SECTION 126 Laws Relating to a Sheliach Tzibbur who Erred [when Repeating Shemoneh Esreh]. (1-4)

קכו דִּין שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁטָּעָה וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 If a sheliach tzibbur erred and skipped1 one of the blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh], but when he is reminded he knows to which point he must return, he should not be removed2 from his position.3 Instead, he should return to the point at which he erred, following the same [guidelines that apply to] any individual who erred.4

If, however, he skipped “the blessing concerning the heretics,”5 he should be removed from his position immediately. One does not wait until he is reminded, for it is possible that a heretical thought took hold of him and he skipped this blessing because he did not want to curse himself. Nevertheless, he is not to be [permanently] removed from serving as sheliach tzibbur on account of one [omission], because it is plausible that he [merely] erred.

If he began that blessing, but erred, he is not to be removed from his position. Similarly, if he skipped the beginning of the blessing, but recited its conclusion, he should not be removed. Instead, he should return to the beginning of the blessing.6 Similarly, if he did not want to say “for those who deny”7 but rather “for the informers,”8 he is not to be removed, because there are places where “for the informers” is said as an initial preference.9

א שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁטָּעָה וְדִלֵּג1 אַחַת מִכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹתא וּכְשֶׁמַּזְכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוב – אֵין מְסַלְּקִין2 אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתֵּבָה,3 אֶלָּא חוֹזֵר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁטָּעָה כְּמוֹ יָחִיד הַטּוֹעֶה.ג,4

אֲבָל אִם דִּלֵּג "בִּרְכַּת הַמִּינִים"5 – מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ מֵהַתֵּבָה מִיָּד וְאֵין מַמְתִּינִים לוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּזְכִּירוּהוּ,ד כִּי שֶׁמָּא נִזְרְקָה בּוֹ מִינוּת וְאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְקַלֵּל עַצְמוֹ לָכֵן דִּלֵּג בְּרָכָה זוֹ.ה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ מִלִּהְיוֹת שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מִשּׁוּם פַּעַם אַחַת,ו כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁטָּעָה.

וְאִם הִתְחִיל בָּהּ וְטָעָה – אֵין מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ מֵהַתֵּבָה.ז וְכֵן אִם דִּלֵּג רֹאשׁ הַבְּרָכָה וְסִיֵּם חֲתִימָתָהּ – אֵין מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ,ח אֶלָּא חוֹזֵר לְרֹאשׁ הַבְּרָכָה.ט,6 וְכֵן אִם לֹא רָצָה לוֹמַר "וְלַכּוֹפְרִים"7 אֶלָּא "וְלַמַּלְשִׁינִים"8 – אֵין מְסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לְכַתְּחִלָּה9 וְלַמַּלְשִׁינִים:י

2 If a sheliach tzibbur erred and does not know to which point he must return, another person should replace him.10 At such a time [the latter person] should not decline, according to [the etiquette prescribed in] sec. 53[:19].11 If the mistake was in [one of] the intermediate blessings, he should start at the beginning of the blessing in which the [first] erred.12 It is not sufficient that he return to the point at which his predecessor erred, because a blessing cannot be divided in half.13 If the error [of the sheliach tzibbur] was in [one of] the first three blessings, [his replacement] must start from the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh. [If his error was] in [one of] the last three, [his replacement] must begin with the blessing Retzeh,14 for the first three blessings are considered as a single unit, and so too are the last three, as stated in sec. 114[:8].

ב שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁטָּעָה וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹיא,10 – יַעֲבֹר אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וְלֹא יִהְיֶה סָרְבָן בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ג.יב,11 וּמַתְחִיל מִתְּחִלַּת הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁטָּעָה זֶהיג אִם הָיָה הַטָּעוּת בָּאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת,12 וְלֹא דַּי שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁפָּסַק רִאשׁוֹן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְחַלֵּק בְּרָכָה אַחַת לִשְׁנַיִם.יד,13 וְאִם הָיָה הַטָּעוּת בְּג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת – מַתְחִיל בָּרֹאשׁ, וּבְג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת – מַתְחִיל בָּעֲבוֹדָה,טו,14 שֶׁג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּאַחַת, וְכֵן ג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קי"ד:טז

3 In all situations in which an individual is required to repeat [his whispered] Shemoneh Esreh [due to a mistake], a sheliach tzibbur who made a similar mistake during his audible repetition of Shemoneh Esreh must likewise start again from the beginning. This [rule] does not apply to the Morning Service of Rosh Chodesh, of Shabbos, or of the festivals. If the sheliach tzibbur erred on one of those days and did not mention Rosh Chodesh, Shabbos, or the [current] festival, he is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esreh,15 because this would inconvenience the congregation. This leniency was granted because the Mussaf Service has yet to be recited and there he will mention Rosh Chodesh, Shabbos, or the festival.

