, because] one is required to recite a blessing on the more important and more desired [loaf] only when one wants to partake of it. This householder, however, is meticulous about [avoiding] bread baked by a non-Jew and does not want to partake of it at all. Nevertheless, [it could be argued that he should recite the blessing over the bread baked by the non-Jew for the following reason:] Were he not meticulous about [avoiding] such [bread], he would have considered it more important and more desirable. It is only that the prohibition [against eating such bread] prevents him from [partaking of] it. If he could find a rationale that would enable him to eat it while permitted, e.g., the present instance when the Sages grant him license to partake of it so that he would cherish the mitzvah, [he would do so].

[The underlying principle is that] all of the Birchos HaNehenin are dependent on a person cherishing [the object or activity on which he is reciting the blessing]. For he is blessing and praising the Holy One, blessed be He, for granting him the satisfaction that he cherishes. [It thus follows] that if, without taking the prohibition [against partaking of bread baked by a non-Jew] into consideration, he would not view the bread [baked by] the non-Jew as more important than the bread [baked by] the Jew, he must recite the blessing on the bread [baked by] the Jew.

The converse is also true. If the head of the household is not meticulous about [avoiding] bread [baked by] a non-Jew and his intent is to eat only bread [baked by] a non-Jew [at this meal] because it is of higher quality, but the members of his household eat lower-quality bread [baked by] a Jew [rather than higher-quality bread baked by a non-Jew], he must break bread over the higher-quality bread [baked by] the non-Jew, even though both loaves are before him [at that time. The rationale:] His intent is to eat from it alone and he prefers it. Although the members of his household will partake of the bread [baked by] the Jew, that is of no consequence, for he is the one breaking bread.

ו הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו לֶאֱכֹל פַּת נָכְרִי15 וּפַת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – מְבָרֵךְ עַל שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מב אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ נִזְהָר מִפַּת נָכְרִים. וְאִם פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִי פַּת נְקִיָּה וּפַת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל פַּת קִבָּר – מְבָרֵךְ עַל אֵיזֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה,מג אִם שְׁתֵּיהֶן שְׁלֵמוֹת אוֹ פְּרוּסוֹת וְשָׁווֹת בְּגָדְלָן וְהֵן מִמִּין אֶחָד.מד

וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִזְהָר מִפַּת נָכְרִים,מה אֲבָל הַנִּזְהָר מִמֶּנָּה – לֹא יִבְצַע מִמֶּנָּה בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָן.מו וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מז שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נִזְהָר מִמֶּנָּה – רַשַּׁאי לִבְצֹעַ מִמֶּנָּה אִם הִיא נְקִיָּה וַחֲבִיבָה עָלָיו, שֶׁאִסּוּר פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים הוּא אִסּוּר קַל,מח וְהִתִּירוּהוּ מִשּׁוּם חִבּוּב מִצְוָה, שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ עַל הֶחָבִיב עָלָיו,מט וְיֵשׁ לְסַלֵּק הַפַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים מִן הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא".נ

וְאִם מֵסֵב עִמּוֹ אוֹרֵחַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִזְהָר מִפַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים וְהֵבִיא עִמּוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִי נְקִיָּה,נא,16 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָאוֹרֵחַ חָפֵץ לֶאֱכֹל הַיָּפֶה שֶׁל נָכְרִים, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, וּבִרְכָתוֹ מֻטֶּלֶת עַל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת17 לְהוֹצִיאוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ נב – הֻתְּרָה גַּם לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת לִבְצֹעַ עָלֶיהָ נג מִשּׁוּם חִבּוּב מִצְוָה.נד וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֻתַּר לוֹ לִבְצֹעַ – הֻתַּר לוֹ לְכָל סְעוּדָה זוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּבוֹד שָׁמַיִם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִפְרֹשׁ מִמֶּנָּה.נה

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הֶחָשׁוּב וְחָבִיב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּה, וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת זֶה שֶׁנִּזְהָר מִפַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל כְּלָל מִמֶּנָּה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיָה נִזְהָר מִמֶּנָּה הָיְתָה חֲשׁוּבָה וַחֲבִיבָה לוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָאִסּוּר מוֹנְעוֹ מִמֶּנָּה, לָכֵן אִם יִמְצָא עִלָּה שֶׁיּוּכַל שֶׁיֹּאכְלֶנָּה בְּהֶתֵּר, כְּגוֹן כָּאן שֶׁיְּחַבֵּב בָּהּ הַמִּצְוָה – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים, כִּי כָּל בִּרְכוֹת הַנֶּהֱנִין תְּלוּיָה בַּחֲבִיבוּת, שֶׁעַל חֲבִיבוּת הֲנָאָתוֹ הוּא מְבָרֵךְ וּמְשַׁבֵּחַ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא.נו אֲבָל אִם בְּלֹא אִסּוּר פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה עָלָיו מִפַּת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל פַּת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.נז

וְכֵן לְהֵפֶךְ, אִם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אֵינוֹ נִזְהָר מִפַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים, וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַסְּעוּדָה אֶלָּא פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִי כִּי הִיא נְקִיָּה, וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ אוֹכְלִים פַּת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נְקִיָּה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מֻנָּחִים לְפָנָיו – צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ עַל שֶׁל נָכְרִים הַנְּקִיָּה, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל אֶלָּא מִמֶּנָּה וְהִיא חֲבִיבָה עָלָיו. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ יֹאכְלוּ מִשֶּׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא הַבּוֹצֵעַ: נח

7 There is no minimum measure for which the blessing HaMotzi is required. Even if a person desires to eat only a morsel of bread that is less than an olive-sized measure,18 he is required to recite the blessing HaMotzi. The minimum [requirement] of an olive-sized measure was mentioned only with regard to the Grace after Meals19 and the other blessings recited after eating, but not with regard to the blessings recited before eating.20 For it is forbidden to receive even the slightest degree of satisfaction from this world without [first] reciting a blessing.21

ז בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר,12 שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל אֶלָּא פֵּרוּר פָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת18 – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא".נט וְלֹא נָתְנוּ שִׁעוּר כַּזַּיִת ס אֶלָּא בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן סא,19 וּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, אֲבָל לֹא בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה,סב,20 שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה.סג,21

8 When does the requirement to recite [the blessing HaMotzi] apply? To lechem gamur, “actual bread,” i.e., bread that is generally served by people as the basis of a meal.22 In contrast, the blessing HaMotzi and the Grace after Meals should not be recited on the types of baked grain products23 mentioned below24 that most people generally do not serve as the basis of a meal. Instead, [the blessing] Borei minei mezonos ([blessing G‑d] “…Who created types of nourishing food”) and the one blessing that encapsulates three25 [i.e., the blessing Al hamichyah, ([blessing G‑d] “for sustenance”)] should be recited over these baked products, unless one eats an amount that others are accustomed at times to serve as the basis of a meal. The rationale is that the blessing Borei minei mezonos also includes bread, since it is also nourishing food.26 The Sages established the obligation of reciting the blessing HaMotzi on bread only because of its importance: i.e., that it satisfies the heart.27 Thus, any type of baked grain product that people do not serve as the basis of a meal loses its unique distinction, unless [one eats] enough to satisfy himself.

Similarly, our Sages established the obligation of reciting the four blessings of Grace over bread, only because of its importance. The one blessing that encapsulates three satisfies the Scriptural obligation.28 [To explain:] Only once does the Torah state:29 “And you shall bless G‑d, your L‑rd, for the good land that He gave you.” From this verse, [our Sages] derive30 that one must bless [G‑d] for food, for the land, [i.e., Eretz Yisrael,] and for the [Beis Ha]Mikdash.31 [Since the verse mentions blessing G‑d only once, according to Scriptural Law,] it would be sufficient to recite one blessing that includes all these matters. Nevertheless, our Sages ordained that a blessing should be recited on each matter individually. However, they ordained this only for those types of loaves over which it is common to base a meal upon, but not for baked grain products upon which it is not common to base a meal. Even if one ate enough of these [baked grain products] to be satiated and thus became obligated to recite a blessing according to Scriptural Law, it is sufficient to recite the one blessing that encapsulates the three [themes] required by Scriptural Law.32 An exception [to this rule]: When one eats an amount upon which most people would base a meal, when they eat these types of bakedproducts on occasion. If, however, most people never base a meal upon [this amount of these baked products], even if a particular person bases his meal upon it, his conduct is considered insignificant in light of the approach of most people.

Nevertheless, if one based his meal on such a type of baked product and ate meat and other foods together with it as one does when eating ordinary bread, [eating] to the point of satiation, and other people would also base their meals on such a loaf if they ate other foods with it like he did, he is required to recite the blessing HaMotzi and the Grace after Meals. [Furthermore,] if he became satiated from eating this type of baked product alone and other people are accustomed to being satiated from it when they eat it together with accompanying foods, he is required to recite the blessing HaMotzi and the Grace after Meals.

