SECTION 160 Which Water is Acceptable for Washing and Which is Disqualified. (1–19)

קס אֵיזוֹ מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִים וְאֵיזוֹ פְּסוּלִים לִנְטִילָה, וּבוֹ י"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 Water whose appearance has changed — whether because of [the conditions of] the place where it is located or because another substance, e.g., ink, tree sap, wine or beer, fell into it and changed its appearance — is disqualified for the washing of hands.1 If, however, earth or mud fell into it, even though this made the water murky, it is acceptable,2 as will be explained.3 ([The rationale is that] since water surfaces amidst earth and mud, it is common for [such discoloration] to occur. Therefore, this is not considered a change). If the appearance of water changes because of smoke or another factor, it is disqualified. If, however, its appearance changed naturally [and not due to outside influences], it is acceptable. Even when the water’s appearance changed in a manner that disqualifies it, if it later reverts to its normal appearance, it becomes acceptable again.

א מַיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶם,א בֵּין מֵחֲמַת מְקוֹמָם בֵּין מֵחֲמַת דָּבָר שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָן,ב כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָן דְּיוֹ אוֹ קוֹמוֹס ג אוֹ יַיִן ד וְשֵׁכָר ה וְשִׁנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן – פְּסוּלִים לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם.1 אֲבָל אִם נָפַל לְתוֹכָם עָפָר וָטִיט, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲכָרוּם – כְּשֵׁרִים,ו,2 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר ז,3 (לְפִי שֶׁגִּדּוּל הַמַּיִם הוּא בְּעָפָר וָטִיט וְדַרְכָּם בְּכָךְ, וְאֵין זֶה חָשׁוּב שִׁנּוּי).ח וְאִם נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת עָשָׁן אוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר – פְּסוּלִים.ט אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָן – כְּשֵׁרִים.י וַאֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁתַּנּוּ שִׁנּוּי הַפּוֹסֵל, אִם אַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרוּ לִבְרִיָּתָן – חָזְרוּ לְכַשְׁרוּתָן: יא

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2 If one performed work with water or steeped his bread into it — even if he intended to steep the bread in one container and it fell into another — the water is disqualified for the washing of hands.1 [The rationale is that] once a person performs a task that fulfills a need with water, the water [used for this task] is considered as drainage water, designated for disposal. And drainage water may not be used for the washing of hands.

If, however, the person had absolutely no intent to steep the bread, but it fell into water and was steeped there, the water is acceptable; this does not cause it [to be considered] as drainage water. There is an authority that disqualifies even such water, but one should rule leniently in matters of Rabbinic Law.4

ב עָשָׂה בַּמַּיִם מְלָאכָה, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁרָה בָּהֶם פִּתּוֹ,יב אֲפִלּוּ נִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁרוֹת בִּכְלִי זֶה וְנָפַל לַשֵּׁנִי – פְּסוּלִים לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם,יג,1 לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁאָדָם עוֹשֶׂה בַּמַּיִם דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צֹרֶךְ בּוֹ – נַעֲשׂוּ כְּשׁוֹפְכִין שֶׁעוֹמְדִין לִשְׁפִיכָה, וְאֵין נוֹטְלִין בְּשׁוֹפְכִין.יד

אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁרוֹת כְּלָל, רַק שֶׁנָּפַל פַּת לַמַּיִם וְנִשְׁרוּ בָּהֶם – כְּשֵׁרִים, שֶׁלֹּא עֲשָׂאָם שׁוֹפְכִין.טו וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁפּוֹסֵל גַּם בָּזֶה.טז וְיֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים: יז,4

3 If one rinsed utensils or vegetables in water, the water is disqualified.1 If, however, the utensils had been washed previously or were new, or the vegetables had been washed previously and were already clean, the water is acceptable.1 Rinsing these articles is not considered as performing work that would disqualify the water and have it deemed as drainage water, since this act is unnecessary; even without doing so, they were already clean.

Nevertheless, soaking vegetables in water so that they will not wilt or placing utensils that split in the summer [heat] into water so that they would [absorb itand] seal is considered as performing work [with the water] and disqualifies it. Similarly, placing a container of wine into water to cool is considered as work and disqualifies the water. Placing live fish into water so that they will not die, by contrast, is not considered as performing work [with the water], because the water has no effect on them at all; it merely saves them from dying. Thus the water is not considered as drainage water.

Similarly, if one placed an aromatic substance in water so that it will become fragrant, the water is acceptable. It is not considered as drainage water, which is repugnant. In this instance, by contrast, one’s intent was to enhance the water.5

ג אִם הִדִּיחַ בָּהֶם כֵּלִים יח אוֹ יְרָקוֹת יט – פְּסוּלִים.1 וְאִם הָיוּ כֵּלִים מוּדָחִים אוֹ חֲדָשִׁים,כ אוֹ יְרָקוֹת מוּדָחִים וּנְקִיִּים כא – כְּשֵׁרִים,1 שֶׁאֵין זוֹ נִקְרֵאת מְלָאכָה לִפְסֹל הַמַּיִם מִשּׁוּם שׁוֹפְכִין, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ, שֶׁמִּבַּלְעֲדֶיהָ הָיוּ כְּבָר נְקִיִּים.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם שָׁרָה בָּהֶם הַיְרָקוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכְמְשׁוּ, וְכֵן אִם נָתַן בָּהֶם כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעוּ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְכַּוְּצוּ – הֲרֵי זוֹ מְלָאכָה וּפְסוּלִים.כב וְכֵן אִם נָתַן כְּלִי שֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם לְצַנְּנוֹ – פְּסוּלִים.כג אֲבָל נָתַן בָּהֶם דָּגִים חַיִּים שֶׁלֹּא יָמוּתוּ – אֵין זוֹ מְלָאכָה, שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם פּוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶם כְּלָל, רַק מַצִּילִין אוֹתָן מִמִּיתָה, וְגַם אֵינָן נִקְרָאִים שׁוֹפְכִין.כד וְכֵן אִם נָתַן לְתוֹכָם דָּבָר הַמֵּרִיחַ כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּרִיחוּ – כְּשֵׁרִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָן שׁוֹפְכִין שֶׁהֵם כִּמְאוּסִים,כה אֲבָל כָּאן נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁבִּיחָם: כו,5

4 Placing meat into a container of water with measuring marks, so that the water will ascend to the measuring marks, enabling one to know its weight, is considered as performing work with the water and disqualifies it for the washing of hands.6 (If, however, one knew the weight of the water and [used it to] weigh the meat [on a balance scale], it is acceptable, because work was not performed with the actual substance of the water.6

