SECTION 162 The Laws Governing Raising and Rubbing One’s Hands When Washing. (1–16)

קסב דִּינֵי הַגְבָּהָה וְשִׁפְשׁוּף הַיָּדַיִם בִּנְטִילָה וּבוֹ ט"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 The order of washing when using a reviis1 of water is as follows: When the entire reviis is poured over both one’s hands all at one time, e.g., another person pours the water over his hands, or he holds the k’li with his fingertips and pours water over both hands at one time, his hands are purified. Needless to say, this applies if the person has a large quantity of water and pours an [entire] reviis over each hand individually.

If, however, one desires to pour water over each hand individually using only one reviis of water [for both hands], he must pour water over each hand twice. For when he pours [less than a reviis of] water over his hand the first time, the water contracts impurity from his hand, since the water [poured over his hand] comprises less than a reviis, which is the measure [of water that brings about] the purification of hands.2 When he then pours water over his hand a second time, the water of the second pouring purifies the water of the first pouring and his hand.3

Afterward, as an extra measure of purity, he should dry [his hands] with a cloth or with another entity to remove the first water from his hands entirely. [This follows] the view of those authorities who maintain that this iswhy one must dry [his hands after washing], as stated in sec. 158[:17].

א סֵדֶר נְטִילָה מֵרְבִיעִית,א,1 כָּךְ הוּא: ב אִם שׁוֹפֵךְ כָּל הָרְבִיעִית בְּפַעַם אַחַת עַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאַחֵר יוֹצֵק עַל יָדָיו, אוֹ שֶׁאוֹחֵז הַכְּלִי בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְשׁוֹפֵךְ עַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאֶחָד ג – נִטְהֲרוּ יָדָיו.ד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַיִם רַבִּים וְשׁוֹפֵךְ רְבִיעִית עַל כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ.

אֲבָל אִם בָּא לִטֹּל עַל כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ מֵרְבִיעִית בִּלְבַד – צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ עַל כָּל אַחַת שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים,ה כִּי כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ עַל הַיָּד פַּעַם אַחַת נִטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם מֵהַיָּד, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בָּהֶם רְבִיעִית, שֶׁהוּא שִׁעוּר טָהֳרָה בַּיָּדַיִם,ו,2 וּכְשֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ שֵׁנִית מְטַהֲרִים מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים אֶת מַיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים ז וְאֶת הַיָּד.ח,3

וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְנַגְּבָהּ בְּמַפָּה אוֹ בְּדָבָר אַחֵר לְהָסִיר הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לְגַמְרֵי מִן הַיָּד,ט מִשּׁוּם טָהֳרָה יְתֵרָה, לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁזֶּהוּ טַעַם הַנִּגּוּב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ח: י

2 [The following rule applies when] one dried his hands with a firm entity which does not absorb the water, for example, he rubbed them on a wall or on his head (even on his hair, as long as he does not scratch his head with his hands — in the latter instance, he would be required to wash his hands again4 — but merely rubbed them over [his hair]). Even though he then touches the water that he rubbed [on that firm entity], his hands do not contract impurity as a result of touching moisture that stemmed from the first pouring of water, because that water was already purified with water from the second pouring.5

If one poured a double measure of water on each hand individually — i.e., there is enough water in this one pouring to twice cover the entire portion of the hand that must be washed6 — the water7 has been purified as if he poured water over his hands twice.

ב וְאַף אִם נִגֵּב בְּדָבָר קָשֶׁה שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם נִבְלָעִים,יא כְּגוֹן שֶׁשִּׁפְשְׁפָן בַּכֹּתֶל אוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ (אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׂעֲרוֹתָיו, רַק שֶׁלֹּא חִכֵּךְ בָּהֶן, שֶׁאָז הָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל,יב,4 אֶלָּא שֶׁשִּׁפְשֵׁף עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְּמַעְלָה),יג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחוֹזֵר וְנוֹגֵעַ בְּמֵי הַשִּׁפְשׁוּף – אֵין יָדָיו נִטְמָאוֹת מִשּׁוּם נְגִיעָתָם בְּלַחְלוּחִית מַיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁהָיוּ טְמֵאִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִטְהֲרוּ בַּמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים.יד,5

וְאִם שָׁפַךְ עַל כָּל יָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ שְׁטִיפָה אַחַת מְרֻבָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמֵי שְׁטִיפָה זוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּמְשַׁח כָּל הַפֶּרֶק הַצָּרִיךְ נְטִילַת יָדַיִם6 שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים – נִטְהֲרוּ הַמַּיִם טו,7 כְּאִלּוּ שָׁפַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים:

3 When does the above apply? When he poured water over each hand individually. If, however, he poured water over both his hands at one time, a single pouring is not at all effective in purifying his hands, unless he pours an entire reviis over them at one time.8 Anything less than a reviis of water, even if it comes from a remainder of a measure of purity,9 as explained in sec. 160[:16], does not purify two hands at one time, unless one pours water over them twice. [In that instance,] the water from the second pouring purifies the water of the first pouring and his hands.10

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁשָּׁפַךְ עַל כָּל יָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, אֲבָל אִם שׁוֹפֵךְ עַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת – אֵין שְׁטִיפָה אַחַת מוֹעֶלֶת לְטַהֲרָן כְּלָל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שׁוֹפֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת,טז,8 אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּיִם בָּאוּ מִשִּׁיּוּרֵי טָהֳרָה,9 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ס יז – אֵינָן מְטַהֲרִים שְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם כְּאַחַת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁתֵּי שְׁטִיפוֹת,יח שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִים אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְאֶת הַיָּדַיִם: יט,10

4 [When one pours adouble measure of water over each hand in a single pouring,]11 the water on his hands is impure and it must be dried off.12 Only afterward may the person eat.

If he rubbed his hands on a firm entity and afterwards touched the water that he had rubbed [on that entity], his hands contract impurity, because they touched moisture that came from the impure water.

If one immersed [hands over which water was poured in the above manner] in the waters of a mikveh, there is no need to dry them. For the mikveh purifies the impure water when it comes into contact [with the water of the mikveh].13

ד אֲבָל11 הַמַּיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם טְמֵאִים,כ וְצָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָן כא,12 וְאַחַר יֹאכַל.

וְאִם שִׁפְשְׁפָן בְּדָבָר קָשֶׁה וְחָזַר וְנָגַע בְּמֵי הַשִּׁפְשׁוּף – נִטְמְאוּ הַיָּדַיִם בִּנְגִיעָתָן בְּלַחְלוּחִית מַיִם הַטְּמֵאִים.כב

וְאִם הִטְבִּילָן בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה – אֵין צָרִיךְ נִגּוּב,כג שֶׁהַמִּקְוֶה מְטַהֵר מַיִם הַטְּמֵאִים בְּהַשָּׁקָה: כד,13

5 All the above applies when the person’s hands are clean. If, however, there is filth from mud or other intervening substances on his hands, he must pour water over his hands three times: the first time [solely] to remove the filth14 and then [a second and third time] for the first and second pouring. Alternatively, [he need only pour a second time, if he] pours an entire reviis at one time.