From this [ruling], one can deduce that [the amount intended when speaking of] the measure of food upon which a meal is based here differs from [the amount of food that is considered] the measure of a meal mentioned with regard to an eruv, which is three egg-sized portions.33 This is the minimum amount [of bread] eaten as a meal by a healthy poor person; therefore, it is termed a meal.34 It is not, however, the size of a meal [eaten by] most healthy people (when they eat bread alone without accompanying foods or other dishes). (Instead, the measure is an omer for each person for two meals.)35

[The distinction between the measure of a meal for an eruv and the measure required in the present instance is apparent.] Were that not to be the case,36 of what consequence would it be to calculate the measure on which other people base a meal together with accompanying foods? Even when accompanying foods are added, [what the person eats] would not be termed a meal unless three egg-sized portion of bread were eaten.37 Were that not to be true,38 why did [our Sages] require an amount of bread necessary for two meals for [the quantity of food necessary] for the two meals of an eruv techumim?39 Were a lesser amount sufficient to be used as a basis for two meals together with accompanying foods, a smaller amount [of bread would suffice for an eruv techumim] based on a kal vechomer (a conclusion drawn from the comparison of a more lenient situation to a more stringent one): If it is sufficient to deposit [merely] the accompanying foods that would be served together with bread for two meals for the eruv techumim,40surely, it would be sufficient to leave [merely] the amount of bread eaten at these two meals [for the eruv].41

If, initially, a person had the intent to eat only a small amount of these baked grain products, and therefore recited the blessing Borei minei mezonos,but afterwards, changed his mind and ate a measure on which most people base a meal, he is obligated to recite Grace following the meal even though he did not recite the blessing HaMotzi beforehand. [This ruling applies] when, at the time he changed his mind, there was not enough food before him upon which to base a meal. If, however, he changed his mind and decided to eat an amount of food sufficient to serve as the base of a meal in addition to what he already ate, he must wash his hands42 and recite the blessing HaMotzi. He need not recite the blessing Al hamichyah on what he ate previously, since what he ate previously will be joined with what he eats afterwards and be covered by Grace, since they are both the same type of baked product.43 A different ruling applies when, before partaking of a meal at which he eats bread, one eats a type of baked goods that requires the blessing Al Hamichyah. [In such an instance,] the two foods are not joined together to be covered by Grace after Meals. Instead, one must first recite the blessing Al Hamichyah, as will be explained in sec. 208.44

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּלֶחֶם גָּמוּר, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָתוֹ עָלָיו,סד,22 אֲבָל מִינֵי לְחָמִים23 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ לְפָנֵינוּ סה,24 שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָתָם עֲלֵיהֶם22 – אֵין מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" סו וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן רַק "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּבְרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ,סז,25 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר שֶׁאֲחֵרִים רְגִילִים לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה22 לִפְעָמִים עַל שִׁעוּר כָּזֶה,סח לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" כּוֹלֶלֶת גַּם הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁהוּא מָזוֹן,סט,26 וְלֹא קָבְעוּ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל הַלֶּחֶם אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ, שֶׁסּוֹעֵד הַלֵּב,ע,27 וְכָל לֶחֶם שֶׁאֵין קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו סְעוּדָה – בְּטֵלָה חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי לִסְעֹד.

וְכֵן ד' בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן לֹא קָבְעוּ עָלָיו אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ, שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה28(א) הָיָה דַּי בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג',עא שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת:29 "וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ עַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָךְ",עב וְדָרְשׁוּ30 מִפָּסוּק זֶה: לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמָּזוֹן וְעַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ,עג,31 וְדַי בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם, אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְלֹא תִּקְּנוּ אֶלָּא בְּלֶחֶם שֶׁרְגִילִים לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עָלָיו, אֲבָל מִינֵי לְחָמִים שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִין לִקְבֹּעַ עֲלֵיהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אָכַל וְשָׂבַע מֵהֶם, שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶם מִן הַתּוֹרָה עד,32 – דַּיּוֹ בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג' שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.עה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אָכַל שִׁעוּר שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִים מִין לֶחֶם זֶה בְּמִקְרֶה, אֲבָל אִם רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם אֵין קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא קוֹבֵעַ עָלָיו – בְּטֵלָה דַּעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם.עו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא קָבַע סְעוּדָתוֹ עָלָיו וְאָכַל עִמּוֹ בָּשָׂר וּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים בִּסְעוּדַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, עַד שֶׁשָּׂבַע, וְגַם אֲחֵרִים רְגִילִים לִקְבֹּעַ עָלָיו אִם אוֹכְלִים עִמּוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָכַל הוּא – מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.עז וְכֵן אִם הוּא שָׂבֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ לְבַדּוֹ וְגַם אֲחֵרִים רְגִילִין לִשְׂבֹּעַ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁמְּלַפְּתִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאֵיזֶה לִפְתָּן – מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.עח

וּמִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁשִּׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה הָאָמוּר כָּאן אֵינוֹ כְּשִׁעוּר סְעוּדָה הָאָמוּר בְּעֵרוּב, שֶׁהוּא כְּג' בֵּיצִים,עט,33 שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה שֶׁבִּסְעוּדַת עֲנִיִּים פ הַבְּרִיאִים פא וְשֵׁם סְעוּדָה עָלֶיהָ,34 אֲבָל אֵינָהּ סְעוּדַת רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם הַבְּרִיאִים (כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִין מִמֶּנּוּ לְבַדּוֹ בְּלֹא לִפְתָּן וּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים), (אֶלָּא כְּשִׁעוּר עֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת לְב' סְעוּדוֹת).פב,35 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן,36 מַה הוֹעִילוּ כָּאן לְשַׁעֵר שִׁעוּר שֶׁאֲחֵרִים קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו עִם אֵיזֶה לִפְתָּן,פג הֲרֵי גַּם עַל יְדֵי לִפְתָּן אֵין שֵׁם סְעוּדָה עָלֶיהָ בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּג' בֵּיצִים פַּת.פד,37 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן,38 לָמָּה הִצְרִיכוּ בִּשְׁתֵּי סְעוּדוֹת שֶׁל עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין39 כִּשְׁתֵּי סְעוּדוֹת פַּת,פה אִם פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן רָאוּי לְב' סְעוּדוֹת עַל יְדֵי לִפְתָּן, יְהֵא דַּי בָּזֶה לְעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין,40 מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר מִלִּפְתָּן שֶׁל פַּת מִב' סְעוּדוֹת שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין בּוֹ,פו כָּל שֶׁכֵּן הַפַּת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת בְּב' סְעוּדוֹת הַלָּלוּ.41

וְאִם מִתְּחִלָּה הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מְעַט וּבֵרַךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וְאָכַל שִׁעוּר שֶׁרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם קוֹבְעִים [סְעוּדָה] פז עָלָיו – יְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרַךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" לְפָנָיו,פח כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה כְּדֵי קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה22 בְּמַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁאַר לְפָנָיו אַחַר שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ.פט אֲבָל אִם נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכֹל עוֹד כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה מִלְּבַד מַה שֶּׁאָכַל כְּבָר – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו צ,42 וּלְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" תְּחִלָּה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג' עַל מַה שֶּׁכְּבָר אָכַל,צא לְפִי שֶׁמִּצְטָרֵף עִם מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מִין לֶחֶם אֶחָד,43 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּאוֹכֵל דָּבָר שֶׁטָּעוּן בְּרָכָה מֵעֵין ג' לִפְנֵי סְעוּדַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, שֶׁאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְהִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג', כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"ח: צב,44

9 These are the types of loaves upon which people generally do not base their meals: pas haba bekisanin,45crepes,46 t'rukenin, and pancakes.

There are authorities who interpret the term pas haba bekisanin as [a filled loaf],47 i.e., a loaf in which a pocket is made that is filled with honey, sugar, almonds, nuts, or other types of fruits and spices before the product was baked. [This loaf is considered pas haba bekisanin] even though its dough is kneaded with water alone and it is baked in an oven or a pan without any liquid (e.g., apple pie or fruit pie).48 Included in this category is a thick dough that is folded over and filled with sesame seeds that is made [to be eaten] on Purim.49

Even if the filling is plentiful and the main purpose [when partaking of] this pastry is to eat the filling, [the pastry is still considered a grain product], because the species of grain is important and therefore is not considered batel, secondary, to the filling,50 even though there is [considerably] more filling than pastry. Therefore, the blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited over it. The filling is also covered by this blessing, because it is secondary to the [pastry, which is a] grain product.

The above ruling applies provided the person also has the intent of eating the grain product, i.e., the pastry which contains the filling, even though this is not his primary intent. If, however, he does not have the pastry in mind at all, [the pastry is considered as secondary]. For example, with regard to thin wafers on which a confection is placed — it is well known that the person’s intent is not at all to eat the wafer.51 It is used only as [the surface] on which the confection is placed, so that one’s hands will not become soiled from the honey [in the confection. Therefore, the wafer] is considered as secondary to the confection and the blessing over the confection covers it. This applies even if one first ate the confection, the wafers remained [and he only ate them afterwards]. In these countries, however, a confection is placed on [a bottom layer of] honey cake (called “honey pie”) [and] that [cake] is also desirable to eat in its own right. As such, the person’s intent is to also eat the honey cake. Therefore, he recites the blessing Borei minei mezonos on it. In doing so, he covers the confection which is secondary to the grain product.

ט וְאֵלּוּ הֵם מִינֵי לְחָמִים שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָתָם צג עֲלֵיהֶם: פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין,צד,45 וְלַחְמָנִיּוֹת,צה,46 וּטְרוֹקָנִין,צו,45 וּטְרִיתָא.צז,45

פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין – יֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים צח שֶׁהִיא פַּת עֲשׂוּיָה כְּמִין כִּיס,47 שֶׁמְּמַלְּאִין אוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם אֲפִיָּתָהּ בִּדְבַשׁ צט אוֹ בְּצוק"ר ק אוֹ שְׁקֵדִים אוֹ אֱגוֹזִים אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת אוֹ תַּבְלִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעִסָּה עַצְמָהּ נִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם לְבַד,קא וְנֶאֱפֵת בְּתַנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלֹא שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה (כְּגוֹן עפי"ל פלאדי"ן אוֹ פאווי"דלא פלאדי"ן).קב,48 וּבִכְלַל זֶה קג מַה שֶּׁעוֹשִׂים בְּפוּרִים עִסָּה רְחָבָה וּכְפוּלָה וּמְמַלְּאִים אוֹתָהּ בְּשֻׁמְשְׁמִין.49

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמִּלּוּי הוּא רַב מְאֹד, וְעִקַּר הַכַּוָּנָה בְּפַת זוֹ לַאֲכִילַת הַמִּלּוּי,קד מִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִין דָּגָן הוּא חָשׁוּב וְאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הַמִּלּוּי קה,50 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רַב מִמֶּנּוּ, וּלְכָךְ מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קו וְגַם הַמִּלּוּי נִפְטָר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ, שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל לְמִין דָּגָן.קז