ד אִם הַמַּיִם בִּכְלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שְׁנָתוֹת וְנָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ בָּשָׂר וְעוֹלִין הַמַּיִם עַד הַשְּׁנָתוֹת וּבָזֶה יוֹדֵעַ מִשְׁקָלוֹ – הֲרֵי זוֹ עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה בַּמַּיִם, וּפְסוּלִין לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם כז (אֲבָל אִם הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ מִשְׁקַל הַמַּיִם וְשָׁקַל הַבָּשָׂר כְּנֶגְדָּם – כְּשֵׁרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית הַמְּלָאכָה בְּגוּפָן): כח,6

5 If a baker dipped loaves into water, it is disqualified7 even though its appearance has not changed. If, however, he dipped his hand into water and spread it over the surface of the loaves or scooped out water with his cupped hands, it is not considered as if work has been performed with the water that remained in the container. For dipping one’s hands in water is not considered as performing work [with the water], unless one actually rinses them — and [even then, only] when they were soiled. Therefore the water is acceptable if its appearance has not changed. If, however, he rinsed his hands in water [to cleanse them] from the dough sticking to them, the water is disqualified, even though its appearance has not changed.

There are authorities who maintain that washing one’s hands is not considered as work [performed with the water] that disqualifies it for the washing of hands, [as evidenced by the fact that] the person still seeks to use this water to wash his hands. ([According to this view,] the disqualification [of water with which] work was performed is not because the water is then considered as drainage water, but rather because performing work with water removes it from the halachic category of water.8 Rinsing or washing9 one’s hands with water does not remove it from the halachic category of water with regard to the washing of hands.)9

According to this view, it is not forbidden to wash one’s hands with water used by another person to wash his hands that was collected in receptacle [because the washing of hands does not cause water to be categorized as drainage water. This leniency would not apply, however,] if the person washed his hands with less than a reviis of water, [since in such an instance,] the other person’s [hands] impart impurity to the water [with which he washed].10 The water of the second pouring purifies only the water on the hands [of the person washing, but not the water collected in the receptacle].11 If, however, one poured an entire reviis over his hands at one time, the water does not contract impurity and it is permitted [to be used by another person].

Fundamentally, [the halachah] follows the first opinion. (It is only when four or five people wash their hands at the same time that their hands are considered as one hand12 and therefore we are not concerned that this is considered as [having performed] work [with the water]. Otherwise, we show such concern.) Therefore, it is forbidden to wash one’s hands with water that was collected in a container after another person used it to wash his hands, even if he poured a reviis over them at one time. [It is considered as if] work was performed with [the water], because it purified the other person’s hands, [enabling him] to partake [of bread. Hence,] it is considered as drainage water.

ה אִם הִטְבִּיל בָּהֶם הַנַּחְתּוֹם אֶת הַגְּלוּסְקִים,כט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶם ל – פְּסוּלִים.7 אֲבָל אִם טָבַל בָּהֶם יָדָיו וְטָח פְּנֵי הַגְּלוּסְקִין,לא אוֹ שֶׁחָפַן מֵהֶם בְּחָפְנָיו לב – הַמַּיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בַּכְּלִי לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה, שֶׁטְּבִילַת יָדָיו בָּהֶם אֵינָהּ קְרוּיָה מְלָאכָה עַד שֶׁיָּדִיחָן בָּהֶם, וְהוּא שֶׁהָיוּ מְלֻכְלָכוֹת תְּחִלָּה, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֵׁרִים אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן.לג אֲבָל אִם הֵדִיחַ בָּהֶם יָדָיו מֵהַבָּצֵק הַדָּבוּק בָּהֶם – פְּסוּלִים,לד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים לה שֶׁהֲדָחַת יָדַיִם אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה מְלָאכָה לִפְסֹל הַמַּיִם לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם,לו כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו רוֹצֶה בָּהֶם גַּם כֵּן לִטֹּל יָדָיו לז (וּפְסוּל מְלָאכָה לח אֵינָהּ מִשּׁוּם שׁוֹפְכִין, אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מִתּוֹרַת מַיִם8 כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם אֵיזוֹ מְלָאכָה, וּכְשֶׁהֵדִיחַ אוֹ נָטַל בָּהֶם יָדָיו9 – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מִתּוֹרַת מַיִם לְעִנְיַן נְטִילַת יָדַיִם).9

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ אֵין אִסּוּר לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִמַּיִם שֶׁנָּטַל בָּהֶם חֲבֵרוֹ וְנִתְקַבְּלוּ לְמַטָּה בִּכְלִי,לט אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם עַל יְדֵי חֲבֵרוֹ אִם לֹא שָׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת,10 וּמַיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים אֵינָן מְטַהֲרִים אֶלָּא הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַיָּד בִּלְבַד.11 אֲבָל אִם שָׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן מַיִם טְמֵאִים כְּלָל – מֻתָּר.מ

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה (דְּדַוְקָא כְּשֶׁאַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה נוֹטְלִין כְּאַחַת, שֶׁחֲשׁוּבִים כְּיָד אַחַת12 – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה,מא אֲבָל בְּלָאו הָכִי חוֹשְׁשִׁין). וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִטֹּל בְּמַיִם שֶׁנָּטַל חֲבֵרוֹ וְנִתְקַבְּלוּ לְמַטָּה בִּכְלִי, אֲפִלּוּ שָׁפַךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה, שֶׁטִּהֲרוּ הַיָּדַיִם לַאֲכִילָה, וְנַעֲשׂוּ שׁוֹפְכִין:

6 Nevertheless, a person who emerges from the lavatory can draw water with his hands from a bucket to purify his hands.13 The remainder of the water in the bucket remains acceptable for washing one’s hands for a meal.14 ([The rationale is that the person] did not purify his hands with the water that remained in the bucket, but rather, with the water on his hands. If, by contrast, the person immersed [his hands] in the bucket to cleanse them, work has been performed with all of the water in the bucket.15 [This ruling applies] even if the person’s hands were not actually soiled. Nevertheless, since he must cleanse them with water because they touched a place of filth,16 the water is considered as drainage water,17 as [is the law] when one uses it for his other needs. [The rationale: Since this ruling applies] even when [one uses the water] for an optional matter, as stated above,18 how much more so does it apply when he uses it for an obligatory cleansing! [This situation] is not analogous to rinsing previously rinsed containers,19 [for in that instance,] further rinsing is not necessary.)