[When there was filth on a person’s hands, the third pouring is warranted,because] the water that he first poured over his hands contracted impurity from his hands even if he poured an entire reviis at one time. [The rationale is that the first pouring] did not purify his hands because the filth on them intervened.15 Moreover, even the first water poured after the initial pouring did not purify [the water of the initial pouring].Indeed, it also contracted impurity from the person’s hands, because the water poured initially did not come to purify the person’s handsat all, but merely to remove the intervening substance.16

Nevertheless, the water from this initial pouring does not reduce the measure of a reviis [that was originally present in the k’li]. Thus, although a reviis does not remain in the k’li when one begins pouring for the first time after the initial washing, this is of no consequence. [The rationale is that] the water that he poured originally [also] came for the sake of washing and is thus included in [the measure of a reviis]. Thus since there was a reviis in the k’li when he originally began washing, that is sufficient.

(If there is no intervening substance on the person’s hands, but they are nevertheless soiled and filthy, the filth must be removed from them by washing. [Nevertheless,] as long as that substance does not intervene when washing, e.g., filth which is moist, it is sufficient that it be removed through the first and second washings, or through pouring an entire reviis at one time, which come to purify one’s hands from their impurity.)

The fundamental reason [our Sages] decreed that hands are impure was because “hands are busy,”17 and possibly, they touched a place of filth. Therefore, [the Sages] ordained that they be washed to cleanse them from their filth. Nevertheless, since it was decreed that they are impure, the water from the first pouring [in an amount less than a reviis] also becomes impure; this water is [then] purified by the water of the second pouring.

ה וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁיָּדָיו נְקִיּוֹת, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן לִכְלוּךְ טִיט אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל דָּבָר הַחוֹצֵץ – צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ עֲלֵיהֶן ג' פְּעָמִים, רִאשׁוֹנָה לְהַעֲבִיר הַלִּכְלוּךְ,כה,14 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים,כו אוֹ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת.כז

וּמַיִם שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ רִאשׁוֹנָה נִטְמְאוּ מֵהַיָּדַיִם, אֲפִלּוּ שָׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא טִהֲרוּ הַיָּדַיִם מִפְּנֵי הַלִּכְלוּךְ שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁחוֹצֵץ,כח,15 וְגַם מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁאַחֲרֵיהֶם לֹא טִהֲרוּ, וְנִטְמְאוּ גַּם הֵם מֵהַיָּדַיִם, הוֹאִיל וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ רִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא בָּאוּ כְּלָל לְטָהֳרַת הַיָּדַיִם כִּי אִם לְהָסִיר הַחֲצִיצָה.16

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינָם מְמַעֲטִים אֶת הָרְבִיעִית, שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא נִשְׁאַר בַּכְּלִי רְבִיעִית כְּשֶׁמַּתְחִיל לִטֹּל מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁאַחֲרֵיהֶם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ רִאשׁוֹנָה הֵם צֹרֶךְ הַנְּטִילָה וּמִכְּלָלָהּ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהָיָה רְבִיעִית בַּכְּלִי בְּהַתְחָלַת נְטִילָתוֹ – דַּיּוֹ.כט

(אֲבָל אִם אֵין עַל יָדָיו דָּבָר הַחוֹצֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מְלֻכְלָכוֹת וּמְטֻנָּפוֹת, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִיר מֵהֶם הַטִּנּוּף בַּנְּטִילָה, כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ בַּנְּטִילָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא לַח ל – דַּיּוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁעוֹבֵר עַל יְדֵי רִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים, אוֹ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת, שֶׁהֵם בָּאִים לְטַהֵר אֶת הַיָּדַיִם מִטֻּמְאָתָן.

וְעִקַּר טֻמְאַת הַיָּדַיִם לֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם עַסְקָנִיּוֹת,17 וְשֶׁמָּא נָגְעוּ בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף, לְכָךְ הִתְקִינוּ נְטִילָה לְטַהֲרָן מִטִּנּוּפָן, אֶלָּא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן טֻמְאָה – נִטְמְאוּ מַיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, וְנִטְהָרִים עַל יְדֵי שְׁנִיִּים לא[)]:

6 [Our Sages’ decrees regarding] the impurity and the purification of hands apply only [to the portion of the hand — from the fingertips] until the wrist18 — that is required to be washed, but not beyond the wrist. Thus if one first poured water over his hands until the wrist and the second time, above the wrist, the water above the wrist does not become impure, even though it is the first water poured there. Consequently, if this water trickles back below the wrist, it does not impart impurity to the hand. If, however, the water of the first pouring that was poured over the portion below the wrist — and thus became impure — then trickled above the wrist, it is not purified by the water of the second pouring, even though the person also poured the water of this second pouring above the wrist.19 Hence, if the “first water” [that remained above the wrist] then trickles back to the area below the wrist, it causes the hand to become impure. For this reason, our Sages stated20 that a person who washes his hands should raise his hands upward, so that the water above the wrist will not trickle back below the wrist.

Nevertheless, if the person washes his entire hand until the wrist,21 he should not lift up his entire hand fully, lest the water flow to the forearm, to a place where it will remain after he dries his hands. He will not dry that place, because it is covered by his clothes. Afterwards, when he lowers his hands to eat, the water will flow back from the forearm to his hand, imparting impurity to it. Instead, he should [merely] raise his fingertips. In this manner, the remainder of his hand will be slightly upraised; there is then no concern that the water from the fingers will flow to the forearm.

One must take care that his hands remain in an upraised position from the time he completed washing them until he dries them. For if he lifts [his hands] up and then lowers them, the water that flowed beyond the wrist when he lifted them up will flow back below the wrist [when he lowers them, thereby imparting impurity to them].

Therefore, one should wash both his hands at the same time.22 For if he washes one hand and raises it upward and then pours [water] with it on his other hand, he will be lowering his first hand when he pours with it.

If a person desires to lower his hands from the beginning of the washing, so that the water from the first pouring will not flow from the portion of the hand below the wrist to [the forearm] beyond the wrist, he has that option. He must, however, take care that the water flows over his fingertips.