וְהוּא שֶׁמִּתְכַּוְּנִין גַּם כֵּן לַאֲכִילַת מִין הַדָּגָן שֶׁהִיא הָעִסָּה שֶׁבָּהּ הַמִּלּוּי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין זוֹ עִקַּר הַכַּוָּנָה, אֲבָל אִם אֵין מִתְכַּוְּנִין כְּלָל לֶאֱכֹל הָעִסָּה, כְּגוֹן אוֹתָם רְקִיקִין דַּקִּין שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים מִרְקַחַת עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁהַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוְּנִים כְּלָל לֶאֱכֹל הָעִסָּה,51 רַק שֶׁבָּאִים לְדַבֵּק הַמִּרְקַחַת קח עֲלֵיהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטָּנְפוּ הַיָּדַיִם מֵהַדְּבַשׁ – הֲרֵי הֵם טְפֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הַמִּרְקַחַת וּבִרְכַּת הַמִּרְקַחַת פּוֹטַרְתָּן.קט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אָכַל תְּחִלָּה הַמִּרְקַחַת וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ הָרְקִיקִים לְבַדָּם.קי אֲבָל בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים הַמִּרְקַחַת עַל הַדֻּבְשָׁנִין (שֶׁקּוֹרִין לעקו"ך פלאדי"ן) קיא שֶׁטּוֹבִים לְמַאֲכָל, אִם כֵּן כַּוָּנָתוֹ גַּם כֵּן עַל אֲכִילַת הַדֻּבְשָׁנִין, וּמְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קיב וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַמִּרְקַחַת שֶׁהִיא טְפֵלָה לְמִין דָּגָן: קיג

10 Whenever a pastry’s filling is secondary to it, one should recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos over it and not HaMotzi, even though one eats the pastry alone after the filling was removed from it. [The rationale is that] it was baked as a filled loaf.52 If, however, one removes the filling from the pastry and only eats the filling, one should recite the blessing appropriate for it,53 Shehakol, Borei pri haadamah, or Borei pri haetz.

The above54 applies when the filling is of fruit and the like, i.e., foods that are not used as the basis for a meal, neither to accompany bread, nor as sustaining food that satisfies.55 Instead, they are eaten as dessert and for the sake of pleasure, as explained in sec. 177[:2]. Therefore, it is also not the practice of most people to base a meal on a pie that is filled with these ingredients.

[A different ruling applies] when, by contrast, a pie is filled with foods that are used to accompany bread, e.g., meat, fish, cheese, eggs, and vegetables (or with foods on which it is common to base a meal and which provide nourishment and satiate a person, although they are not eaten together with bread, e.g., cabbage, beets, or other cooked foods of that sort, which serve as the primary elements of a meal),56 as will be explained in that section.57 This [type of] filling does not cause [the status of] a pie filled with [such ingredients] to be [downgraded and for it to be] removed from the category of bread on which all people base their meal. For most people will not refrain from basing their meal on [such pies] because of their filling, since the filling is also fit to base a meal upon, either as an accompaniment to bread (or to provide nourishment and satiation).58

Other authorities state that there is no difference between a fruit filling and a filling of meat, cheese, or the like. One should always recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos,unless one eats an amount which, for most people, would serve as the basis of a meal. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. A G‑d-fearing person should not partake [of a meat-pie or the like if he eats] less than the amount that serves as the basis of a meal except within a meal59 [eaten] for the sake of nourishment and satiation, as will be explained.60

י וְכָל עִסָּה שֶׁהַמִּלּוּי טָפֵל אֵלֶיהָ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹכְלָהּ לְבַדָּהּ אַחַר שֶׁנָּטַל הַמִּלּוּי מִמֶּנָּה – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וְלֹא "הַמּוֹצִיא", הוֹאִיל וּבִשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּתָהּ הָיְתָה בָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין.קיד,52 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁנָּטַל מִמֶּנָּה לְבַדּוֹ – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בְּרָכָה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ:53 "שֶׁהַכֹּל", אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה", אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ".קטו

וְכָל זֶה54(ב) כְּשֶׁהַמִּלּוּי הוּא מִפֵּרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם, מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם, לֹא לְלַפֵּת בָּהֶם אֶת הַפַּת, וְלֹא לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע,55 אֶלָּא אוֹכְלִים אוֹתָם לְקִנּוּחַ סְעוּדָה וּלְתַעֲנוּג,קטז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז,קיז וְלָכֵן אֵין דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה גַּם כֵּן עַל הַפַּת הַמְמֻלֵּאת מֵהֶם. אֲבָל אִם הַמִּלּוּי הוּא מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם לְלַפֵּת בָּהֶם אֶת הַפַּת, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וְדָגִים וּגְבִינָה קיח וּבֵיצִים קיט וִירָקוֹת קכ (אוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְלַפְּתִין בָּהֶם הַפַּת, כְּגוֹן כְּרוּב וּתְרָדִין וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִמַּעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה קכא שֶׁהֵם מֵעִקַּר הַסְּעוּדָה)56 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם קכב,57 – אֵין מִלּוּי זֶה מוֹצִיא אֶת הַפַּת הַמְמֻלֵּאת בּוֹ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר שֶׁהַכֹּל קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁגַּם עַל זוֹ אֵין רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם נִמְנָעִים קכג מִלִּקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁבָּהּ,קכד כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמִּלּוּי רָאוּי גַּם כֵּן לִקְבֹּעַ עָלָיו סְעוּדָה לְלַפֵּת בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת (אוֹ לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע).58

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קכה שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין מִלּוּי פֵּרוֹת לְמִלּוּי בָּשָׂר וּגְבִינָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם, וּלְעוֹלָם מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר שֶׁרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו. וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קכו וִירֵא שָׁמַיִם לֹא יֹאכַל מֵהֶם פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר קְבִיעַת סְעוּדָה אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה קכז,59 לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע,קכח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: קכט,60

11 There are other authorities who interpret pas haba bekisanin as bread that was kneaded with honey, milk, butter, fat, oil, egg whites,61 fruit juice, wine, or other liquids aside from water.62 Even if one mixed a small amount of water together [with these liquids], as long as the other liquids constitute the majority, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited [before eating] and, [afterwards,] the blessing Al hamichyah [should be recited].63

True, using other liquids does not prevent a dough made from them to be considered as bread with regard to the obligation to separate challah from them. Nevertheless, the ordinary practice of people is to base a meal only on bread that is made with water. Therefore, [loaves and rolls that are made with other liquids] do not have the importance of bread [and] the blessings HaMotzi and Grace are not recited over them unless one eats an amount on which most people base a meal.

Similarly, when one mixes a large amount of spices into the dough, exceeding even the amount of water one uses, even though the dough was kneaded with water alone, [one should recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos].64 Even if the mixture contains more spices and honey than flour, to the extent that the spices and honey could almost be considered the primary element of the dough — for the flour comes merely to bind and thicken them — the flour is not considered secondary to them; that would warrant that the blessing appropriate [for the honey and the spices, i.e., Shehakol,] be recited. [The rationale:] Aside from the fact that the flour binds and thickens the mixture, it also makes it fit to be eaten. It can be assumed that the flour was included in the mixture with both these intents in mind: to hold it together and to make it fit to be eaten. Since [the flour] is a grain product, it is significant and is not considered secondary [to the spices], as long as it also serves the purpose of making the dough fit to be eaten. Therefore, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited for this mixture. If one partook of an amount of this mixture that would serve as the basis of a meal, he should recite the Grace after Meals. (This is comparable to reciting the Grace after Meals over a loaf made from a mixture of flour from grain and flour from kitniyos,65 if [the proportion of flour is such that one would eat] an olive-sized measure [of grain] within kedei achilas pras, the time it takes to eat half a loaf of bread made of grain,66 as will be explained later.)67

[A different rule applies] when dough is kneaded with water, but a small amount of honey and spices was mixed into it. Even though the flavor of the honey and the spices is evident in the dough, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should not be recited over it. Instead, one must recite the blessing HaMotzi and Grace, since the majority of the liquid used is water. Similar [laws apply] if a small amount of milk, butter, oil, fat, other liquids, or fruit juice [is mixed into the dough].68 Therefore, those who bake cakes (which are called “schmaltz cakes”) for “the two breads” [for the Shabbos meals]69 are conducting themselves appropriately, because only a small amount of fat is mixed in.

יא וְיֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים קל שֶׁפַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין הִיא פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בִּדְבַשׁ אוֹ בְּחָלָב וְחֶמְאָה קלא אוֹ בְּשֻׁמָּן קלב אוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן (ג) אוֹ בְּמֵי בֵּיצִים קלג,61 אוֹ בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת קלד וְיַיִן קלה אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין,קלו חוּץ מִמַּיִם.62 וַאֲפִלּוּ (ד) עֵרַב בָּהּ מְעַט מַיִם, אִם הָרֹב הוּא מִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין – מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּבְרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג'.קלז,63

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין אֵין מוֹצִיאִין הָעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בָּהֶם מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם קלח לְעִנְיַן חַלָּה,קלט מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה אֶלָּא עַל פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם,קמ לְפִיכָךְ אֵין בָּהּ חֲשִׁיבוּת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר שֶׁרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם קוֹבְעִים עָלָיו.קמא וְכֵן אִם עֵרַב בָּהּ תַּבְלִין הַרְבֵּה קמב יוֹתֵר מִמַּיִם,קמג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם לְבַד.64