ו אֲבָל הַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הַכִּסֵּא – יָכוֹל לִשְׁאֹב בְּחָפְנָיו מַיִם מִן הַדְּלִי לְטַהֵר יָדָיו,13 וּשְׁאָר הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּדְּלִי כְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם לַסְּעוּדָה מב,14 (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא טִהֵר יָדָיו בַּמַּיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בַּדְּלִי אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבְּחָפְנָיו. אֲבָל אִם הִטְבִּילָן בַּדְּלִי לְטַהֲרָן – הֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּכָל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּדְּלִי.מג,15 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיוּ יָדָיו מְלֻכְלָכוֹת מַמָּשׁ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צֹרֶךְ לְנַקּוֹתָן בְּמַיִם מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בִּמְקוֹם הַטִּנֹּפֶת מד,16 – נַעֲשׂוּ הַמַּיִם כְּשׁוֹפְכִין,מה,17 כְּמוֹ הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ לוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא דְּבַר הָרְשׁוּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,18 כָּל שֶׁכֵּן נִקָּיוֹן זֶה שֶׁהוּא חוֹבָה, וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְהָדִיחַ כֵּלִים מוּדָחִים,מו,19 שֶׁאֵין צֹרֶךְ בַּהֲדָחָה זוֹ):

7 Water that is before a blacksmith is disqualified [for washing], because it is known that it was used for work, i.e., placing a [red-hot] iron [implement] in it.20

Water that is before a barber is disqualified if its appearance changes. If not, it is acceptable. [The rationale is: Although] the barber dips his hands into it to moisten the person’s hair, this is comparable to a baker] who dips his hands into water to spread on the loaves, in which instance, work was not performed with the remaining water.21

ז מַיִם שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַנַּפָּח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶם – פְּסוּלִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁנֶּעֶשְׂתָה בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה,מז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכִּבָּה בָּהֶם בַּרְזֶל.מח,20

וְשֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַסַּפָּר, אִם נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶם – פְּסוּלִים, וְאִם לָאו – כְּשֵׁרִים,מט כִּי מַה שֶּׁהַסַּפָּר טוֹבֵל יָדָיו בָּהֶם לְהַשְׁרוֹת בָּהֶם הַשְּׂעָרוֹת – דּוֹמֶה לְטוֹבֵל יָדוֹ וְטָח פְּנֵי הַגְּלוּסְקִים, שֶׁמַּיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה: נ,21

8 When a small amount of water that was disqualified was mixed with acceptable water, its presence is considered inconsequential because of the larger amount of acceptable water.22 Even if the disqualified water completes [the required] measure of a reviis,23 there is no concern with regard to washing one’s hands for ordinary foods.

Therefore, water from which a domesticated animal, a non-domesticated animal, or a fowl drank should not be disqualified because work — their drinking — was performed with the small amount of water that returns from their mouth to the water [in the container]. For the manner in which domesticated animals, non-domesticated animals, and fowl drink is that they lift up their mouths after they have taken in [some] of the water and water spills from their mouths. [Nevertheless, the water in the container is not disqualified,] because the water [that returns] is considered inconsequential, because of the larger amount of [acceptable] water.

There are authorities who disqualify water from which a dog or a pig drank, because it becomes repugnant and it is considered as drainage water. Weight should be given to their words.

ח מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָן מְעַט מַיִם פְּסוּלִים – בְּטֵלִים בְּרֹב.נא,22 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַפְּסוּלִים מַשְׁלִימִים לְשִׁעוּר רְבִיעִית23 – אֵין לָחֹשׁ בִּנְטִילַת יָדַיִם לְחֻלִּין.נב

לְפִיכָךְ, מַיִם שֶׁשָּׁתוּ מֵהֶם בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף – אֵין לְפָסְלָם מִשּׁוּם מְלֶאכֶת הַשְּׁתִיָּה נג שֶׁנֶּעֶשְׂתָה בִּמְעַט מַיִם שֶׁהֻחְזַר מִפִּיהֶם לַכְּלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף בִּשְׁתִיָּתָן, שֶׁמַּגְבִּיהִין פִּיהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁקָּלְטוּ מִן הַמַּיִם וְהַמַּיִם נוֹפְלִין מִפִּיהֶם,נד כִּי מַיִם אֵלּוּ בְּטֵלִים בְּרֻבָּם.נה

וְיֵשׁ פּוֹסְלִים בְּשָׁתָה מֵהֶם כֶּלֶב נו אוֹ חֲזִיר,נז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּמְאָסִים, וַהֲרֵי הֵם כְּשׁוֹפְכִים.נח וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם:

9 The performance of work disqualifies only drawn water.24 [This applies] whether the water was in a container or on the ground25 when work was performed with it and afterwards, a person gathers it in a k’li to wash with. If, however, one performs work with the water of a mikveh or a natural spring while it is still attached [to its source], the water is not disqualified.

A change in the appearance of water,26 by contrast, disqualifies such water even though it is still attached [to its source]. When does this apply? When one takes that water [out and uses it] to wash. One is, however, permitted to immerse his hands in such water if it is acceptable for the immersion of one’s entire body,27 e.g. a natural stream whose water is not disqualified by a change in appearance, or a mikveh whose water’s appearance changed because of an entity that is not substantial, e.g., one washed baskets used for olives or grapes in it, or paint fell into it,28 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 201.29

ט אֵין הַמְּלָאכָה פּוֹסֶלֶת אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין,24 בֵּין שֶׁהֵם בְּכֵלִים בֵּין שֶׁהֵם בְּקַרְקַע,25 כְּשֶׁנֶּעֶשְׂתָה בָּהֶם הַמְּלָאכָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטְלָן בִּכְלִי לִטֹּל מֵהֶם. אֲבָל אִם עָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה אוֹ מַעְיָן בְּעוֹדָם מְחֻבָּרִים – לֹא נִפְסְלוּ.נט

אֲבָל שִׁנּוּי מַרְאֶה ס,26 פּוֹסֵל גַּם בְּעוֹדָם מְחֻבָּרִים.סא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם, אֲבָל לְהַטְבִּיל בָּהֶם יָדָיו – רַשַּׁאי אִם כְּשֵׁרִים לִטְבִילַת הַגּוּף,סב,27 כְּגוֹן מַעְיָן, שֶׁאֵין שִׁנּוּי מַרְאֶה פּוֹסֵל בּוֹ, אוֹ מִקְוֶה שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה מַרְאֵה הַמַּיִם מֵחֲמַת דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, כְּגוֹן הֲדָחַת סַלֵּי זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים, אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹכָם מֵי צֶבַע,28 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ר"א: סג,29

10 Our Sages ordained that the water used for the washing of hands must be fit for an animal to drink.1 If water is so salty, bitter, or fetid that a dog could not drink from it, it is disqualified for the washing of hands, even though it is acceptable for the water of a mikveh for the immersion of one’s entire body and, needless to say, for the immersion of one’s hands.