If one pours an entire reviis of water over each hand individually or an entire reviis over both hands at one time, and thus no impurity is imparted at all,23 he need not be careful concerning all the above. Needless to say, this also applies when one immerses his hands.24

There are authorities who maintain that our Sages’ statement20 that a person who washes his hands must raise them is not speaking about one who washes his entire hand until the wrist, but rather about one who washes only his fingers, in keeping with the opinion of those authorities who maintain that it is sufficient to wash until the joint where the fingers reach the palm of the hand.25 [Nevertheless, even these authorities agree that] the impurity one’s hands impart to the first water and their purification through the second pouring applies with regard to the entire area until the wrist. Therefore, there is reason for concern that the water from the first pouring flowed beyond the joint where the fingers reach the palm of the hand, and became impure there. Moreover, even if the water from the first pouring did not flow from the fingers to [the area of the palm], but instead, was poured directly there from the k’li, it is possible that the water from the second washing did not cover the entire area of the first washing. Accordingly, the water from the first pouring would remain impure and would impart impurity to the hand if it flows down to the fingers when the person lowers his hands. Therefore, it is necessary for a person to raise his fingertips upward from the conclusion of the washing until he dries his hands.26

Even if he desires to hold his fingers lower from the beginning of the washing [onward], it is not effective [in validating the washing], for it is impossible for a person to be exact and wash his hands only to the joint, in a manner where the water will not go even slightly beyond his fingers. If the water reaches that portion of the hand, it becomes impure there, even though it did not flow there from his hand, but from the k’li.

If the person immersed his hands or poured a reviis over them at one time — even if he poured the water over his fingers and it flowed past the joint27 — the water does not become impure, because these are waters of purity.

Based on this understanding, the present custom is to be lenient regarding lifting up one’s hands,28 since it is customary to pour water over each hand three times even though one’s hands are clean.29 Thus we need not be concerned that water from the second pouring did not reach every place reached by the water of the first pouring, for [even] if the water from the second pouring did not reach there, water from the third pouring did.

ו טֻמְאַת הַיָּדַיִם וְטָהֳרָתָן אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא עַד הַפֶּרֶק18 הַצָּרִיךְ נְטִילַת יָדַיִם וְלֹא חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק, שֶׁאִם נָטַל הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עַד הַפֶּרֶק וְהַשְּׁנִיִּים חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק – לֹא נִטְמְאוּ שָׁם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם שָׁם רִאשׁוֹנִים, וּלְפִיכָךְ, אִם חָזְרוּ לַפֶּרֶק – אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּד. אֲבָל אִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁהָיוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּרֶק וְנִטְמְאוּ יָצְאוּ חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּטַל גַּם הַשְּׁנִיִּים חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק – לֹא טִהֲרוּם שָׁם,19 וּלְפִיכָךְ, אִם חָזְרוּ לַפֶּרֶק – חָזְרוּ וְטִמְּאוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אֶת הַיָּד.לב לְכָךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: לג,20 הַנּוֹטֵל – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה, שֶׁלֹּא יַחְזְרוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁחוּץ לַפֶּרֶק לְתוֹךְ הַפֶּרֶק.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נוֹטֵל כָּל הַיָּד עַד הַקָּנֶה21 שֶׁל זְרוֹעַ – לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ כָּל הַיָּד לְגַמְרֵי, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ מִמֶּנָּה מַיִם עַל הַזְּרוֹעַ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם גַּם אַחַר שֶׁיְּנַגֵּב יָדָיו, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְנַגֵּב אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְכֻסֶּה בִּבְגָדִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיַּשְׁפִּיל יָדוֹ לֶאֱכֹל בָּהּ – יַחְזְרוּ מֵהַזְּרוֹעַ לְיָדוֹ וִיטַמְּאוּהָ,לד אֶלָּא יַגְבִּיהַּ רָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו,לה וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה תְּהֵא שְׁאָר הַיָּד מֻגְבַּהַת קְצָת, שֶׁמֵּהָאֶצְבָּעוֹת אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ עַל הַזְּרוֹעַ.

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֻגְבָּהִים וְעוֹמְדִים מִסּוֹף הַנְּטִילָה עַד שֶׁיְּנַגְּבָן, שֶׁאִם יַגְבִּיהָן וְיַחֲזֹר וְיַשְׁפִּילָן – יַחְזְרוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁיָּצְאוּ חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק עַל יְדֵי הַגְבָּהָתוֹ וְיָשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹךְ הַפֶּרֶק.לו

לְפִיכָךְ, יִטֹּל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת,22 שֶׁאִם יִטֹּל יָדוֹ אַחַת וְיַגְבִּיהֶנָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁפֹּךְ בָּהּ עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה – נִמְצָא מוֹרִידָהּ לְמַטָּה כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ בָּהּ.לז

וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְהַשְׁפִּילָן מִתְּחִלַּת הַנְּטִילָה שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק כְּלָל מִתּוֹךְ הַפֶּרֶק – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ,לח רַק שֶׁיַּשְׁגִּיחַ שֶׁיָּבוֹא הַמַּיִם עַל רָאשֵׁי הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת.לט

וְאִם שׁוֹפֵךְ רְבִיעִית עַל כָּל יָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,מ אוֹ רְבִיעִית עַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאֶחָד,מא שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מַיִם טְמֵאִים כְּלָל23 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה כְּלָל. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַמַּטְבִּיל יָדָיו.מב,24

וְיֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים מג מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים:20 הַנּוֹטֵל צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ יָדָיו, אֵינוֹ בְּנוֹטֵל כָּל הַיָּד עַד הַקָּנֶה שֶׁל זְרוֹעַ, אֶלָּא בְּנוֹטֵל הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת לְבַדָּן, וּכְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַנְּטִילָה דַּיָּהּ עַד מְקוֹם חִבּוּר הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת לְכַף הַיָּד,מד,25 וְטֻמְאַת הַיָּדַיִם לָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְטָהֳרָתָן מֵהַשְּׁנִיִּים הִיא עַד הַקָּנֶה שֶׁל זְרוֹעַ, לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא הָלְכוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים חוּץ לִמְקוֹם חִבּוּר הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת וְנִטְמְאוּ שָׁם, אַף אִם לֹא יָצְאוּ לְשָׁם מֵהָאֶצְבָּעוֹת, אֶלָּא הָלְכוּ לְשָׁם מֵחֲמַת הַכְּלִי,מה וְהַשְּׁנִיִּים שֶׁמָּא לֹא הָלְכוּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהָלְכוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בְּטֻמְאָתָן, וּמְטַמְּאִין הַיָּד אִם יוֹרְדִים לָאֶצְבָּעוֹת כְּשֶׁמַּשְׁפִּיל יָדָיו, לָכֵן צָרִיךְ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ רָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו לְמַעְלָה מִסּוֹף הַנְּטִילָה עַד שֶׁיְּנַגֵּב.מו,26 וְאַף אִם רוֹצֶה לְהַשְׁפִּילָן מִתְּחִלַּת הַנְּטִילָה – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל, כִּי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְצַמְצֵם לִטֹּל מַמָּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּרֶק שֶׁלֹּא יֵלְכוּ הַמַּיִם חוּץ לְאֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו מְעַט, וְאִם הָלְכוּ לְשָׁם – נִטְמְאוּ שָׁם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָרְדוּ לְשָׁם מֵהָאֶצְבָּעוֹת אֶלָּא מֵהַכְּלִי. וְהַמַּטְבִּיל יָדָיו אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְבִיעִית כְּאֶחָד, אֲפִלּוּ שָׁפַךְ עַל הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת וְיָצְאוּ מֵהֶן חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק27 – לֹא נִטְמְאוּ שָׁם כְּלָל כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם מֵי טָהֳרָה.מז