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עֵרַב בָּהּ תַּבְלִין וּדְבַשׁ יוֹתֵר מִקֶּמַח, שֶׁכִּמְעַט הַדְּבַשׁ וְהַתַּבְלִין הֵם עִקָּר,קמד וְהַקֶּמַח הוּא לְדַבְּקָם וּלְהַקְפּוֹתָם – אֵין הַקֶּמַח טָפֵל אֶצְלָם לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּרָכָה הָרְאוּיָה לָהֶם, לְפִי שֶׁמִּלְּבַד מַה שֶּׁהַקֶּמַח מְדַבֵּק וּמַקְפֶּה הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, הוּא מַכְשִׁירוֹ וּמְתַקְּנוֹ גַּם כֵּן לַאֲכִילָה, וּמִן הַסְּתָם נִתָּן הַקֶּמַח בְּתַעֲרֹבֶת זֶה עַל דַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶם, לְדַבֵּק וּלְהַכְשִׁיר, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מִין דָּגָן הוּא חָשׁוּב וְאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת, כָּל שֶׁבָּא גַּם כֵּן לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ לַאֲכִילָה, וְלָכֵן מְבָרְכִין עַל תַּעֲרֹבֶת זוֹ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת".קמה וְאִם אָכַל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה – מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל תַּעֲרֹבֶת זֶה קמו (כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל תַּעֲרֹבֶת קֶמַח תְּבוּאָה בְּקֶמַח קִטְנִיּוֹת65 שֶׁעָשָׂה מֵהֶם פַּת, אִם יֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת כַּזַּיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס קֶמַח תְּבוּאָה,קמז,66 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן).קמח,67

אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם וְעֵרַב בָּהּ מְעַט דְּבַשׁ וְתַבְלִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטַּעַם הַדְּבַשׁ וְתַבְלִין נִרְגָּשׁ בָּעִסָּה – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", אֶלָּא "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָרֹב מַיִם.קמט וְכֵן בִּמְעַט חָלָב וְחֶמְאָה וְשֶׁמֶן וְשֻׁמָּן וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת.68 וְעַל כֵּן יָפֶה עוֹשִׂים שֶׁאוֹפִין עוּגוֹת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שמאל"ץ קוכ"ן) לְלֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה,69 כִּי אֵין שָׁם רַק מְעַט שֻׁמָּן: קנ

12 Other authorities interpret pas haba bekisanin as referring to a loaf, even one kneaded with water, even if it is neither spiced, nor filled, but rather is made into small, dried cakes (called crackers) which are nibbled for pleasure and not for satiation.70

With regard to actual practice, one should rule leniently, incorporating all the above opinions, since the matter concerns Rabbinic Law, particularly a question concerning blessings.71 One should not recite the four blessings of the Grace after Meals on any type of loaf for which one of the above opinions maintains that the one blessing that encompasses three is sufficient. A question of Scriptural Law is not involved even if the person ate to the point of satiation, in which instance, he is obligated to recite the Grace after Meals according to Scriptural Law.72 For according to Scriptural Law, it is sufficient to recite the one blessing that encapsulates three.73 Since the person will recite that blessing (Al hamichyah) afterwards, he should not recite the blessing HaMotzi beforehand,74 so that his blessings will not contradict each other.75

Moreover, the blessing Borei minei mezonos also includes bread. It is only that because of the importance of bread, our Sages removed it from the category of other mazon (nourishing foods) and established an independent blessing for it. [Hence,] whenever we are not certain that a loaf has the importance of bread [on which people base their meals], it should not be removed from the category in which it certainly belongs, for it is unquestionably a nourishing food.

True, one who recites the blessing Borei minei mezonos on bread [that requires the blessing HaMotzi] does not fulfill his obligation.76 [The rationale: Bread] was enhanced in a manner that increased its importance. Hence, its blessing also changed. Nevertheless, when it is questionable whether a loaf is included in the category of bread [that requires the blessing HaMotzi, one who recites Borei minei mezonos] fulfills his obligation, because whenever there is uncertainty regarding a blessing of Rabbinic origin, one rules leniently. Even as an initial preference, there is no question of having recited a blessing in vain. Since our Sages ruled leniently in a matter that concerns their decrees — to fulfill one’s obligation by reciting [this] blessing [because of] the uncertainty that exists — it is not considered as a blessing that is not required. It is certainly not being recited in vain, for the person fulfills his obligation through it and is thus permitted to eat because of it. He is not mentioning G‑d’s name in vain, nor using it falsely. For he is blessing G‑d, Who in truth created “types of nourishing foods.”77 Moreover, even [the loaf that he is eating] is nourishing food. It is only that, when a person does not fulfill his obligation by reciting this blessing, he is considered to have recited an unnecessary blessing and to have recited G‑d’s name in vain.78 He has not, however, recited G‑d’s name falsely. [Indeed, this applies] even if he recited this blessing on an entity that is not a nourishing food at all.79

[In summation, because of the differences of opinion,] any meticulous person80 who desires to be stringent with himself should not eat less than the measure on which a meal is based [from such products], (with the exception of a loaf that was [both] kneaded with other liquids or fruit juice and filled with fruit or the like)81 except a) in the midst of a meal82 [and b) when he is eating the loaf in question] for the sake of nourishment and satiation,83 as will be explained.84

יב וְיֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים קנא שֶׁפַּת הַבָּא בְּכִיסָנִין הִיא פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ מְתֻבֶּלֶת וְאֵינָהּ מְמֻלֵּאת, אֶלָּא שֶׁעוֹשִׂים אוֹתָהּ עוּגוֹת יְבֵשׁוֹת, וְכוֹסְסִין אוֹתָהּ לְתֵאָבוֹן וְלֹא כְּדֵי לְהַשְׂבִּיעַ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קיכלי"ך).קנב,70

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדִבְרֵי כֻּלָּם, וּבִפְרָט בִּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת,71 שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן ד' בְּרָכוֹת עַל מַה שֶּׁלִּסְבָרָא אַחַת דַּי בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג', כִּי אֵין כָּאן סָפֵק שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַף אִם אָכַל כְּדֵי שְׂבִיעָה קנג שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קנד,72 שֶׁהֲרֵי מִן הַתּוֹרָה דַּי לְעוֹלָם בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג'.קנה,73 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין ג' – אֵין לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא",74 שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ בִּרְכוֹתָיו סוֹתְרוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ.75

וְעוֹד, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" כּוֹלֶלֶת גַּם כֵּן לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ הוֹצִיאוּהוּ מִכְּלָל שְׁאָר מָזוֹן וְקָבְעוּ לוֹ בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,קנו וְכָל שֶׁאֵין בָּרוּר לָנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חֲשִׁיבוּת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר – אֵין לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵחֶזְקָתוֹ קנז שֶׁהוּא בִּכְלַל מָזוֹן בְּוַדַּאי.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" עַל לֶחֶם גָּמוּר – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,קנח,76 הוֹאִיל וְנִשְׁתַּנָּה לְעִלּוּי וַחֲשִׁיבוּת נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּסְפֵק לֶחֶם גָּמוּר – יָצָא, שֶׁסְּפֵק בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל.קנט,71 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין כָּאן חֲשַׁשׁ בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה,קס שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵקֵלוּ חֲכָמִים בְּדִבְרֵיהֶם לָצֵאת בִּסְפֵק בְּרָכָה – אֵין זוֹ בְּרָכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה, וְאֵינָהּ לְבַטָּלָה בְּוַדַּאי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְרַשַּׁאי לֶאֱכֹל עַל יָדָהּ, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹשֵׂא שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם לַשָּׁוְא וְלֹא לַשֶּׁקֶר, שֶׁהֲרֵי מְבָרֵךְ ה' בֶּאֱמֶת, שֶׁבָּרָא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת,77 וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁגַּם זֶה מָזוֹן הוּא. אֶלָּא שֶׁכְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ – הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּרָכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה, וְנוֹשֵׂא שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם לַשָּׁוְא,קסא,78 אֲבָל לֹא לַשֶּׁקֶר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם בֵּרַךְ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָזוֹן כְּלָל.79

וְכָל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ80 הָרוֹצֶה לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ – לֹא יֹאכַל פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה (אֶלָּא פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַשְׁקִין אוֹ מֵי פֵּרוֹת וְהִיא מְמֻלֵּאת בְּפֵרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם) קסב,81 כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה82 לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע,קסג,83 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: קסד,84

13 Lachmaniyos are thin crepes85 (that are called nivilish) and in some locales of these countries ([are called] blinesh) that are made from flour and water that are blended to form a loose consistency in a pot. The mixture is poured over wide-leafed vegetables and baked in an oven together with the leaves, or it is poured into a frying pan without any liquid, in which instance, it is governed by the same laws as an oven. This ruling applies whether [the frying pan] was heated before [the mixture] was poured into it or whether [the mixture] was [first] poured into [the frying pan] and then it was heated.86 The small amount of liquid placed on the bottom of the frying pan so that the dough will not burn is not considered as liquid [in this context].87 [As mentioned in subsection 8, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited before partaking of [these grain products] and the blessing Al hamichyah afterwards. If, however, one partakes of an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal, one should recite the blessing HaMotzi beforehand and Grace afterwards.]

[Different laws apply] if there is [a substantial amount of] liquid [in the frying pan]. Even if one eats an amount [of these grain products] sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal, one should recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and the one blessing that encapsulates three over them (Al hamichyah). [The rationale is that] they were never placed in the category of bread, neither when they were mixed — since they are made from a thin blend of flour — nor when they were prepared, since they were fried in liquid. Bread, [on the other hand, always] is baked, not fried.88

With regard to [grain products] that are not made with a very thin blend [of flour and water]: As long as the blend was not thick, they are not considered as bread,89 neither when they were mixed, nor when prepared, if they were fried in liquid.90 If, however, [such products] were baked in an oven or in a frying pan without liquid, they are considered as bread. The blessing HaMotzi should be recited over them, even if one does not eat an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal. Since the blend [of flour and water] is not very thin, at times, people will serve it as the basis of a meal, even though the blend was not entirely thick.