When water is murky because it is mixed with mud, it is acceptable both for washing hands and for immersion if a dog could drink from it. If a dog could not drink from it, it is unacceptable for either.

י לֹא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים נְטִילָה אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם הָרְאוּיִים לִשְׁתִיַּת בְּהֵמָה,סד,1 אֲבָל מַיִם מְלוּחִים אוֹ מָרִים אוֹ סְרוּחִים עַד שֶׁאֵין הַכֶּלֶב יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵהֶם סה – פְּסוּלִים לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֵׁרִים לְמֵי מִקְוֶה לִטְבִילַת כָּל הַגּוּף, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לִטְבִילַת יָדַיִם.סו וְאִם הֵם עֲכוּרִים מֵחֲמַת טִיט שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם, אִם הַכֶּלֶב יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵהֶם – כְּשֵׁרִים,סז בֵּין לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם בֵּין לִטְבִילָה, וְאִם אֵין הַכֶּלֶב יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵהֶן – פְּסוּלִים לִשְׁתֵּיהֶם: סח

11 [Water from] the hot springs of Tiberias is bitter and is not fit for a dog to drink even after it has cooled. Therefore, it may not be used for the washing of hands. One may, however, immerse30 in these waters when they are in their original place,31 even if they do not comprise 40 seah, for even the smallest amount of [water in] a natural spring imparts purity.32

If, however, one diverted such water along the ground, through a trench in the earth, to a reservoir outside its original place, separating it from the hot spring, one may not immerse27 in it if it does not comprise 40 seah. [This ruling applies] even according to the authorities who maintain that 40 seah are not required for the immersion of one’s hands in the water of other mikvaos, as explained in sec. 159[:21]. In this instance, [our Sages] decreed [such an immersion as invalid], lest one wash his hands with such water from a k’li. For [an unlearned person] will say: What is the difference between washing my hands with such water from a k’li or immersing my hands in it? It comprises less than 40 seah [in any case], and thus is not acceptable for the immersion of one’s entire body and yet it is acceptable for the immersion of hands.33

When, by contrast, the water comprises 40 seah, the measure of an acceptable mikveh, one will not take the leniency of washing his hands with such water with a k’li on the basis of the leniency of immersing one’s hands in it, since it comprises the measure of an acceptable mikveh and is fit for the immersion of one’s entire body.34

Accordingly, when the water in a trench is connected directly to the water of a flowing hot spring in a manner that it is acceptable to immerse one’s entire body [in the water in the trench], one may also immerse his hands. There are authorities who maintain that in this instance as well, there is room for concern lest an [unlearned] person come to wash with such water with a k’li, for he will not realize that the water is [fit for immersion only because it is] connected to the waters of the spring and he will say: What is the difference between washing my hands with such water with a k’li or immersing my hands in it? [After all,] it comprises less than the measure of a mikveh, 40 seah. As an initial preference, weight should be given to their words.35

יא חֲמֵי טְבֶרְיָא הֵם מָרִים וְאֵין רְאוּיִם לִשְׁתִיַּת הַכֶּלֶב סט אַף לִכְשֶׁמְּצַנְּנָם,ע לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין נוֹטְלִין מֵהֶם לַיָּדַיִם. אֲבָל מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶם עא,30 כְּשֶׁהֵם בִּמְקוֹם קְבִיעוּתָן,עב,31 אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּהֶם מ' סְאָה, שֶׁהַמַּעְיָן מְטַהֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא.עג,32

אֲבָל אִם הִמְשִׁיךְ אוֹתָם בָּאָרֶץ דֶּרֶךְ חָרִיץ שֶׁבַּקַּרְקַע עד חוּץ לִמְקוֹמָם וְהִפְסִיקָן מֵהַמַּעְיָן הַנּוֹבֵעַ חַם – אֵין מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן עה,27 אִם אֵין בָּהֶם מ' סְאָה.עו אֲפִלּוּ לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ מ' סְאָה לִטְבִילַת יָדַיִם בִּשְׁאָר מֵי מִקְוֶה,עז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ט עח – כָּאן גָּזְרוּ שֶׁמָּא יִטֹּל מֵהֶם גַּם כֵּן בִּכְלִי,עט כִּי יֹאמַר: מַה לִּי לִטֹּל מֵהֶם לַיָּדַיִם בִּכְלִי, מַה לִּי לְהַטְבִּיל הַיָּדַיִם בְּתוֹכָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מ' סְאָה וּפָסוּל לִטְבִילַת כָּל הַגּוּף, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֵׁרִים לַיָּדַיִם,33 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מ' סְאָה שֶׁהוּא שִׁעוּר מִקְוֶה – לֹא יָבֹא לְהָקֵל לִטֹּל מֵהֶם בִּכְלִי מִמַּה שֶּׁמְּקִלִּין לְהַטְבִּיל בָּהֶם כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שִׁעוּר מִקְוֶה וּרְאוּיִים לִטְבִילַת כָּל הַגּוּף.34

לְפִיכָךְ, חָרִיץ שֶׁמֵּימָיו מְחֻבָּרִים לְמֵי הַמַּעְיָן הַנּוֹבֵעַ חַם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁרָאוּי לִטְבֹּל בּוֹ כָּל הַגּוּף – מַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ אֶת הַיָּדַיִם.פ וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים פא שֶׁאַף בָּזֶה יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְהָקֵל לִטֹּל מֵהֶם בִּכְלִי, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁמֵּימָיו מְחֻבָּרִים לְמֵי הַמַּעְיָן, וְיֹאמַר: מַה לִּי לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ בִּכְלִי, מַה לִּי לְהַטְבִּיל בְּתוֹכוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שִׁעוּר מִקְוֶה שֶׁהוּא מ' סְאָה.פב וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה: פג,35

12 [With regard to the above,] the intent is not only the hot springs of Tiberias. Instead, the same law applies to all water that is not fit for a dog to drink and does not comprise 40 seah. Even though this water is connected to a mikveh that comprises 40 seah, one should be stringent and not immerse [his hands] in it.36

[Conversely,] any water from a hot spring that would be fit for a dog to drink when it is cold, may be used for [immersion and even] for the washing of hands from a k’li. How much more so [may one wash with] water heated by fire,37 even while it is still hot.