וְעַל פִּי סְבָרָא זוֹ נָהֲגוּ עַכְשָׁו לְהָקֵל בְּהַגְבָּהַת הַיָּדַיִם,מח,28 לְפִי שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לִשְׁפֹּךְ עַל כָּל יָד ג' פְּעָמִים אַף שֶׁהֵן נְקִיּוֹת,29 וְשׁוּב אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא הָלְכוּ הַשְּׁנִיִּים בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהָלְכוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים,מט שֶׁאִם לֹא הָלְכוּ הַשְּׁנִיִּים – הָלְכוּ הַשְּׁלִישִׁיִּים: נ

7 When one pours the water from the first pouring over his hand, he must be careful to pour in a manner that [enables the water] to cover the entire portion of the hand that must be washed with a single pouring.30 One need not, however, pour [the water over his entire hand] in a single gush. Instead, the intent is that one should not cease pouring until the water reaches the entire portion [of the hand that must be washed].31 [The rationale is that] a person’s hands are not purified [incrementally], section after section,32 since this is not the ordinary manner of washing.

If one stopped [pouring] after [only] washing a portion of his hand, the washing of this portion is not valid. ([This ruling applies) even if one poured an entire reviis at one time.33 [Indeed,] the water becomes impure, because it did not bring about any purification.) He must again pour water over [his entire hand, including] the portion of his hand that he originally washed.34 If he only poured water over the portion of his hand that he did not wash previously, his hands remain in their initial state of impurity. ([This ruling applies] even if he washed with a reviis [of water].)

There are authorities who maintain that as long as the portion of the hand that was originally washed is still sufficiently moistto impart moisture [to something else that touches it],35 this [original] washing can be joined together with an additional washing of the remainder of the hand. [Their rationale]: Liquid that is moist enough to impart moisture [to something that touches it] brings about the fusion [of two separate liquid] entities for the sake of ritual purity. Thus [the two acts] are considered as a single washing. [In practice,] one should be stringent and follow the first opinion.

[The obligation to wash one’s entire hand in a single pouring] applies only to the first pouring. With regard to the second pouring, one may wash a portion of his hand and then wash the remaining portion.30 [This ruling applies] even if the portion of one’s hand washed first has already been dried.

ז כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עַל הַיָּד – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר וְלִשְׁפֹּךְ בִּשְׁפִיכָה אַחַת נא עַל כָּל פֶּרֶק הַצָּרִיךְ נְטִילַת יָדַיִם.נב,30 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין צָרִיךְ שְׁפִיכָה אַחַת מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיק מִלִּשְׁפֹּךְ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ הַמַּיִם בְּכָל הַפֶּרֶק,31 שֶׁאֵין יָדַיִם טְהוֹרוֹת לַחֲצָאִין,נג,32 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ נְטִילָה בְּכָךְ.נד וְאִם פָּסַק אַחַר שֶׁנָּטַל מִקְצָת הַיָּד – אֵין נְטִילַת מִקְצָת זוֹ עוֹלָה לוֹ (וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת33 – (ו)נִטְמְאוּ נה הַמַּיִם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא טִהֲרוּ כְּלוּם),נו וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִשְׁפֹּךְ גַּם עַל מַה שֶּׁנָּטַל.34 וְאִם לֹא שָׁפַךְ אֶלָּא עַל הַנִּשְׁאָר מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל – הֲרֵי יָדוֹ טְמֵאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה נז (אֲפִלּוּ אִם גַּם שְׁפִיכָה זוֹ הָיְתָה רְבִיעִית).

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים נח שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ עֲדַיִן עַל מִקְצָת הַיָּד שֶׁנָּטַל טוֹפֵחַ עַל מְנָת לְהַטְפִּיחַ35 – מִצְטָרֶפֶת נְטִילָה זוֹ עִם מַה שֶּׁהוֹסִיף וְנָטַל הַנִּשְׁאָר מִיָּדוֹ, שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ עַל מְנָת לְהַטְפִּיחַ חִבּוּר לְטָהֳרָה, וַהֲרֵי זוֹ כִּנְטִילָה אַחַת. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.נט

וְכָל זֶה בָּרִאשׁוֹנִים, אֲבָל בַּשְּׁנִיִּים – נוֹטֵל מִקְצָת יָדוֹ וְחוֹזֵר וּמוֹסִיף עַל מִקְצָתָהּ הַשֵּׁנִי,ס,30 וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְנַגֵּב מִקְצָתָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן: סא

8 After one washes with the water of the second pouring or with an entire reviis at one time, he should rub his hands together.36

If a person only washed his hands until the joint where the fingers reach the palm of the hand, when rubbing his hands together, he should be careful that they do not touch each other in the palms, places where water was not poured and thus were not purified. For such a place imparts impurity to the water on the other hand when it touches it, and this water then imparts impurity to the hand, even though it comes from the second pouring.37 If, however, one poured an entire reviis at one time, there is no need to show concern about these issues, because a reviis of water is considered “waters of purity” and never contracts impurity.