[In contrast to the approach above which maintains that when a meal is based on crepes, one is required to recite Grace,] there are authorities who differ. They maintain that when one eats an amount that could serve as the basis for a meal, the blessing HaMotzi and Grace should be recited over grain products from a very thin blend [of flour and water] only when the final baked product is not very thin wafers. For example, if one poured a large amount of [the mixture of flour and water] over the leaves or into a frying pan until the product became somewhat — although not entirely — thick through the baking process. If, by contrast, after baking, the end product is very thin wafers, [e.g., waffles,] like those that are baked in a mold of two blocks of hot iron, even if they serve as the basis of a meal, they do not warrant the recitation of the blessings HaMotzi and Grace over them. They are not placed in the category of bread at all, even at the time they are being baked, because they are very thin wafers. Weight should be given to these words and an amount [of these wafers] sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal should not be eaten except as part of a meal [in which they are eaten] for nourishment and satiation.91

Similarly with regard to trisa, i.e., a mixture of flour and water that is poured on the surface of a range and spreads out and is baked there: There are opinions that it does not fall into the category of bread at all.92 Even if one eats an amount that could serve as the basis for a meal, he should recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah.93

(In contrast, t'rukenin — a pastry produced by making a hollow in a cooking range into which a mixture of flour and water is placed94 — even though it is made with a very thin blend [of flour and water], one must recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace over it when it serves as the basis of a meal as one does for bread, because it thickens through baking.95 If, however, one eats less than the amount which can serve as the basis of a meal, he should recite the blessing Borei Minei mezonos, since the blend [of flour and water] is very thin and most people do not serve this food as the basis of a meal.)

יג לַחְמָנִיּוֹת קסה הֵן רְקִיקִין דַּקִּים85 (שֶׁקּוֹרִין ניבל"ש), וּבִקְצָת מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ (בלינע"ש), הַנַּעֲשִׂים מִתַּעֲרֹבֶת קֶמַח וּמַיִם בִּקְדֵרָה בְּלִילָה רַכָּה מְאֹד,קסו וְשׁוֹפְכִים עַל עֲלֵי יְרָקוֹת רְחָבִים וְנֶאֱפֵית בְּתַנּוּר עִם הֶעָלִים,קסז אוֹ שׁוֹפְכִים עַל מַחֲבַת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁדִּינָהּ כְּתַנּוּר, בֵּין שֶׁהִרְתִּיחָהּ תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁפַךְ בָּהּ, בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ בָּהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִרְתִּיחָהּ.קסח,86 וּמְעַט מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁמּוֹשְׁחִין הַמַּחֲבַת שֶׁלֹּא תִּשָּׂרֵף הָעִסָּה – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא מַשְׁקֶה.קסט,87

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה,קע אֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל מֵהֶם שִׁעוּר קְבִיעַת סְעוּדָה – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג', לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם מֵעוֹלָם, לֹא בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁתָם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּלִילָתָם רַכָּה, וְלֹא בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּתָם כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּטְגְּנוּ בְּמַשְׁקֶה, וְאֵין לֶחֶם אֶלָּא הָאָפוּי וְלֹא מְטֻגָּן.קעא,88

וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָם (ה) שֶׁאֵין בְּלִילָתָן רַכָּה מְאֹד, כָּל שֶׁאֵין בְּלִילָתָן עָבָה קעב – אֵין עֲלֵיהֶן תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם89 בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה, וְלֹא בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּה אִם נִטְגְּנוּ בְּמַשְׁקֶה.קעג,90 אֲבָל אִם נֶאֱפוּ בְּתַנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלִי מַשְׁקֶה – לֶחֶם גָּמוּר הוּא, וּמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" אֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכַל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעַת סְעוּדָה,קעד שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בְּלִילָתָן רַכָּה מְאֹד – דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ עֲלֵיהֶם סְעוּדָה לִפְעָמִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּלִילָתָם עָבָה לְגַמְרֵי.קעה

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קעו שֶׁאוֹתָן שֶׁבְּלִילָתָן רַכָּה מְאֹד אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵינָן רְקִיקִין דַּקִּין מְאֹד אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ הַרְבֵּה עַל הֶעָלִים אוֹ עַל הַמַּחֲבַת עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עָבִים קְצָת עַל יְדֵי הָאֲפִיָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן עָבִים לְגַמְרֵי,קעז אֲבָל אִם גַּם אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה הֵם רְקִיקִים דַּקִּים מְאֹד, כְּגוֹן אוֹתָם שֶׁאוֹפִים בִּדְפוּס בֵּין ב' בַּרְזִלִּים – אֵין קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהֶם לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם כְּלָל גַּם בִּשְׁעַת הָאֲפִיָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם רְקִיקִים דַּקִּים מְאֹד. וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל מֵהֶם כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה קעח כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע.קעט,91

וְכֵן בִּטְרִיתָא, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלּוֹקְחִים קֶמַח וּמַיִם וּמְעָרְבִין וְשׁוֹפְכִין עַל הַכִּירָה וְהוּא מִתְפַּשֵּׁט וְנֶאֱפָה קפ(ו) – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קפא שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם כְּלָל,92 וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג'.קפב,93

(אֲבָל טְרוֹקָנִין דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעוֹשִׂים גּוּמָא בַּכִּירָה וְנוֹתְנִים בָּהּ קֶמַח וּמַיִם מְעֹרָבִים בָּהּ,קפג,94 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּלִילָתָהּ רַכָּה מְאֹד,קפד מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הָאֲפִיָּה נַעֲשִׂים עָבִים95 – מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהֶם קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קפה כְּעַל לֶחֶם גָּמוּר. אֲבָל בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קפו,95 הוֹאִיל וּבְלִילָתוֹ רַכָּה מְאֹד, וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ עֲלֵיהֶם סְעוּדָה):

14 When any of these types of loaves that most people are not accustomed to serving as the basis of a meal are eaten during the course of a meal as dessert and for pleasure — to relieve the heaviness of the meal96 — they are not included in the blessing recited over the bread. For example, it is common to eat crackers or sweet pastries at the end of a meal. It is necessary to recite the blessing Borei minei mezonos over them,97 just as it is necessary to recite a blessing over fruit that is eaten as dessert, as stated in sec. 177[:2].

[A different ruling applies regarding the various types of baked products described above as] pas haba bekisanin. Since there are differences of opinion concerning [these products] — there are authorities who say that the products that others deem pas haba bekisanin are actual bread — therefore, one should not recite a blessing over any such baked product eaten as part of a meal98 unless all authorities would agree that it is considered as pas haba bekisanin.99

If, however, one would like to eat such baked products for nourishment and satiation, they are considered as being served because of the meal and are covered by the blessing recited over bread, like all other cooked food served as part of a meal and eaten for the sake of nourishment, even though they do not accompany bread, as explained there.100

Moreover, [in such an instance,] there is no need to recite a blessing even over pies that are filled with fruit — not even over the fruit [filling] — as one would recite a blessing over fruit that is served as part of a meal. [The rationale:] This fruit is considered as secondary with regard to the pastry, which is a grain product. Hence, the obligation [to recite a blessing over the fruit] — together with [the pastry shell] — is covered by the blessing for the bread, since [the pastry] comes as part of the meal, for the sake of nourishment and satiation.101 [This instance resembles] the fruit [in a fruit-filled pie] which is covered by the recitation of the blessing Borei minei mezonos when eaten together with [the pastry], independently of a meal102 or [even] during the course of the meal, when it is served as dessert, for the sake of pleasure. One should not be stringent and remove some of the fruit from the pastry and recite the blessing over it, because if one also partakes of the pastry, it is a blessing recited in vain.103

Even types of pastry that are made from a very thin blend [of flour and water] that are fried in liquid and thus are never placed in the category of bread — not even when one eats an amount of pastry that could serve as the basis of a meal — are covered by the blessing recited over bread when they are served in a meal for the sake of nourishment and satiation, like all [other] cooked foods served as accompanying foods for the sake of nourishment.

יד וְכָל מִינֵי לְחָמִים הַלָּלוּ שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם, אִם בָּא לְאָכְלָם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה קפז לְקִנּוּחַ סְעוּדָה וּלְתַעֲנוּג, לְהָקֵל מִכֹּבֶד הַמַּאֲכָל,קפח,96 כְּמוֹ שֶׁרְגִילִין שֶׁכּוֹסְסִין עוּגוֹת יְבֵשׁוֹת בְּסוֹף הַסְּעוּדָה קפט אוֹ מִינֵי מְתִיקָה קצ – אֵינָם נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת, וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בַּתְּחִלָּה "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קצא,97 כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאוֹכְלִין בְּקִנּוּחַ סְעוּדָה,קצב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז.קצג אֶלָּא שֶׁהַפַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ בָּהּ, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֶּחֶם גָּמוּר הוּא מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוּא פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְבָרֵךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה98 אֶלָּא עַל מַה שֶּׁלְּדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל נִקְרָא פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין.קצד,99

אֲבָל אִם בָּא לְאָכְלָם לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע – הֲרֵי הֵם בָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַסְּעוּדָה וְנִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת,קצה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁבָּאִים לְמָזוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְלַפְּתִין בָּהֶם אֶת הַפַּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קצו,100

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִינֵי עִסָּה הַמְמֻלָּאִים בְּפֵרוֹת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבָּהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל שְׁאָר הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַפֵּרוֹת הַלָּלוּ הֵם טְפֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הָעִסָּה שֶׁהִיא מִינֵי דָּגָן, וְנִפְטָרִים עִמָּהּ בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת, הוֹאִיל וְהִיא בָּאָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע,101 כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵם נִפְטָרִים עִמָּהּ בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", כְּשֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,קצז,102 אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה כְּשֶׁהִיא בָּאָה לְקִנּוּחַ וְתַעֲנוּג. וְאֵין לְהַחְמִיר וְלִקַּח קְצָת פֵּרוֹת מִן הָעִסָּה וּלְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם, כִּי הִיא בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה אִם אוֹכֵל גַּם הָעִסָּה.קצח,103

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִינֵי עִסָּה שֶׁבְּלִילָתָם רַכָּה מְאֹד וְנִטְגְּנוּ בְּמַשְׁקֶה, שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלִים מֵהֶם שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן נִפְטָרִים בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת כְּשֶׁבָּאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּפְטָרִים כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה שֶׁבָּאִים לְתַבְשִׁיל וּלְמָזוֹן: קצט

15[Different rules apply, however, when a grain product] was made with a very thick dough and thus it was categorized as bread at the time of kneading. There are authorities who maintain that even if [subsequently the dough] was thinned with water and made into a soft, spongy texture and was then cooked in water104 or fried in liquid,105 the end product does not lose the status of bread with regard to the blessings HaMotzi and Grace, just as they do not lose the status of as bread with regard to the separation of challah.106If a person partakes of such a grain product as part of a meal, it is covered by the blessing recited over bread just as bread is, even if it is eaten only for dessert and for pleasure.