Sea water is salty and is not fit for a dog to drink. [Therefore,] one may not wash his hands with it with a k’li38unless he distills it, for then it is fit [for drinking].

יב וְלֹא חֲמֵי טְבֶרְיָא בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא הוּא הַדִּין כָּל מַיִם שֶׁאֵין רְאוּיִן לִשְׁתִיַּת כֶּלֶב וְאֵין בָּהֶם מ' סְאָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מְחֻבָּרִים לְמִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מ' סְאָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַטְבִּיל בָּהֶם.פד,36

וְכָל מַיִם שֶׁרְאוּיִם לִשְׁתִיַּת הַכֶּלֶב כְּשֶׁהֵם צוֹנְנִים, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם מַעְיָנוֹת חַמִּין – נוֹטְלִין מֵהֶן אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן חֲמֵי הָאוּר37 אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדָן חַמִּין.פה

וּמֵי הַיָּם הֵן מְלוּחִין וְאֵינָן רְאוּיִם לִשְׁתִיַּת הַכֶּלֶב, וְאֵין נוֹטְלִין מֵהֶן לַיָּדַיִם בִּכְלִי,38 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִרְתִּיחוּ אוֹתָם, שֶׁאָז רְאוּיִם: פו

13 [Even if there are multiple doubts concerning the validity of the washing of one’s hands, the washing is acceptable. For example,] there was a question whether work was performed with the water used for the washing of a person’s hands. Furthermore, even if one would say that work was not performed with it, there was doubt whether the water comprised the required measure or not. Nevertheless, the person’s hands are deemed pure. Even if one is unsure whether or not he washed his hands, his hands are deemed pure. For whenever there is a question regarding whether one’s hands are pure — even if the question involves an unresolved difference of opinion among the halachic authorities — one’s hands are deemed pure. [The rationale is that] the fundamental requirement to wash one’s hands is of Rabbinic origin and whenever there is a doubt regarding a point of Rabbinic origin, we rule leniently.

There is an authority who maintains that, despite the above, if the person has other water readily accessible, he is instructed: “Arise, wash, and extricate yourself from the doubt.”39 ([This ruling was given when there is a doubt whether he washed appropriately or not.] If, by contrast, the person knows that he washed as required by law and then a doubt arose, e.g., perhaps he diverted his attention from his hands or not,40 or even if he knows that he did not divert his attention from them, but he extended his hand close to a place of filth and there is a question whether he touched it or not, he is not required to wash his hands again, even to remove the doubt. [The rationale is that, after he washed as required, his hands are deemed fit to eat with] and it is presumed that they remain in that state, [unless it is known that their status has changed].

יג סָפֵק נַעֲשָׂה מְלָאכָה בַּמַּיִם פז שֶׁנָּטַל בָּהֶם פח סָפֵק לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם, וְאִם תִּמְצֵי לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם,פט סָפֵק הָיָה בָּהֶם כְּשִׁעוּר סָפֵק לֹא הָיוּ יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת,צ וַאֲפִלּוּ סָפֵק נָטַל יָדָיו סָפֵק לֹא נָטַל – טָהוֹר.צא וְכָל סָפֵק בְּטָהֳרַת יָדַיִם צב – טָהוֹר, אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַחֲלֹקֶת הַפּוֹסְקִים,צג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנְּטִילַת יָדַיִם עִקָּרָהּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.צד

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר,צה שֶׁעִם כָּל זֶה אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים מְזֻמָּנִים לְפָנָיו צו – אוֹמְרִים לוֹ: קוּם וּרְחַץ וְהוֹצִיא עַצְמְךָ מִן הַסָּפֵק.39 (אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁנָּטַל כַּהֲלָכָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹלַד בָּהֶן סָפֵק,צז כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּסְתַּפֵּק אִם הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהֶם אִם לָאו,צח,40 אוֹ שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ רַק שֶׁהוֹשִׁיט יָדָיו סָמוּךְ לִמְקוֹם הַטִּנֹּפֶת וְסָפֵק אִם נָגַע בָּהֶם סָפֵק לֹא נָגַע – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטְּלָן אֲפִלּוּ לָצֵאת יְדֵי סָפֵק, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אוֹתָן בְּחֶזְקָתָן):

14 When snow, hail, frost, ice, and salt41 are crushed to the extent that they produce water, [the water] may be used for the washing of hands if it comprises the required measure. Similarly, one may wash with liquids produced by crushing any entity that was created from water, e.g., red midges or fish oil.42

When does the [requirement to crush the above entities] apply? When one washes with a k’li and pours the liquid over his hands. Then the entities must be crushed, because washing one’s hands may be performed only with water. There are, however, authorities who permit immersing one’s hands in 40 seah [of these substances] that is collected on the ground, even though they were not crushed. [Thus, if] there is 40 seah of snow attached as a single entity lying on the surface of the earth, even if it is very shallow, one may immerse his hands in it.

Other authorities maintain that immersion must be in water. Snow and the like may be counted to complete the measure of 40 seah [for a mikveh] even when they are not crushed.43 Nevertheless, one may immerse in them only after they have been crushed to the extent that they become water. In a pressing situation, one may rely on the first opinion and rule leniently, [since the matter involves a question of] Rabbinic Law.44

יד הַשֶּׁלֶג וְהַבָּרָד וְהַכְּפוֹר וְהַגְּלִיד וְהַמֶּלַח,צט,41 אִם רִסְּקָן עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מַיִם – נוֹטְלִין מֵהֶם לַיָּדַיִם אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם כְּשִׁעוּר.ק וְכֵן נוֹטְלִין בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבְּרִיָּתוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם, כְּגוֹן יַבְחוּשִׁים אֲדֻמִּים אוֹ שֻׁמַּן דָּג,קא וְהוּא שֶׁרִסְּקָן עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מַיִם.קב,42