There are authorities who maintain that the classification of a reviis of water as “waters of purity” applies only to the place where they bring about purity. Only then, does this water not contract impurity from that place. To illustrate [this concept]: If one washed until the joint where the fingers reach the palm of the hand with a reviis and the water flowed to the palm of the hand, the palm of the hand does not impart impurity to it, because the water brings about purity in the place it reaches.38 If, however, another hand that was impure touched this water, it imparts impurity to [the water] even though it came from a reviis. ([Since the issue involves] a Rabbinic decree, one may rule leniently.)39

ח אַחַר נְטִילַת מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים עַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו, אוֹ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת – יְשַׁפְשֵׁף יָדָיו זוֹ בָּזוֹ.סב,36

וְאִם לֹא נָטַל אֶלָּא עַד מְקוֹם חִבּוּר הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת לְכַף הַיָּד סג – יִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁפְשְׁפָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תִּגַּע זוֹ בָּזוֹ בְּכַף הַיָּד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא נָפְלוּ שָׁם מַיִם וְלֹא נִטְהַר, שֶׁמָּקוֹם זֶה מְטַמֵּא מַיִם שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה בִּנְגִיעָתָהּ בּוֹ, וְהַמַּיִם חוֹזְרִים וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים.סד,37 אֲבָל אִם שָׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה, שֶׁמֵּי רְבִיעִית מֵי טָהֳרָה הֵם, וְאֵינָן מִתְטַמְּאִין.סה

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים סו שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ מֵי רְבִיעִית מֵי טָהֳרָה הֵם אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהֵם מְטַהֲרִים, שֶׁאָז אֵינָן מִתְטַמְּאִין מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם, כְּגוֹן אִם נָטַל רְבִיעִית עַד מְקוֹם חִבּוּר הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת וְיָצָא מִשָּׁם לְכַף הַיָּד – אֵין הַכַּף מְטַמְּאָתָן, לְפִי שֶׁמְּטַהֲרִים הֵם לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁבָּאוּ שָׁמָּה,סז,38 אֲבָל אִם יָד אַחַת טְמֵאָה נָגְעָה בָּהֶם – טִמְאָתָם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מֵי רְבִיעִית. (וְיֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים):39

9 If a person rubbed his hands together after he poured water comprising less than a reviis upon them only once even if the amount of water he poured upon them was enough for two pourings, in which instance, his hands are purified40 — they contract impurity when they touch each other.

[Once they touched each other,] even pouring water over them a second time is not effective in purifying them, because the water that is on one hand became impure when it touched the water on the other hand, and the water on the second hand became impure when it touched the water on the first. The water of the second pouring purifies only the water that was poured on the hand to purify it and became impure because of it, and not water that contracted impurity from another hand. [This impure water] then imparts impurity to the hands, Therefore, [in such a situation,] it is necessary to first dry the hands and then wash them again as required.

[Moreover,] even if one poured twice over one of his hands, in which instance, the water on that hand is pure, [that water] contracts impurity if it touches the person’s other hand over which water was poured only once. [This ruling applies] even if the amount of water he poured upon [the second hand] was enough for two pourings, in which instance, his hand is pure. [Nevertheless,] the water [on the second hand is] impure and imparts impurity to the water on the other hand.41

There are, nonetheless, authorities who maintain that [pouring] additional water over [thefirst] hand is effective in purifying it, since both [the hand] and the water upon it had already been purified entirely.42

ט אִם שִׁפְשְׁפָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים פְּחוּתִים מֵרְבִיעִית,סח אֲפִלּוּ שָׁפַךְ עַל כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ שְׁטִיפָה אַחַת מְרֻבָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם שֶׁנִּטְהֲרוּ בָּהֶן סט,40 – חָזְרוּ וְנִטְמְאוּ בִּנְגִיעָתָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים אֵין מוֹעִילִין לְטַהֲרָן,ע לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל יָד זוֹ נִטְמְאוּ בִּנְגִיעָתָן בְּמֵי זוֹ וְשֶׁעַל זוֹ בִּנְגִיעַת מֵי זוֹ, וְאֵין מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִים אֶלָּא הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מִיָּד זוֹ עַצְמָהּ שֶׁבָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ לְטַהֲרָהּ וְלֹא שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מִיָּד אַחֶרֶת, וְחוֹזְרִים וּמְטַמְּאִים אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. לְפִיכָךְ, צָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָן תְּחִלָּה, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִטְּלֵם כָּרָאוּי.עא

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שָׁפַךְ עַל אַחַת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים, שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלֶיהָ טְהוֹרִים – חָזְרָה וְנִטְמְאָה אִם נָגְעָה בָּהּ חֲבֶרְתָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁפַךְ עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא רִאשׁוֹנִים בִּלְבַד.עב וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה שְׁטִיפָה אַחַת מְרֻבָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם, שֶׁהַיָּד טְהוֹרָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּיִם טְמֵאִים מְטַמְּאִים הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל זוֹ.41 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים עג שֶׁמַּיִם אֲחֵרִים מוֹעִילִים לְטַהֲרָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה כְּבָר טְהוֹרָה לְגַמְרֵי עִם הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלֶיהָ:42

10 [In the above situation,]43 even if [the hand that had been washed] was touched by a hand that had not been washed at all — whether it was the person’s own hand or the hand of another person who did not wash his hands — the water on [the hand that had been washed] contracts impurity from the impure hand that touched it and a new “second pouring” must be poured over [that hand].44 If one poured water over the hand only once, his only alternative is to dry his hand [and then wash it again] or to join [the water on his hand] to the water of a mikveh.45 Also, there is no option for the hand that had not been washed [but touched the hand that was wet], other than to be dried, because it contracted impurity from the impure water on the other hand.46 Neither pouring water over it a second time, nor even pouring an entire reviis over it at one time will purify it from the impurity that came from another hand. (If, however, [the second hand] had touched water from a second pouring [on the first hand, though the water] becomes impure when touched, it is not necessary to dry it.)47

It has already been stated,48 that when one pours a reviis [over his hands] at one time, leniency should be granted and one should rule that this water will never contract impurity. Therefore, if one poured a reviis over one hand all at one time and then touched it with the unwashed hand, the hand [that was washed] is pure. (Moreover, [a lenient ruling is] also [granted with regard to] the unwashed hand. [True,] there is moisture from the hand that was washed upon [that unwashed hand], and since that moisture does not comprise a reviis, it contracts impurity because of [theunwashed hand]. Nevertheless, it can be purified by pouring water over it twice or by pouring a reviis over it all at one time, since the moisture’s impurity stems from that same hand.)

If, however, one poured less than a reviis of water over the second hand during the first pouring and then touched the hand over which he poured a reviis at one time, the hand [over which a reviis was poured] contracts impurity from the impure water on the second hand and it is necessary to pour water over it again to purify it.49 For any impure water imparts impurity to the hand that touches it even if it is entirely pure. [This ruling applies] even in the midst of a meal.50

י אֲפִלּוּ43 נָגַע בָּהּ עד יָד שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְטוּלָה כְּלָל,עה בֵּין שֶׁהִיא יָדוֹ בֵּין יָדוֹ שֶׁל אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל יָדָיו עו – הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלֶיהָ מִתְטַמְּאִין מִיָּד הַטְּמֵאָה שֶׁנָּגְעָה בָּהֶם, וְצָרִיךְ לִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ שְׁנִיִּים אֲחֵרִים.עז,44 וְאִם לֹא נָתַן עָלֶיהָ עח אֶלָּא הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בִּלְבַד – אֵין לָהֶם תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא בְּנִגּוּב, אוֹ בְּהַשָּׁקָה לְמֵי מִקְוֶה.עט,45 וְגַם הַיָּד שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְטוּלָה אֵין לָהּ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא בְּנִגּוּב, לְפִי שֶׁנִּטְמְאָה גַּם כֵּן מִמֵּי חֲבֶרְתָּהּ הַטְּמֵאִים,46 וְאֵין מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים וַאֲפִלּוּ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת מְטַהֲרִים טֻמְאָה הַבָּאָה מֵחֲמַת יָד אַחֶרֶת (אֲבָל אִם נָגְעָה בַּשְּׁנִיִּים, שֶׁטֻּמְאָתָן הִיא בִּנְגִיעָתָם – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָהּ).פ,47