Other authorities maintain that cooking or frying causes the dough to cease being categorized as bread. Even if one eats enough of these products to serve as the basis of a meal, he should recite only the blessings Borei minei mezonos and the Al hamichyah. [According to these authorities, this ruling applies] even if the product is considered as bread with regard to the obligation to separate challah, e.g., when kneading the dough, the person did not intend to cook or fry the dough, and [only] afterwards changed his mind and did so.107 [To highlight the difference between the laws regarding blessings and those pertaining to challah:]There is an obligation to separate challah from this dough, for [the obligation of challah] is dependent on [the person’s intent] at the time he mixes the flour into the water, since the obligation to separate challah takes effect at that time. Therefore, if the dough was categorized as bread at the time of kneading, because it was a thick mixture, the obligation to separate challah takes effect for the dough, and [that obligation] is not removed when it is [later] cooked or fried. With regard to the blessings HaMotzi and Grace, by contrast, everything depends on the [final] process of preparation that [causes] the product to become fit to eat. Any grain product that was not baked in an oven or in a pan without liquid is not categorized as bread. If it was eaten during the course of a meal for dessert and for pleasure, it is not covered by the blessing over the bread.

A G‑d-fearing person should satisfy [the stringencies of] both approaches and only eat such products in the midst of a meal, [eating them] for the sake of nourishment and satiation. The [prevailing] custom, however, is to rule leniently and follow the latter opinion (because, fundamentally, the halachah follows that view).108

טו אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁבְּלִילָתָהּ עָבָה לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים ר שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ רִכְּכוֹ בְּמַיִם וַעֲשָׂאוֹ סֻפְגָּנִין וּבִשְּׁלוֹ בְּמַיִם104 אוֹ טִגְּנוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה105 – לֹא נִתְבַּטְּלָה תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם מִמֶּנּוּ לְעִנְיַן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּטְּלָה מִמֶּנּוּ לְעִנְיַן חַלָּה.רא,106 וְאִם אוֹכְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת כְּמוֹ שְׁאָר לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹכְלוֹ לְקִנּוּחַ וּלְתַעֲנוּג בִּלְבַד.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים רב שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל אוֹ טִגּוּן, וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג',רג וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁקָּרוּי לֶחֶם לְעִנְיַן חַלָּה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְבַשְּׁלוֹ אוֹ לְטַגְּנוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ,רד,107 שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּחַלָּה,רה לְפִי שֶׁבְּחַלָּה הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר גִּלְגּוּל הַקֶּמַח בַּמַּיִם, שֶׁאָז חָל חִיּוּב חַלָּה, וּלְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה עָלָיו תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּלִילָתָהּ עָבָה – מִיָּד חָל עָלָיו חִיּוּב חַלָּה, וְשׁוּב לֹא נִפְקַע מִמֶּנּוּ עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל וְטִגּוּן, אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה, כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה, וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱפָה בְּתַנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלִי מַשְׁקֶה – אֵינוֹ קָרוּי לֶחֶם.רו וְאִם אֲכָלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה לְקִנּוּחַ וּלְתַעֲנוּג – אֵינוֹ נִפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת.רז

וִירֵא שָׁמַיִם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם, וְלֹא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה רח לְמָזוֹן וּלְשֹׂבַע. אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל כִּסְבָרָא אַחֲרוֹנָה רט (כִּי כֵן עִקָּר): רי,108

16 Even according to the first opinion [mentioned in subsection 15],109 there are authorities who maintain that it is not necessary to recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace [when partaking of products made from a thick dough that was cooked or fried] unless one eats an amount sufficient to base a meal upon. If not, it suffices to recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and the Al hamichyah, as is the case with regard to pas haba bekisanin. For [pas haba bekisanin] is also considered as bread with regard to the obligation to separate challah.110Nevertheless, since it is not common practice for it to serve as the basis of a meal, the blessings HaMotzi and Grace are not recited over it. Similarly, it is not common practice for fried foods to serve as the basis of a meal. (These authorities maintain that even according to the first opinion, the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited over these [fried] products when a small portion of them is eaten during a meal for dessert and for pleasure.)

Other authorities differ (and maintain that these [fried] products do not resemble) pas habaah bekisnin, for the latter is not considered as actual bread111 — according to the authorities who maintain that [pas haba bekisanin] is bread that was kneaded with other liquids or with fruit juice. These fried products, by contrast, were considered as actual bread at the time the dough was made. They are not removed from this category because they were fried or cooked with regard to the blessings Ha­Motzi and Grace, just as they are not removed from this category with regard to the obligation to separate challah, according to the first opinion.

However, [these authorities112 agree that a different ruling applies] according to the opinion that pas haba bekisanin is bread that was kneaded with water alone, but was afterwards filled with honey or different fruits or made into thin dry crackers that are eaten for the sake of pleasure. At the time the dough was kneaded, it was like bread, and it was baked in an oven as bread is, and yet, the blessings HaMotzi and Grace are not recited over it since it is not common for it to serve as the basis for a meal. How much more so [should this ruling apply to] a dough that was kneaded in water, but afterwards, cooked or fried in liquids or in honey! Certainly, frying it in honey will have no lesser effect113 than it being filled with honey and baked in an oven, which removes it from the category of actual bread. For the filling affects [directly] only the inner portion [of the pastry]. When it is fried, by contrast, the entire dough is steeped in the honey, and [the honey] becomes entirely absorbed within [the dough]. Moreover, it was never baked in an oven at all.114

As has already been explained above,115 according to law, leniency should be followed [with regard to the recitation of blessings, for they are requirements] of Rabbinic Law.116 How much more so does this [principle] apply in this instance, for [the common] custom is to show leniency in all instances.117

טז וְאַף לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה109 יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים ריא שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵּן דַּי בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג' כְּמוֹ לְפַת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין, שֶׁהוּא גַּם כֵּן לֶחֶם גָּמוּר לְחַלָּה,ריב,110 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ עָלֶיהָ אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,ריג אַף עַל מִינֵי טִגּוּן גַּם כֵּן אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִקְבֹּעַ סְעוּדָה עֲלֵיהֶם (וּלְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם, אַף לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה אִם אוֹכֵל מֵהֶם מְעַט לְקִנּוּחַ וּלְתַעֲנוּג).ריד

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים רטו (וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינָם דּוֹמִין) לְפַת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין, שֶׁהִיא גַּם כֵּן לֶחֶם גָּמוּר רטז,111 לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהִיא פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַשְׁקִין אוֹ מֵי פֵּרוֹת, אֲבָל מִינֵי טִגּוּן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁתָם הָיוּ לֶחֶם גָּמוּר ריז – לֹא נִפְקַע מֵהֶם שֵׁם לֶחֶם גָּמוּר עַל יְדֵי טִגּוּן אוֹ בִּשּׁוּל לְעִנְיַן "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְקַע מֵהֶם לְעִנְיַן חַלָּה לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.

אֲבָל לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים ריח,112 שֶׁפַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין הִיא פַּת גְּמוּרָה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם לְבַד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ מִלֵּא אוֹתָהּ דְּבַשׁ אוֹ בְּמִינֵי פֵּרוֹת, אוֹ עָשָׂה מִמֶּנָּה עוּגוֹת דַּקּוֹת יְבֵשׁוֹת, וְכוֹסְסִין אוֹתוֹ לְתֵאָבוֹן,ריט וְאַף שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה הָיָה לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, וְגַם נֶאֱפוּ בְּתַנּוּר כְּלֶחֶם גָּמוּר – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם לִקְבֹּעַ עֲלֵיהֶם, כָּל שֶׁכֵּן עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּשְּׁלָהּ אוֹ טִגְּנָהּ בְּמַשְׁקֶה אוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הַטִּגּוּן בִּדְבַשׁ אֵינוֹ גָּרוּעַ113 מִמִּלּוּי בִּדְבַשׁ הָאָפוּי בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמִּלּוּי אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בִּפְנִים, וּבְטִגּוּן כָּל הָעִסָּה הִיא שְׁרוּיָה בִּדְבַשׁ וּבְלוּעָה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּכֻלָּהּ, וְגַם לֹא נֶאֱפֵת בְּתַנּוּר כְּלָל.רכ,114

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה רכא,115 שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,רכב,116 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן כָּאן שֶׁהַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל בְּכָל עִנְיָן: רכג,117

17 All of the above applies when, after being fried or cooked, the pastry has the appearance of bread. For example, [if the pastry] was baked in a frying pan, but there remained a small amount of water in which it was cooked, or some of the liquid in which it was fried remained in the frying pan when it was baked, e.g., meat pies, quiches, or kreplach.118

Nevertheless, there are authorities who maintain that meat pies and quiches, since they are filled with meat or cheese, are considered as pas haba bekisanin even if they are baked in an oven.119 [Hence,] according to all authorities, the blessings HaMotzi and Grace should not be recited upon them unless they serve as the basis for a meal. If they are eaten during the course of a meal, they are covered by the blessing recited over the bread, even if they are fried. [The rationale:] they are served as a food and for nourishment, not as dessert and for pleasure, since they were filled with meat or cheese, not fruit.