The above applies if he did not recall [the omission] until he completed Shemoneh Esreh, for in such a case he would be required to repeat it from the beginning, and that would inconvenience the congregation. If, however, he recalled his error before he completed Shemoneh Esreh, he should return to the blessing Retzeh if it is Rosh Chodesh (or to the middle blessing that relates to Shabbos or the current festival), for this does not involve so much inconvenience for the congregation.

When, by contrast, an individual did not mention Rosh Chodesh in the Shemoneh Esreh of the Morning Service and recalls it even after completing Shemoneh Esreh, he is required to repeat it from the beginning even though he has yet to recite the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf.15 Nevertheless, if he did not repeat Shemoneh Esreh until after he had recited the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf, he is not required to repeat the She­moneh Esreh of the Morning Service. The rationale is that the ruling for an individual after the fact need not be more stringent than what is allowed a congregation as an initial preference.16

ג כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁהַיָּחִיד חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל – שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל אִם טָעָה כְּמוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּקוֹל רָם,יז חוּץ מִשַּׁחֲרִית שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁיח אוֹ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב,יט שֶׁאִם טָעָה שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁכ אוֹ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב – אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ15 מִפְּנֵי טֹרַח הַצִּבּוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי תְּפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִין לְפָנָיו, שֶׁהוּא מַזְכִּיר בָּהּ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְשֶׁל שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא נִזְכַּר עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִים תְּפִלָּתוֹ,כא שֶׁדִּינוֹ לַחֲזֹר לָרֹאשׁ וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה טֹרַח הַצִּבּוּר. אֲבָל אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁהִשְׁלִים תְּפִלָּתוֹ – חוֹזֵר לָעֲבוֹדָה אִם הוּא רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ (אוֹ לִבְרָכָה אֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹבכב), שֶׁאֵין בָּזֶה טֹרַח צִבּוּר כָּל כָּךְ.כג

וְיָחִיד שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בְּשַׁחֲרִיתכד וְנִזְכַּר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר שֶׁהִשְׁלִים תְּפִלָּתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִין לְפָנָיו.15 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לֹא חָזַר עַד אַחַר שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף – אֵין צָרִיךְ שׁוּב לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית,כה שֶׁאֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּדִיעֲבַד לְיָחִיד מִלְּכַתְּחִלָּה לָרַבִּים:16

4 A sheliach tzibbur who erred in his recitation of the whispered Shemoneh Esreh is never required to repeat it in a whisper,17 because [waiting for him] would inconvenience the congregation. Instead, he should rely on his audible repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh.18

[The above applies] provided he did not err in the first three blessings. Whenever he errs in those, he must start again from the beginning,19 just as an individual worshiper must do. There are authorities who are lenient even with regard to [an error made in] the first three blessings. One may rely on their words in a case in which the sheliach tzibbur does not recall his error until after he has completed Shemoneh Esreh. Thus he will not have to return to the beginning and inconvenience the congregation. If he recalls [his error] before completing [Shemoneh Esreh], repeating it does not entail so much discomfort.

ד אִם טָעָה שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כְּשֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלַחַשׁכו – לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל שֵׁנִית בְּלַחַשׁ17 מִפְּנֵי טֹרַח הַצִּבּוּר, אֶלָּא סוֹמֵךְ עַל הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּקוֹל רָם.18 וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא טָעָה בְּג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת, שֶׁאִם טָעָה בָּהֶן לְעוֹלָם חוֹזֵר19 כְּמוֹ שֶׁחוֹזֵר הַיָּחִיד.כז וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין אַף בְּג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת.כח וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִזְכַּר עַד אַחַר שֶׁהִשְׁלִים תְּפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לָרֹאשׁ מִפְּנֵי טֹרַח צִבּוּר,כט אֲבָל אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁהִשְׁלִים – אֵין בַּחֲזָרָתוֹ טֹרַח כָּל כָּךְ:ל