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר פא,48 שֶׁבְּמֵי רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל וְלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינָן מִתְטַמְּאִין כְּלָל, וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׁפַךְ עַל יָדוֹ אַחַת רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת וְנָגְעָה בָּהּ יָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁלֹּא שָׁפַךְ עָלֶיהָ כְּלוּם – יָדוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה טְהוֹרָה פב (וְגַם הַשְּׁנִיָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ לַחְלוּחִית מַיִם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, וְלַחְלוּחִית זֶה שֶׁעָלֶיהָ נִטְמְאָה מִמֶּנָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין בּוֹ רְבִיעִית, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִטַּהֵר הוּא עַל יְדֵי מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים אוֹ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ עָלֶיהָ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁטֻּמְאָתָהּ הִיא מִיָּד זוֹ עַצְמָהּ).

אֲבָל אִם נָתַן עַל יָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה מַיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים פְּחוּתִים מֵרְבִיעִית וְנָגְעָה בְּזוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן עָלֶיהָ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת – נִטְמְאָה יָד זוֹ מִמֵּימֵי הַשְּׁנִיָּה הַטְּמֵאִים,פג וְצָרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ עָלֶיהָ מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים לְטַהֲרָהּ,פד,49 שֶׁכָּל מַיִם טְמֵאִים מְטַמְּאִים אֶת הַיָּד הַנּוֹגַעַת בָּהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא טְהוֹרָה לְגַמְרֵי, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶמְצַע הַסְּעוּדָה: פה,50

11 All of the above applies when the person washed [only] one hand or both hands individually. If, however, one brings his hands together and washes them as one,22 they are considered as one hand in all respects. They do not impart impurity to each other when they touch each other with the impure water from the first pouring. Indeed, they may be rubbed together.

[Indeed,] it is proper to rub the hands together after the first pouring to thoroughly wash away any sweat, before pouring water over them a second time to purify them. Therefore whenever one washes his hands with a reviis of water, he should have another person pour the water over both of them together or hold the k’li with his fingertips so that he can pour the water over both his hands together. He should then rub them together immediately after the first pouring. For if one would wash each hand individually, there is room for concern that one hand will touch the other before one pours the water of the second pouring over them. If, however, one pours a reviis over each hand, there is no need for such concern.51

Even if four or five people placed their hands one next to another or one above the other, they are considered as one hand and do not impart impurity to each other, as stated in sec. 160[:17].

יא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנּוֹטֵל יָדוֹ אַחַת אוֹ שְׁתֵּיהֶן כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, אֲבָל אִם מְצָרֵף יָדָיו זוֹ לָזוֹ וְנוֹטֵל שְׁתֵּיהֶן כְּאַחַת22 – הֲרֵי הֵן נֶחְשָׁבוֹת כְּיָד אַחַת לְגַמְרֵי, וְאֵינָן מְטַמְּאוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ בִּנְגִיעָתָן זוֹ בְּמַיִם טְמֵאִים שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן מִשְּׁטִיפָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,פו וְיָכוֹל לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ.פז

וְנָכוֹן הַדָּבָר לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן מִיָּד אַחַר שְׁטִיפָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, כְּדֵי לִרְחֹץ יָפֶה הַזֵּעָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים לְטַהֲרָן.פח לְפִיכָךְ, כָּל הַנּוֹטֵל יָדָיו מֵרְבִיעִית – אוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ לוֹ אַחֵר עֲלֵיהֶן, אוֹ יֹאחַז הַכְּלִי בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטֹּל ב' יָדָיו כְּאַחַת, וִישַׁפְשְׁפָם מִיָּד אַחַר שְׁטִיפָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,פט שֶׁאִם יִטֹּל כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא תִּגַּע יָד בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים עַל שְׁתֵּיהֶן. אֲבָל אִם נוֹטֵל כָּל יָד מֵרְבִיעִית – אֵין צָרִיךְ לָחֹשׁ לָזֶה.צ,51

וַאֲפִלּוּ ד' וְה' שֶׁהִנִּיחוּ יְדֵיהֶן זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ אוֹ זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ – כְּיָד אַחַת חֲשׁוּבוֹת, וְאֵינָן מְטַמְּאוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ס: צא

12 When a person washed each hand individually for the first pouring, pouring less than a reviis on each of them, changed his mind and put his hands together before the second pouring, and [then] poured water on both of them together, his hands are impure. For when he put his hands together to receive the water of the second pouring, his hands imparted impurity to each other. The water on one hand imparted impurity to the water on the other hand as well as to the hand itself. When he pours the water of the second pouring over his hands, he does not purify the water of the first pouring because it had contracted impurity from the other hand.52 Instead, the water of the second pouring also becomes impure because of it. He must dry his hands and wash them again in the proper manner.

יב נָטַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו זוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ מַיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים פְּחוּתִים מֵרְבִיעִית, וְנִמְלַךְ כְּשֶׁנָּטַל הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים, וְהִגִּיעַ יָדָיו זוֹ לָזוֹ וְשָׁפַךְ עַל שְׁתֵּיהֶן כְּאַחַת – יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁמְּצָרֵף יָדָיו זוֹ לָזוֹ לְקַבֵּל מַיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים – נִטְמְאוּ יָדָיו בִּנְגִיעָתָן זוֹ לָזוֹ, כִּי מַיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ מְטַמְּאִים הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי חֲבֶרְתָּהּ וְגַם הַיָּד עַצְמָהּ, וּכְשֶׁנּוֹטֵל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיִּים – לֹא טִהֲרוּ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מִיָּד אַחֶרֶת,52 אֶלָּא גַּם הַשְּׁנִיִּים נִטְמְאוּ בָּהֶם, וְצָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב יָדָיו וְלַחֲזֹר וְלִטְּלָן כָּרָאוּי: צב

13 The entire concept of water contracting impurity from hands applies only to the water that is on one’s hand when it is being washed. At that time, the water easily contracts impurity, whether from the hand being washed, i.e., the first water, from another hand, or even from the water from the second pouring [on the first hand]. Water that is not on a person’s hands, however, does not contract impurity from the person’s hands, even though his hands touch this water when washing them. This concept is evident from the fact [our Sages] forbade a person from scooping water with his palms and pouring it on the hands of another person only because his palm is not a k’li53and not because the water contracts impurity from his hands.54

Similarly, when a person emerges from a lavatory, he may scoop water from a bucket with his hands and the water remaining in the bucket is acceptable for washing.55 Even if the person washing his hands touches the water on the k’li or inside the k’li with his impure hands, whether before the first pouring or before the second pouring, the water does not contract impurity because of his hands.