Grain products that were cooked in a pot, (e.g., noodles, or kreplach in those places where they are not baked at all in a frying pan with liquid, instead, they are first cooked and afterwards, fried,) do not have the appearance of bread at all. One need not observe the stringency of not eating them without [reciting] the blessings HaMotzi and Grace on bread. [This ruling applies] even when they serve as the basis of a meal, and even when they consist of large pieces, each the size of an olive or more.120

יז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם עַל הָעִסָּה רכד אַחַר הַטִּגּוּן (ז) וְהַבִּשּׁוּל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵת בְּמַחֲבַת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה שָׁם מְעַט מַיִם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה בָּהֶם בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּתָהּ, אוֹ מְעַט מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁנִּטְגְּנָה בָּהֶם בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּתָהּ,רכה כְּמוֹ פַּשְׁטִידָ"א ופלאדי"ן וקרעפלי"ך.רכו,118

אֶלָּא שֶׁהַפַּשְׁטִידָא ופלאדי"ן שֶׁהֵן מְמֻלָּאוֹת בְּבָשָׂר וּגְבִינָה – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים רכז שֶׁהֵן פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין אֲפִלּוּ אִם נֶאֱפוּ בְּתַנּוּר,119 וְאֵין מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלֹא קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.רכח וְאִם אוֹכְלָן בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה – נִפְטָרוֹת בְּבִרְכַּת הַפַּת אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מְטֻגָּנוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בָּאִין לְתַבְשִׁיל וּלְמָזוֹן וְלֹא לְקִנּוּחַ וְתַעֲנוּג, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן מְמֻלָּאִים בְּבָשָׂר וּגְבִינָה וְלֹא בְּפֵרוֹת.רכט

אֲבָל מִינֵי עִסָּה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בִּקְדֵרָה (כְּמוֹ ורימזלי"ך בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז, שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּאַרְצֵנוּ לאקשי"ן,רל וְכֵן קרעפלי"ך בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין אוֹפִים אוֹתָן כְּלָל בְּמַחֲבַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה, אֶלָּא מְבַשְּׁלִים אוֹתָן תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְטַגְּנִין אוֹתָן) – אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם כְּלָל, וְאֵין לְהַחְמִיר בָּהֶם כְּלָל שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלָם בְּלֹא "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן חֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּכָל אַחַת כַּזַּיִת וְיוֹתֵר: רלא,120

18 When does the above apply? When [products made from] dough were cooked. When, by contrast, bread [that had been baked previously] was cooked, cooking does not cause its [status to be downgraded and for] it to be removed from the category of bread, even according to the latter opinion,121 nor does frying cause its status to change.122 The blessings HaMotzi and Grace are recited over [such bread],123 even if it does not serve as the basis of a meal and even if it becomes [partially] dissolved in the cooking process and only an olive-sized portion remains from every slice.

[Different rules apply,] however, to a piece of bread that is smaller than an olive. Whether it was [originally] larger and was broken up through the cooking process or it was less than an olive-sized portion before it was cooked, the cooking process causes [its status to be downgraded and for] it to be removed from the category of bread with regard to the blessing. This [ruling] applies even if the form of bread is still evident. Since it was cooked, it is not considered as having the appearance of bread. The blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah should be recited even if one eats an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal, provided that the pieces were smaller than an olive-sized portion.124 [This ruling applies] even if the pieces became attached through cooking and now each piece is the size of an olive or larger; it is only that before cooking, each of the pieces was less than an olive-sized portion.125

The above [rulings] apply when [the pieces of bread] were cooked in a k’li rishon.126 If, however, they were placed in a bowl and [liquid] from a k’li rishon was poured over them, [the ruling] depends on the differences of opinion whether or not [liquid poured from a k’li rishon] can cook food as a k’li rishon does. Therefore, one should refrain from partaking of them except in the midst of a meal127 if they have the appearance of bread, i.e., they can be recognized as bread.128

If, however, because of [the liquid] poured over them, [the pieces] ceased to have the appearance of bread — indeed, even if [bread]crumbs were soaked in cold water until they ceased to have the appearance of bread — one should recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al hamichyah). [This ruling applies] even if one ate an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal, for their [unique status] has been nullified and they have already been removed from the category of bread, since none of thesepieces are the size of an olive and they no longer have the appearance of bread. Whenever water turns white because of the crumbs [that were soaked in it, it can be assumed that] they have lost the appearance of bread.129 The same law applies with regard to pieces of bread that are dried over coals and then left to soak in beer. If none of them are the size of an olive and they no longer have the appearance of bread, the blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited upon them.

יח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּעִסָּה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה, אֲבָל לֶחֶם גָּמוּר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל – לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל אֲפִלּוּ לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה,121 וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי טִגּוּן,רלב,122 וּמְבָרְכִים עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן רלג,123 אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִמּוֹחַ בַּבִּשּׁוּל וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר מִכָּל פְּרוּסָה אֶלָּא כַּזַּיִת.רלד,9

אֲבָל פְּרוּסָה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּזַּיִת, בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה פְּרוּסָה גְּדוֹלָה וְנֶחְלְקָה בַּבִּשּׁוּל,רלה בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּזַּיִת רלו קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה רלז – יָצְאָה מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה, אֲפִלּוּ אִם נִרְאֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם,רלח שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב תֹּאַר לֶחֶם,רלט וּמְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג', אֲפִלּוּ אִם אוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה מִפֵּרוּרִים פְּחוּתִים מִכַּזַּיִת.רמ,124 וַאֲפִלּוּ נִדְבְּקוּ עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם עַתָּה כַּזַּיִת וְיוֹתֵר בְּכָל חֲתִיכָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁקֹּדֶם הַבִּשּׁוּל לֹא הָיָה בְּכָל אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כַּזַּיִת.רמא,125

וְהוּא שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ (ח) בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן,רמב,126 אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחָם רמג בִּקְעָרָה וְעֵרָה עֲלֵיהֶם מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – תָּלוּי בְּמַחֲלֹקֶת שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ בְּעֵרוּי אִם מְבַשֵּׁל כִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן אִם לָאו.רמד לָכֵן יֵשׁ לִמְנֹעַ שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלָם כִּי אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה127 אִם נִרְאֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם,רמה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּכָּר וְיָדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא לֶחֶם.רמו,128

אֲבָל אִם הָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם עַל יְדֵי הָעֵרוּי, וַאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוּרִים הַשְּׁרוּיִים בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִים שֶׁהָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה זוֹ רמז – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג',רמח אֲפִלּוּ אִם אוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטְּלוּ וְיָצְאוּ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם לְגַמְרֵי,רמט כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כַּזַּיִת בְּכָל אֶחָד רנ וְגַם לֹא תֹּאַר לֶחֶם. וְכָל שֶׁהַמַּיִם מִתְלַבְּנִים מֵחֲמַת הַפֵּרוּרִים – כְּבָר הָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם.רנא,129 וְהוּא הַדִּין לַחֲתִיכוֹת פַּת שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין עַל הַגֶּחָלִים וְשׁוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשֵׁכָר,רנב שֶׁאִם אֵין כַּזַּיִת בְּכָל אֶחָד וְאֵין תֹּאַר לֶחֶם – מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת": רנג

19 Similar [laws apply to] breadcrumbs in a bowl that honey, milk, or soup cause to stick and adhere to each other.130 If they no longer have the appearance of bread and none of them individually are the size of an olive, the blessings HaMotzi and Grace should not be recited over them, even when one eats an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal, as [is the law regarding dough that was] cooked or fried according to the latter opinion explained above,131 since, fundamentally, the halachah follows that view.

When, by contrast, breadcrumbs do not stick together, even when they do not have the appearance of bread because they are very small, the blessings HaMotzi and Grace should be recited over them, even when one does not eat an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal. [Indeed,] the blessing HaMotzi should be recited even over one flour-thin crumb of bread. Since it is bread alone — there is no mixture of liquid that joins and attaches it [to other crumbs] — its status is not downgraded and it is not removed from the category of bread. Moreover, even if one places small crumbs of bread into liquid briefly to soften them, but they do not remain in the liquid long enough for them to lose the appearance of bread,132 one should recite the blessing HaMotzi over them even if they do not look like bread because they are very small.133 [This ruling applies] even if they are placed in a liquid so hot that a hand recoils from it, as long as it is in a k’li sheni which does not cook [food placed into it].134

יט וְכֵן פֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם רנד שֶׁמְּחַבְּרִים וּמְדַבְּקִים אוֹתָם בִּקְעָרָה בִּדְבַשׁ אוֹ חָלָב אוֹ מָרָק,רנה,130 אִם אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם מֵחֲמַת זֶה,רנו וְאֵין בְּכָל אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כַּזַּיִת רנז – אֵין מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה,רנח כְּמוֹ בְּבִשּׁוּל וְטִגּוּן לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה רנט,131 שֶׁכֵּן עִקָּר.

אֲבָל פֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם שֶׁאֵינָן מְחֻבָּרִין יַחַד,רס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן דַּקִּין בְּיוֹתֵר רסא – מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן רסב אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, אֲפִלּוּ עַל פֵּרוּר אֶחָד דַּק כְּקֶמַח מְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא",רסג שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא פַּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ בְּלִי תַּעֲרֹבֶת שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה בְּתוֹכוֹ הַמְחַבְּרוֹ וּמְדַבְּקוֹ רסד – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹרַת פַּת לְעוֹלָם. (ט) וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נוֹתֵן פֵּרוּרִים דַּקִּים לְתוֹךְ אֵיזֶה מַשְׁקֶה לְפִי שָׁעָה לְרַכְּכָם, וְאֵינָם שׁוֹהִים בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה זוֹ132 – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא",רסה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תֹּאַר לֶחֶם מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהֵם דַּקִּים בְּיוֹתֵר.133 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נוֹתְנָם בְּמַשְׁקֶה חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בָּהֶם, אִם הוּא בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי126 שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַשֵּׁל: רסו,134

20 Similarly, if one crumbled bread into crumbs that are small, like flour, and afterwards, joined them together in a paste-like mixture — even if one had first soaked them in water until they lost the appearance of bread — since they are the size of an olive in their present form, he should recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace over them. For when there is an olive-sized portion [of food that is made from breadcrumbs], it is not necessary that it have the appearance of bread135 [to require the blessing HaMotzi].136 [This ruling applies] even when one kneaded them with hot water from a k’li sheni.137[Moreover,] even if one kneads such crumbs with other liquids or with fruit juice, the products are not placed in the category of pas haba bekisanin. [The rationale:] Since these [crumbs] were originally bread [that requires the blessing HaMotzi], they are not removed from the category of bread unless none of them are the size of an olive (and they are not combined together in a dough-like mixture, but rather are joined together by a liquid that attaches them to each other138 or they were soaked in [a liquid] until they lost the appearance of bread).139

Even if after being kneaded, they were fried in liquid140 or even cooked in a pot,141 they are not removed from the category of bread, just as an olive-sized portion of bread is not removed from the category of bread through frying or cooking.