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנּוֹטֵל בִּכְלִי וְשׁוֹפֵךְ עַל יָדָיו – אָז צָרִיךְ רִסּוּק, שֶׁאֵין נְטִילַת יָדַיִם אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם, אֲבָל לְהַטְבִּיל יָדָיו בְּמ' סְאָה שֶׁבַּקַּרְקַע – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין קג אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא רִסּוּק. וְשֶׁלֶג הַמֻּנָּח עַל פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ, כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ מ' סְאָה מְחֻבָּר יַחַד אֲפִלּוּ נָמוּךְ מְאֹד – מֻתָּר לְהַטְבִּיל בּוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קד שֶׁאֵין טְבִילָה אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַשֶּׁלֶג וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִצְטָרְפִין לְהַשְׁלִים לְמ' סְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן מְרֻסָּקִים,43 אֲבָל אֵין טוֹבְלִין בָּהֶם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רִסְּקָן עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ מַיִם. וּבִשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים: קה,44

15 There are authorities who maintain that one may wash his hands only with water and not with other liquids45 or fruit juice. [The rationale is that our Sages] ordained the washing of one’s hands for ordinary food to parallel the immersion [that was required to partake of] terumah, and a mikveh may be made only from water.46 Indeed, water that does not have the appearance of water is not acceptable.47 How much more so are other liquids and fruit juice [unacceptable]. ([Moreover, this ruling applies] even to white wine whose appearance resembles water. [The rationale:] If [the halachah] is particular about requiring the appearance of water, how much more so [is it particular about] requiring the substance of the water.)

There are [other] authorities who deem all fruit juices acceptable for the washing of hands, [explaining that] a change from the natural appearance [of water] was considered a disqualifying factor only for water whose appearance changed. Fruit juice, however, is considered as water when there is no change in its natural appearance.48 Indeed, the Hebrew term for “fruit juice,” mei peiros, literally means “the water of fruit.”

[Even according to this view,] one may not wash his hands with wine, even white wine, whether pure wine or wine blended with water, because it is not referred to as water at all.49 Needless to say, oil and honey [are] also disqualified, because they do not cleanse. Nevertheless, mead and beer may be used for the washing of hands,50 because they are primarily water. Although their appearance has changed, there is no need for concern, because their quality has been upgraded.

Other authorities maintain that even wine — whether pure or mixed with water — is acceptable for the washing of one’s hands. It is only that, initially, it is forbidden to wash [with wine], so that one will not treat [wine] disrespectfully, [since it is] an important entity whose status has been upgraded51 to the extent that a specific blessing, Borei pri hagafen, was designated for it. (In contrast, it is permitted to wash with other fruit juices if one does not have water [available], as stated in sec. 17152 and sec. 181[:8].)53 After the fact, however, if one washed his hands with wine, even red wine, his hands are pure.

In a pressing situation, [since this is a point of] Rabbinic Law, one may rely on the lenient views and wash with fruit juice, beer, and mead even as an initial preference. (If one washed] with wine, after the fact, [the washing is valid].)

טו יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קו שֶׁאֵין נְטִילַת יָדַיִם אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם וְלֹא בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין45 וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁעָשׂוּ נְטִילַת יָדַיִם לְחֻלִּין כִּטְבִילָה לִתְרוּמָה, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין מִקְוֶה אֶלָּא מִן הַמַּיִם,קז,46 וַהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ מַיִם שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מַרְאֵה מַיִם פְּסוּלִים,קח,47 כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת קט (וַאֲפִלּוּ יַיִן לָבָן שֶׁדּוֹמֶה מַרְאִיתוֹ לְמַרְאֵה מַיִם,קי מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הִקְפִּידוּ עַל מַרְאֵה מַיִם – כָּל שֶׁכֵּן עַל גּוּף הַמַּיִם).קיא

וְיֵשׁ מַכְשִׁירִין קיב כָּל מֵי פֵּרוֹת לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם, שֶׁלֹּא פָּסְלוּ שִׁנּוּי מַרְאֶה אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מִמַּרְאִיתָם, אֲבָל מֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁעוֹמְדִים בְּמַרְאִיתָם – שֵׁם מַיִם עֲלֵיהֶם,קיג,48 שֶׁהֲרֵי נִקְרָא "מֵי פֵּרוֹת".קיד אֲבָל בְּיַיִן, אֲפִלּוּ לָבָן – אֵין נוֹטְלִין בּוֹ, בֵּין חַי בֵּין מָזוּג בְּמַיִם,קטו שֶׁאֵין שֵׁם מַיִם עָלָיו כְּלָל.49

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּשֶׁמֶן וּדְבַשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָם מְנַקִּים.קטז אֲבָל בְּמֵי דְּבַשׁ קיז (שֶׁקּוֹרִין מע"ד) וְשֵׁכָר קיח נוֹטְלִין [מֵהֶן לַיָּדַיִם],קיט,50 שֶׁהֲרֵי עִקָּרָן מַיִם.קכ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאֵיהֶם – אֵין לָחֹשׁ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ לְעִלּוּי.קכא

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קכב שֶׁאַף הַיַּיִן כָּשֵׁר לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם, בֵּין חַי בֵּין מָזוּג בְּמַיִם, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מְזַלְזֵל בְּדָבָר חָשׁוּב שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה לְעִלּוּי,51 עַד שֶׁקּוֹבֵעַ בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמוֹ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" (מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר מֵי פֵּרוֹת, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִטֹּל בָּהֶם אִם אֵין לוֹ מַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קע"א קכג,52 וקפ"א).קכד,53 אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד אִם נָטַל בְּיַיִן, אֲפִלּוּ אָדֹם – יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת.

וּבִשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,קכה יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵי הַמְּקִלִּין בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לִטֹּל יָדָיו בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת קכו וְשֵׁכָר וּ[מֵי] קכז דְּבַשׁ אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה (וּבְיַיִן בְּדִיעֲבַד): קכח

16 The measure of water to be used for the washing of hands is no less than a reviis — (a fourth) of a log.54 (This is the measure required by Scriptural Law for the purification of keilim through immersion [in a mikveh].)55

Our Sages required only that the k’li from which one is washing contain a reviis [of water]. There is, however, no necessity that one pour the entire reviis over his hands unless he desires to purify his hands with one pouring. If, however, he wishes to pour water over them twice, it is only necessary [to pour] each time enough water to cover the entire portion of the hand that must be washed. The water that remains in the k’li may be used to wash the hands of another person if it is sufficient [to cover his hands. This ruling] applies even if this water does not comprise a reviis, since it comes from a “remainder of [a measure of] purity,” i.e., the reviis that was present when the first person washed.56

[The above applies] when both come to wash at the same time. Even though they wash one after the other, the remainder of the measure of purity used by the first is effective in purifying the hands of the second, [although it presently] comprises less than a reviis.