For this reason, [leniency is also granted] when there was a perforation at the base of a k’li and a spigot was pushed into the hole, which when pressed upward, causes water to flow out on a person’s hand. Even though the spigot is wet with water and the person touched it with an impure hand [in order to cause the water to flow, the water on the spigot] does not become impure. [When he seeks to wash his other hand] he may then press the spigot with the hand that he had washed first — [that having been accomplished] by pressing the spigot with his hand that had not been washed at all.56

Nevertheless, [in such a situation,] he must pour a reviis over each hand at one time or a double measure of water on each hand57 so that he will not require a second pouring. Alternatively, he should pour both the first and second pourings on one hand and, afterwards, the first and second pourings on the other hand. For if he will pour the first pouring on both hands alternatively and then the second pouring on both hands alternatively, he will be touching the spigot with his hand that is moist with the impure water of the first pouring. That impure water will become attached to the spigot. When he then presses it with his second hand, that hand will contract impurity from the impure water that is attached to it and it must be dried [and washed again properly].

Similarly, one should be careful58 when washing with a k’li that has only one handle, for if he held it with a hand that is wet with impure water, he should not hold that handle with his other hand.59 If, however, the handle was moist with pure water, even though one touches it with impure hands, there is no concern about touching it, even when washing one’s hands.60

(Even water that is on impure hands does not impart impurity except when washing for eating. If, however, a person’s hands are moist with water at a time other than when he was washing for eating and he touched the hands of a person who had purified them for eating, the latter person’s hands are pure.)

יג כָּל טֻמְאַת הַמַּיִם מֵהַיָּדַיִם אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם שֶׁעַל הַיָּד בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָה, שֶׁאָז בְּקַל נִטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם, בֵּין מֵהַיָּד עַצְמָהּ, כְּגוֹן מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים, בֵּין מִיָּד אַחֶרֶת טְמֵאָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים, אֲבָל מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָן עַל הַיָּד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּדַיִם טְמֵאוֹת נוֹגְעוֹת בָּהֶם בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָה – אֵינָן מְטַמְּאוֹת אוֹתָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אָסְרוּ צג לִתֵּן מַיִם בְּחָפְנָיו לַחֲבֵרוֹ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין חָפְנָיו כְּלִי,53 אֲבָל לֹא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם מֵחָפְנָיו.צד,54 וְכֵן הַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הַכִּסֵּא – יָכוֹל לִשְׁאֹב בְּחָפְנָיו מִן הַדְּלִי וְהַמַּיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים כְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילָה.צה,55 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנּוֹטֵל עַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָתוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בְּיָדָיו הַטְּמֵאִים בַּמַּיִם שֶׁעַל הַכְּלִי אוֹ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, בֵּין קֹדֶם מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים בֵּין קֹדֶם שְׁנִיִּים – לֹא נִטְמְאוּ מִיָּדָיו.

לְפִיכָךְ, כְּלִי שֶׁנִּקַּב בְּשׁוּלָיו וְתָחַב בּוֹ בַּרְזָא צו וְדוֹחֵק אוֹתָהּ לְמַעְלָה וְיוֹצְאִים הַמַּיִם עַל יָדוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבַּרְזָא מְלֻחְלֶחֶת בַּמַּיִם וְנוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּיָדוֹ הַטְּמֵאָה – לֹא נִטְמְאוּ, וְיָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְדָחְקָהּ בְּיָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁנְּטָלָהּ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה עַל יְדֵי דְּחִיקַת הַבַּרְזָא בְּיָדוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה נְטוּלָה כְּלָל.צז,56

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ עַל כָּל אֶחָד רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת,צח אוֹ שְׁטִיפָה אַחַת מְרֻבָּה כִּשְׁתַּיִם,57 שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְמַיִם שְׁנִיִּים,צט אוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים עַל יָד זוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים עַל יָד זוֹ,ק שֶׁאִם יִשְׁפֹּךְ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עַל זוֹ וְעַל זוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַשְּׁנִיִּים עַל זוֹ וְעַל זוֹ – נִמְצָא נוֹגֵעַ בַּבַּרְזָא בְּיָדוֹ לַחָה מִמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הַטְּמֵאִים וְנִדְבְּקוּ מַיִם טְמֵאִים בַּבַּרְזָא, וּכְשֶׁחוֹזֵר וְדוֹחֲקָהּ בְּיָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה – נִטְמְאָה מִמַּיִם טְמֵאִים שֶׁנִּדְבְּקוּ בָּהּ,קא וְצָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָהּ.קב

וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר58 בִּכְלִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אֹזֶן אֶחָד, שֶׁאִם יֹאחֲזֶנָּה בְּיָדוֹ לַחָה מִמַּיִם טְמֵאִים – לֹא יֹאחֲזֶנָּה בְּיָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה.קג,59 אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה הָאֹזֶן מְלֻחְלֶחֶת בַּמַּיִם הַטְּהוֹרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בָּהֶם יָדַיִם טְמֵאוֹת – אֵין לָחֹשׁ לִגַּע בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָה.קד,60

(וַאֲפִלּוּ מַיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי יָדַיִם טְמֵאוֹת אֵינָן מִתְטַמְּאִים אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָתָן לַאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל מִי שֶׁיָּדָיו מְלֻחְלָחוֹת בְּמַיִם שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָתָן לַאֲכִילָה וְנָגַע בָּהֶן מִי שֶׁטִּהֵר יָדָיו לַאֲכִילָה – יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת):

14 When a person pours the water of the first pouring over his hands, he must be careful that neither a pebble, nor a sliver of wood, nor anything else remains on his hands.3 For the water of the second pouring only purifies the water on the person’s hand and not the water that left the hand and [was deposited] on a pebble or another object. [Afterwards, that object] then conveys impurity to the hand touching it.61

[When] snow, hail and other similar entities created from water are in their natural state and] not crushed, they are unacceptable for washing.62 Accordingly, if any of these entities is on a person’s hands,] the water of the second washing does not purify the water on [the person’s hands].

If one pours an entire reviis of water over his hands at one time, he need not be concerned with the above.