Nevertheless, if one mixed flour with [breadcrumbs] and fried [the mixture] in fat or other liquids, there is a question whether the ruling is dependent on the majority [of the mixture], (i.e., the flour and the oil,) and thus the blessings HaMotzi and the Grace after Meals should not be recited upon [these products] even ifone sits down to partake of a meal of them142 [or it could be said that such foods require the blessings HaMotzi and Grace].143 Similarly, if [breadcrumbs] were kneaded together with fat and a large amount of flour, [there is a question] whether the flour should be considered of primary importance, and therefore, one should not recite the blessings HaMotzi and Grace unless he ate an amount sufficient to serve as the basis for a meal, were [the mixture] to be baked, as is the law regarding flour that was kneaded with fat, other liquids, or fruit juice, and baked in an oven.144 [Nevertheless, there is a rationale to the contrary — to require the blessings HaMotzi and Grace:] It can be said that just as [flour from] a species of grain is important and is not considered as insignificant [even though] the majority [of a mixture is composed of other substances],145 so too, because of its importance,146 bread never becomes insignificant [even though] the majority [of a mixture is composed of other substances], even when it is flour from a species of grain.

If, however, one kneaded [the breadcrumbs] with boiling water from a k’li rishon, since they were removed from the category of bread when they were cooked with boiling water [during the kneading] and none of the crumbs were the size of an olive, they are governed by the laws of flour that has been kneaded, over which the blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited after it has been fried, even though the product is the size of an olive.

כ וְכֵן אִם פֵּרֵר הַלֶּחֶם לְפֵרוּרִים דַּקִּים כְּקֶמַח וְחָזַר וְגִבְּלָם יַחַד,רסז אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁרוּ תְּחִלָּה בְּמַיִם עַד שֶׁהָלַךְ תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם מֵהֶם,רסח כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו יֵשׁ בָּהֶם כַּזַּיִת – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁבְּכַזַּיִת אֵין צָרִיךְ תֹּאַר לֶחֶם.רסט,135,136 וַאֲפִלּוּ לָשׁ אוֹתָם בְּרוֹתְחִין שֶׁל כְּלִי שֵׁנִי,137(י) וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לָשׁ אוֹתָם בְּמַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת – אֵין לָהֶם דִּין פַּת הַבָּאָה בְּכִיסָנִין,רע שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיוּ לֶחֶם גָּמוּר מִתְּחִלָּתָם – אֵינָן יוֹצְאִים לְעוֹלָם מִתּוֹרַת פַּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵין בְּכָל אֶחָד כַּזַּיִת (וְאֵינָן מְגֻבָּלִים יַחַד בְּדֶרֶךְ לִישָׁה, אֶלָּא מְחֻבָּרִים בִּלְבַד עַל יְדֵי אֵיזֶה מַשְׁקֶה הַמְדַבְּקָם זֶה עִם זֶה,רעא,138 אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁהָלַךְ מֵהֶם תֹּאַר הַלֶּחֶם רעב[)].139

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אַחַר הַלִּישָׁה טִגְּנָן בְּמַשְׁקֶה,רעג,140 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְּׁלָם בִּקְדֵרָה רגד,141 – לֹא נִתְבַּטְּלוּ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם,רעה,130 כְּמוֹ שֶׁבְּכַזַּיִת לֶחֶם גָּמוּר לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם עַל יְדֵי טִגּוּן וּבִשּׁוּל.רעו,135

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עֵרַב בָּהֶם קֶמַח וְטִגְּנָן בְּשֶׁמֶן אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם נֵלֵךְ אַחַר הָרֹב רעז (שֶׁהוּא הַקֶּמַח וְהַשֻּׁמָּן), וְאֵין מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה).רעח,רעט,142 וְכֵן אִם לָשׁ אוֹתָם עִם שֻׁמָּן וְקֶמַח רפ הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶם,רפא אִם נֵלֵךְ אַחַר הַקֶּמַח וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֶלָּא בְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה, כְּדִין קֶמַח שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁ בְּשֻׁמָּן אוֹ בְּמַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת וְנֶאֱפָה בְּתַנּוּר.רפב כִּי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁכְּמוֹ שֶׁמִּין דָּגָן חָשׁוּב וְאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בְּרֹב בִּשְׁאָר מִינִים,רפג כָּךְ לֶחֶם גָּמוּר אֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בְּרֹב מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ רפד אֲפִלּוּ בְּקֶמַח שֶׁל מִין דָּגָן.

אֲבָל אִם לָשׁ אוֹתָם בְּרוֹתְחִין מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,רפה כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בְּרוֹתְחִין וְלֹא הָיָה בָּהֶם כַּזַּיִת בְּכָל פֵּרוּר,רפו הֲרֵי דִּינָם כְּקֶמַח שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" אַחַר הַטִּגּוּן רפז,116 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כַּזַּיִת: רפח,142

21 There is an authority who maintains that if one soaks his bread in red wine, it is considered to have lost the appearance of bread, because its form has changed. If none of the pieces are the size of an olive, one should recite the blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah even if one eats an amount sufficient to serve as the basis for a meal.

It is also unnecessary to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the wine absorbed in the bread, because the wine is ancillary (tafel) to it. Similarly, when one soaks a cake which requires the blessing Borei minei mezonos in whiskey or other beverages, it is not necessary to recite a blessing over the liquids absorbed in it. If, however, one recited the blessing HaMotzi, it is not necessary to recite a blessing on beverages147 at all, even if one drinks them. For one does not recite a blessing over beverages that one drinks in the course of a meal, as stated in sec. 212[:2].148 Similarly, when wine is placed in a bowl with salt to dip meat in, it is not necessary to recite a blessing on the wine, because it is tafel to the meat and the meat was already included in the blessing Ha­Motzi, as explained in sec. 177[:1].

כא יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר רפט שֶׁהַשּׁוֹרֶה פִּתּוֹ בְּיַיִן אָדֹם,רצ הוֹאִיל וְנִשְׁתַּנֵּית צוּרָתָהּ עַל יְדֵי זֶה רצא – בָּטֵל מִמֶּנָּה תֹּאַר לֶחֶם,רצב וְאִם אֵין בְּכָל פְּרוּסָה כַּזַּיִת רצג – מְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" וּמֵעֵין ג' רצד אֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל שִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה.רצה,18

וְגַם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל הַיַּיִן הַבָּלוּעַ בַּפַּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל אֵלֶיהָ.רצו וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹרֶה פַּת שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" בְּיֵין שָׂרָף אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמַּשְׁקִין הַבְּלוּעִים בָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם בֵּרַךְ עַל הַפַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין147 אֲפִלּוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ שְׁתִיָּה, שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל שְׁתִיָּה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה,רצז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"ב.רצח,148 וְכֵן כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנִים יַיִן בַּקְּעָרָה עִם הַמֶּלַח לִטְבֹּל בּוֹ הַבָּשָׂר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל לַבָּשָׂר, וְהַבָּשָׂר כְּבָר נִפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא",רצט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"ז: ש

22 When flour was scalded149 with boiling water and a loaf was then made from it and baked in an oven or in a frying pan without liquid, it is defined as bread150 and the blessings HaMotzi and Grace after Meals are recited over it,151 even if it is blended thinly with boiling water. Since it was baked afterwards without liquid, it became bread (unless its blend was extremely thin. In that instance, even when the flour was not scalded with boiling water, the blessings HaMotzi and Grace are not recited over it, unless one eats an amount sufficient to serve as the basis of a meal, as stated above.)152

כב קֶמַח שֶׁחֲלָטוֹ בְּרוֹתְחִין149 וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ פַּת וַאֲפָאָהּ בְּתַנּוּר אוֹ בְּמַחֲבַת בְּלֹא מַשְׁקֶה – לֶחֶם גָּמוּר150 הוּא, וּמְבָרְכִים עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.שא,151 וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה בְּלִילָתוֹ רַכָּה בְּמַיִם רוֹתְחִין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ אֲפָאוֹ בְּלֹא מַשְׁקֶה – נַעֲשָׂה לֶחֶם גָּמוּר שב (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה בְּלִילָתוֹ רַכָּה מְאֹד, שֶׁאָז אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא חֲלִיטָה בְּרוֹתְחִין אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֶלָּא כְּשִׁעוּר קְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה): שג,152

23 When dough is baked on a spit and it is basted with oil, fat, egg whites, or fruit juice throughout [the baking process], it is not considered as bread at all.153 The blessings Borei minei mezonos and Al hamichyah are recited over it, (even if one eats an amount sufficient to serve as the basis for a meal).154 When, however, actual bread is roasted on a spit, even though it is basted with oil, it is never removed from the category of bread, as stated above.155

[The sections] from here until section 174 [are not extant. Indeed,] they were lacking even in the first printing [of the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch].

כג בָּצֵק שֶׁאוֹפִין בְּשַׁפּוּד וּמוֹשְׁחִין אוֹתוֹ תָּמִיד בְּשֶׁמֶן אוֹ שֻׁמָּן אוֹ מֵי בֵּיצִים שד אוֹ מֵי פֵּרוֹת שה – אֵין תּוֹרַת לֶחֶם עָלָיו כְּלָל,153 וּמְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" שו וּמֵעֵין ג' (יא)154 (אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְבִיעוּת סְעוּדָה).שז אֲבָל לֶחֶם גָּמוּר שֶׁצּוֹלִין בְּשַׁפּוּד, אַף שֶׁמּוֹשְׁחִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם לְעוֹלָם,שח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה: שט,155

(מכאן עד סימן קע"ד לא נמצא גם בדפוס הראשון)