There are authorities who maintain that when they wash one after another, the remainder of the measure of purity used by the first is not effective [in purifying the hands of the second] unless the water descends in one flow from [the hands of] the first to [those of] the second. For example, the first person stretched out his hands to [have them] washed, a [third] person poured water over them, and then a second person stretched out his hands under the hands of the first. The flow of water descended over the hands of the first and from them to the hands of the second. In this instance, both individuals’ hands are pure. Although the amount of water that remained in the k’li at the time the water reached the hands of the second person was less than a reviis, his hands are pure, because [the water] came from a “remainder [of a measure] of purity,” [i.e., the original reviis].

[The above applies] provided the second person stretched out his hands near the hands of the first person. Under such circumstances, [their hands] are considered as one hand. If, however, [the second person’s] hands were distant from the first person’s hands, the washing is not valid, because [the second person is considered to be] washing with the water with which the other [already] washed. ([Such water] is disqualified [for washing] even if it comprises a reviis,57 because work was performed with it, as explained above.)58

Even when [the two people’s] hands are held close to each other, [our Sages] did not permit such a washing unless initially, they intended to wash their hands as one, by way of the water flowing down from the first person’s hands to the second’s. Under such circumstances, their hands are considered as one hand for this washing, even though the second person did not stretch out his hands until after the first began washing his hands. If, however, the first person intended to wash only his own hands, but after he began washing, the second person stretched out his hands below those [of the first person], they are not considered as one hand. Therefore, (unless the person pouring the water over their hands, pours an entire reviis at one time,) the second person’s hands become impure, because of the impure water that descends from the hands of the first person. [Accordingly, the second person] must dry [his hands]59 and then wash them again. (Even if an entire reviis is poured at once, the second person must wash his hands again.60 It is just that [in this instance] he is not required to dry them first.)

(Fundamentally, the halachah follows the second opinion. Nevertheless, in a pressing situation, one may rely on the first opinion and rule leniently, [since the matter involves] Rabbinic Law.)

טז שִׁעוּר הַמַּיִם שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין מֵהֶם לַיָּדַיִם הוּא, לֹא פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית הַלֹּג קכט,54 (וְהוּא שִׁעוּר טָהֳרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לִטְבִילַת כֵּלִים).קל,55

וְלֹא הִצְרִיכוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁיְּהֵא רְבִיעִית בַּכְּלִי שֶׁנּוֹטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ, אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ כָּל הָרְבִיעִית עַל יָדָיו, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רוֹצֶה לְטַהֲרָן בִּשְׁטִיפָה אַחַת, אֲבָל אִם רוֹצֶה לִשְׁפֹּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים – אֵין צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּסְפִּיקוּ בְּכָל פַּעַם לִמְשֹׁחַ בְּכָל הַפֶּרֶק הַצָּרִיךְ נְטִילַת יָדַיִם.קלא

וּמַיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בַּכְּלִי שֶׁנָּטַל מִמֶּנּוּ – יָכוֹל לִטֹּל מֵהֶם אִישׁ אַחֵר אִם מַסְפִּיקִים לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם רְבִיעִית, הוֹאִיל וְהֵם בָּאִים מִשִּׁיּוּרֵי טָהֳרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָּהֶם רְבִיעִית כְּשֶׁנָּטַל הָרִאשׁוֹן.קלב,56

וְהוּא שֶׁבָּאִים שְׁנֵיהֶם לִטֹּל יְדֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין זֶה אַחַר זֶה – מוֹעִיל שִׁיּוּרֵי טָהֳרָה שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן לְטַהֵר יָד הַשֵּׁנִי בְּפָחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית.קלג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין שִׁיּוּרֵי טָהֳרָה שֶׁל הָרִאשׁוֹן מוֹעִילִין בְּנוֹטְלִין זֶה אַחַר זֶה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַמַּיִם יוֹרְדִים בְּקִלּוּחַ אֶחָד קלד מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן לַשֵּׁנִי, כְּגוֹן שֶׁפָּשַׁט הָרִאשׁוֹן יָדָיו לִטֹּל וְאַחֵר יוֹצֵק עַל יָדָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פָּשַׁט הַשֵּׁנִי יָדָיו לְמַטָּה מִידֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן וְקִלּוּחַ יוֹרֵד עַל יָדָיו שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן וּמֵהֶן לְיָדָיו שֶׁל שֵׁנִי קלה – יְדֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן טְהוֹרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּפְחַת שִׁעוּר הָרְבִיעִית בַּכְּלִי כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעִים הַמַּיִם לְיָדָיו שֶׁל שֵׁנִי – טְהוֹרוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם בָּאִים מִשִּׁיּוּרֵי טָהֳרָה.

וְהוּא שֶׁפָּשַׁט הַשֵּׁנִי יָדָיו סָמוּךְ לִידֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁאָז הֵן נֶחְשָׁבוֹת כְּיָד אַחַת, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ מְרֻחָקוֹת מִידֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן –לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל בְּמֵי רְחִיצַת חֲבֵרוֹ קלו (שֶׁהֵם פְּסוּלִים אֲפִלּוּ הֵם מֵי רְבִיעִית,קלז,57 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה).קלח,58

וַאֲפִלּוּ יְדֵיהֶן סְמוּכוֹת לֹא הִתִּירוּ, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנִּתְכַּוְּנוּ מִתְּחִלָּה לִטֹּל כְּאַחַת עַל יְדֵי קִלּוּחַ הַיּוֹרֵד מֵרִאשׁוֹן לְשֵׁנִי, שֶׁאָז חֲשׁוּבוֹת יְדֵיהֶן כְּיָד אַחַת בִּנְטִילָה זוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּשַׁט הַשֵּׁנִי יָדָיו עַד אַחַר שֶׁהִתְחִיל כְּבָר הָרִאשׁוֹן לִטֹּל יָדָיו, אֲבָל אִם מִתְּחִלָּה נִתְכַּוֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן לִטֹּל לְעַצְמוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ, כְּשֶׁהִתְחִיל כְּבָר לִטֹּל, פָּשַׁט הַשֵּׁנִי יָדָיו לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּיָד אַחַת. וּלְפִיכָךְ (אִם אֵין הַיּוֹצֵק עַל יְדֵיהֶם שׁוֹפֵךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת) – נִטְמְאוּ יְדֵי הַשֵּׁנִי מִמַּיִם הַטְּמֵאִים שֶׁיּוֹרְדִים מִידֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְצָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָן59 וְלַחֲזֹר וְלִטְּלָן קלט (וְאַף אִם שׁוֹפֵךְ רְבִיעִית בְּבַת אַחַת – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטְּלָן,60 אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָן תְּחִלָּה).קמ

(וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.קמא וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים):

17 More than two people, however, may not wash their hands from one reviis.54 [Indeed,] even a reviis and a half [is insufficient for more than two people]; there must be at least a half a log.61[True,] the Sages did not specify a minimum measure that must reach a person’s hands, only that there be a reviis in the k’li [from which one was washing]. Nevertheless, the Sages were concerned that if many people would wash with a small measure of water, they will not be meticulous about washing the entire portion of the hand required to be washed. [They feared] that each one would use but a small amount of water, so that some water would remain for the others. Nonetheless, [there is a way that three people may wash] if [a k’li] contains [only] a reviis and a half. The first person should wash with a half a reviis.62 Thus there would remain a reviis in the k’li. The other two could then both wash with this reviis in the manner described [in the previous subsection], as they could have had the k’li only contained a reviis at the outset.

If [the k’li contained] half a log, even four people may wash in the manner described, but not five, lest they use too small an amount of water. If [the k’li contained] a log, many people could wash from it, as long as there is sufficient water for each of them to pour water on his hands two or three times, as will be explained in section 162.

Similarly, [it is acceptable] for four or five people to place their hands next to each other or above each other and wash at one time,63 for they are all considered as one hand. They do not impart impurity to each other. [Thisruling applies] provided they hold their hands loosely so that the water can reach every hand individually without another hand intervening.

יז אֲבָל יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁנַיִם אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לִטֹּל מֵרְבִיעִית,קמב וַאֲפִלּוּ מֵרְבִיעִית וּמֶחֱצָה, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חֲצִי לֹג,61 שֶׁאַף שֶׁלֹּא הִקְפִּידוּ חֲכָמִים עַל שִׁעוּר הַמַּיִם שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ לְיָדָיו רַק שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רְבִיעִית בַּכְּלִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, חָשׁוּ חֲכָמִים אִם יִטְּלוּ רַבִּים מִמַּיִם מוּעָטִים, שֶׁמָּא לֹא יְדַקְדְּקוּ יָפֶה לִטֹּל כָּל הַפֶּרֶק, שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד יְצַמְצֵם הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ. אַךְ אִם הָיָה רְבִיעִית וּמֶחֱצָה, וְנָטַל הָרִאשׁוֹן חֲצִי רְבִיעִית62 וְנִשְׁאַר בַּכְּלִי רְבִיעִית – יְכוֹלִים שְׁנַיִם לִטֹּל מֵרְבִיעִית זוֹ עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר, כְּמוֹ אִלּוּ הָיְתָה רְבִיעִית לְבַדָּהּ מִתְּחִלָּה בַּכְּלִי.קמג

וּמֵחֲצִי לֹג יְכוֹלִים לִטֹּל אֲפִלּוּ ד' עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר, וְלֹא ה', שֶׁמָּא יְצַמְצְמוּ הַמַּיִם. וּמִלֹּג יְכוֹלִים לִטֹּל כַּמָּה בְּנֵי אָדָם, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמַּסְפִּיקִין הַמַּיִם לִשְׁפֹּךְ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד עַל יָדָיו קמד ג' פְּעָמִים אוֹ ב' פְּעָמִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ב.

וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים ד' וְה' לְהַנִּיחַ יְדֵיהֶם זֶה בְּצַד זֶה אוֹ זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶה וְלִטֹּל כְּאֶחָד,קמה,63 שֶׁכֻּלָּן חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּיָד אַחַת קמו וְאֵין מְטַמְּאוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ.קמז וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּרְפּוּ יְדֵיהֶם, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ הַמַּיִם לְכָל יָד וָיָד קמח בְּלִי שׁוּם חֲצִיצַת יָד אַחֶרֶת: קמט

18 The measure of a reviis mentioned above has to be collected in one k’li. If one washed with an eighth of a log64[from one k’li] and then another eighth of a log [from another k’li], his hands retain their impure status. ([This law applies] even when he washed with both [eighths] at the same time, for example, other people poured them over his hands and the flow [from the two pourings] was combined.)

יח שִׁעוּר רְבִיעִית שֶׁאָמְרוּ, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא מְכֻנָּס בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, שֶׁאִם נָטַל מִשְּׁמִינִית וְחָזַר וְנָטַל מִשְּׁמִינִית64 (וַאֲפִלּוּ נָטַל מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן בְּבַת אַחַת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֲחֵרִים יוֹצְקִים עַל יָדוֹ וְהַקִּלּוּחַ מִתְעָרֵב) – יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ: קנ

19 The specified measure of a reviis is sufficient whether a person washes both hands or only one hand, whether the hands are those of a large person or of a small person.

When two people wash their hands [in the following manner]: first, one washes one hand and then the second washes one hand; afterwards, the second person washes his other hand, they are considered as three people. The second person’s other hand is considered as the hand of a third person, since originally he only washed one hand. Therefore if the k’li from which they washed contained half a log, his hands are pure. If not, the second hand [of the second person] is not pure. For more than two people may not wash with less than half a log, lest they wash with a small amount of water.65 In this instance, as well, there is room for concern that he will wash with a small amount of water, since he is not washing both of his hands at the same time.

יט רְבִיעִית שֶׁאָמְרוּ, בֵּין לְנוֹטֵל ב' יָדָיו בֵּין לְנוֹטֵל יָדוֹ אַחַת בִּלְבַד, בֵּין לְיָדָיו שֶׁל גָּדוֹל בֵּין לְיָדָיו שֶׁל קָטָן. נָטְלוּ ב' בְּנֵי אָדָם זֶה יָדוֹ אַחַת וְזֶה יָדוֹ אַחַת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזַר הַשֵּׁנִי וְנָטַל יָדוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית – הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּג' בְּנֵי אָדָם, שֶׁיָּדוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית נֶחֱשֶׁבֶת כְּיָד אָדָם אַחֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נָטַל מִתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא יָדוֹ אַחַת. וּלְפִיכָךְ, אִם הָיָה בַּכְּלִי חֲצִי לֹג – יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת, וְאִם לָאו – אֵין יָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה טְהוֹרָה, שֶׁאֵין נוֹטְלִין בְּפָחוֹת מֵחֲצִי לֹג יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם,קנא שֶׁמָּא יְצַמְצְמוּ הַמַּיִם,65 וְכָאן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁמָּא יְצַמְצֵם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּאַחַת: קנב