יד כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים עַל יָדָיו – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר עַל יָדָיו צְרוֹר אוֹ קֵיסָם קה אוֹ שׁוּם דָּבָר אַחֵר,קו לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִים אֶלָּא מַיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַיָּד, וְלֹא הַמַּיִם שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מֵהַיָּד עַל גַּבֵּי צְרוֹר אוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְחוֹזְרִים וּמְטַמְּאִים אֶת הַיָּד שֶׁהִיא נוֹגַעַת בָּהֶם.קז,61

וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֶג וּבָרָד וּשְׁאָרֵי דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם מִבְּרִיַּת הַמַּיִם,קח כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻסָּק וּפָסוּל לִנְטִילָה קט,62 – אֵין מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִין אוֹתָן הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו.

וְאִם שׁוֹפֵךְ רְבִיעִית מַיִם כְּאַחַת עַל יָדָיו – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכָךְ: קי

15 When a person has a bandaged wound on his hand and he cannot remove the bandage because of the pain of the wound, it is sufficient for him to wash the remainder of the hand aside from the wounded portion. This is not considered as washing only a portion of the hand,63 because he cannot wash the other [bandaged] portion. The situation resembles one in which a person’s finger has been amputated, in which instance, he washes the remainder of his hand.

One must, however, be careful that the water does not touch the bandage, because then the water will impart impurity to the hand.64 Since it is difficult to be careful that the water not reach the bandage and fall upon it, one should pour a reviis over his hand at one time, for then the water does not contract impurity.

When does the above apply? To a bandage that one will ultimately remove, but cannot be removed at present. Therefore, it is not considered as insignificant with regard to the hand. (For certainly, were the person able to remove [the bandage] whenever he desired, he would have to remove it [before washing. Otherwise,] it would be an intervening substance. Conversely, if the bandage would be considered batel, [i.e., insignificant and nullified,] to the hand, it would not be considered an intervening substance.65

When, however, entities are not considered intervening substances because they are so small that one never bothers to remove them, they are entirely insignificant and nullified with regard to the hand. There is no need for concern that the water on them will impart impurity to the hand, because the water of the second pouring will purify the water on them, just as it purifies the water on the hand itself.

טו מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַכָּה בְּיָדוֹ וּרְטִיָּה עָלֶיהָ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַהֲסִירָהּ מֵחֲמַת כְּאֵב הַמַּכָּה – דַּי לוֹ שֶׁיִּטֹּל שְׁאָר הַיָּד שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם הַמַּכָּה. וְאֵין זוֹ נְטִילָה לַחֲצָאִין,קיא,63 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטֹּל חֶצְיָהּ הַשְּׁנִיָּה, וְדוֹמֶה לְמִי שֶׁנִּקְטַע אֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁנּוֹטֵל שְׁאָר הַיָּד. אָמְנָם צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַגִּיעוּ הַמַּיִם לָרְטִיָּה, שֶׁלֹּא יַחְזְרוּ וִיטַמְּאוּ הַיָּד,קיב,64 וּמִפְּנֵי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ הַמַּיִם עַד הָרְטִיָּה וְלֹא יִפְּלוּ עַל הָרְטִיָּה,קיג לָכֵן יִשְׁפֹּךְ רְבִיעִית כְּאַחַת עַל כָּל הַיָּד, שֶׁאָז לֹא נִטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם.קיד

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּרְטִיָּה, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי סוֹפָהּ לַהֲסִירָהּ אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַהֲסִירָהּ עַכְשָׁו, לָכֵן אֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה לְגַבֵּי הַיָּד (שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם הָיָה יָכוֹל לַהֲסִירָהּ מָתַי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה – הָיָה צָרִיךְ לַהֲסִירָהּ מִשּׁוּם חֲצִיצָה,קטו,65 וְאִם הָיְתָה בְּטֵלָה לְגַבֵּי הַיָּד – לֹא הָיְתָה חֲשׁוּבָה חֲצִיצָה). אֲבָל דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין מִפְּנֵי מִעוּטָן, שֶׁאֵינָן מַקְפִּידִין עֲלֵיהֶם לַהֲסִירָן לְעוֹלָם – הֲרֵי הֵם בְּטֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הַיָּד לְגַמְרֵי,קטז וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ לְהַמַּיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ וִיטַמְּאוּ הַיָּד, לְפִי שֶׁמַּיִם שְׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִים מַיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם כַּמַּיִם שֶׁעַל הַיָּד עַצְמָהּ:

16 The water with which one washes before eating66 may be poured both into containers or over the ground, because a spirit of impurity does not rest upon it, as is true with regard to the water [used for] the washing after the meal.67

([The following rules apply] when one touches water [used to wash hands]68 that had been poured either on the ground or in a container. If those who washed did not wash their hands with a reviis of water at one time, [all] hands [that touch this water] are impure. [This ruling applies] even if he also poured the water of the second pouring there, because the water of the second pouring purifies only the water on the person’s hands3 and not water that is on the ground or in a container. [Moreover, this ruling applies] even if the amount of the water of the second pouring is greater than that of the first pouring, and even if the water [of the second pouring] comprises a reviis.

[For example:] A person draws water from a large container with a small k’li and holds the rim of the [small] k’li while it is wet with impure water. He immerses the portion [of the smaller k’li]onto which he was holding into a reviis [or more] of water when he draws the water from the larger container. This does not accomplish anything [with regard to purifying the impure water that is on the rim of the smaller container].)69

טז מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים, דְּהַיְנוּ מַיִם שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמָּזוֹן66 – נוֹטְלִים בֵּין עַל גַּבֵּי כֵּלִים בֵּין עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,קיז שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ רָעָה שׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ עַל אַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַמָּזוֹן.קיח,67

(וְאִם נָגַע בְּשׁוֹפְכִין68 שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אוֹ בִּכְלִי, אִם לֹא נָטַל רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת – נִטְמְאוּ יָדָיו,קיט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁפַךְ שָׁם גַּם מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים,קכ שֶׁאֵין מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִים אֶלָּא מַיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי יָדָיו,3 וְלֹא שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אוֹ כְּלִי,קכא וַאֲפִלּוּ הַשְּׁנִיִּים מְרֻבִּים מֵהָרִאשׁוֹנִים,קכב וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן מֵי רְבִיעִית. וְלָכֵן מִי שֶׁשּׁוֹאֵב בִּכְלִי קָטָן מִכְּלִי גָּדוֹל וְאוֹחֵז בְּיָדוֹ שְׂפַת הַכְּלִי הַלַּחָה מִמַּיִם טְמֵאִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִטְבִּיל מְקוֹם אֲחִיזָתוֹ בְּמֵי רְבִיעִית קכג כְּשֶׁשָּׁאַב מִכְּלִי הַגָּדוֹל – לֹא הוֹעִיל כְּלוּם):69