SECTION 125 Laws Relating to the Recitation of Kedushah. (1-4)

קכה דִּינֵי קְדֻשָּׁה וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 The mitzvah of Kaddish involves the recitation of Yisgadal veyiskadash... by the sheliach tzibbur on behalf of the entire congregation, who listen attentively and respond Amen, yehei [Shmei rabba...].1 The mitzvah of Kedushah follows a similar pattern. At the outset, the sheliach tzibbur recites Nakdishach...2 or Nekadesh....3 The congregation remain silent and concentrate on what he says until he reaches [the response of] Kedushah, and then they respond Kadosh....4 This same [pattern is followed when the sheliach tzibbur says] Leumasam... and U’veDivrei Kodshecha....5

Even if there are nine or more men listening attentively to the sheliach tzibbur, (no individual should say Nakdishach... or Nekadesh... together with the sheliach tzibbur. [The rationale is that] since it was ordained that this expression be recited in Kedushah, it should be considered as part of Kedushah like the statements that begin Kadosh... and Baruch.... Now, a davar shebikedushah may not be recited except in the presence of ten men. The sheliach tzibbur has nine men listening to him attentively — but who is listening to this one individual?) [Nevertheless,] if one desires to whisper [this sentence] word for word together with the sheliach tzibbur, there is no prohibition involved in doing so. Since [the individual and the sheliach tzibbur] are saying each and every word together, the recitation of the two is considered as a single statement, as explained in sec. 183:10. Nevertheless, this should not be done as an initial preference but only in a pressing situation, as stated there and as outlined in sec. 109:3.

All of the above applies with regard to an individual. If, however, the entire congregation follows the custom of saying Nakdishach together with the sheliach tzibbur — even if they do not whisper it word for word together with him6 — they should not be rebuked, since they are saying this part of Kedushah with a quorum of ten. [In general,] the term “congregation”7 applies [to prayer] only when one person recites [a prayer] and nine listen and respond, whereas when each one recites [the prayers] himself,8 they are considered as individuals, as will be explained in sec. 594[:1]. Nevertheless, with regard to reciting a davar shebikedushah, such [stringency] is not required. For [the Sages] said only that a davar shebikedushah may not be recited without a quorum of ten. Ten men, though, may say Nekadesh... together just as they say Kadosh... and Baruch.... Though these sentences are the essence of Kedushah, they are recited by the entire congregation even not by way of a response to the sheliach tzibbur, as is the practice with regard to the Kedushah in the passage beginning U’Va LeTziyon according to the view that it may be recited only with a quorum of ten.9 Nevertheless, with regard to the Kedushah in Shemoneh Esreh, as an initial preference one should follow the custom observed with regard to Kaddish, whereby Amen, yehei shmei rabba... is a response made by the congregation to the statement beginning Yisgadal... that is recited by the sheliach tzibbur, just as Amen is a response made after blessings. So, too, in Kedushah, one should respond Kadosh... and Baruch... after Nakdishach... or Nekadesh... that is recited by the sheliach tzibbur — unless there is a pressing situation that requires one to recite [these sentences] together with the sheliach tzibbur, as stated in sec. 109[:3].

There are those who, for an esoteric reason,10 follow the custom of whispering the entire text of Kedushah together with the sheliach tzibbur word by word, even when the situation is not pressing. They say the words Nakdishach venaaritzach and Kadosh, kadosh, kadosh aloud.11

א כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּצְוַת קַדִּישׁ הִיא שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹמֵר "יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ כו'" בִּשְׁבִיל כָּל הַצִּבּוּרא וְהֵם עוֹנִים אַחֲרָיו "אָמֵן יְהֵא"1 וּמְכַוְּנִים – כָּךְ הִיא מִצְוַת הַקְדֻשָּׁהב לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁיֹּאמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר "נַקְדִּישָׁךְ"ג,2 אוֹ "נְקַדֵּשׁ"ד,3 וְהַצִּבּוּר שׁוֹתְקִין וּמְכַוְּנִים לְמַה שֶּׁשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹמֵרה עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִקְדֻשָּׁה וְאָז עוֹנִין הַצִּבּוּר "קָדוֹשׁ",4 וְכֵן בִּ"לְעֻמָּתָם" [וּבְ]"וּבְדִבְרֵי קָדְשְׁךָ".ו,5 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ ט' וְיוֹתֵר הַשּׁוֹמְעִים וּמְכַוְּנִים לִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרז – (אֵין לַיָּחִיד לוֹמַר עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר "נַקְדִּישָׁךְ" אוֹ "נְקַדֵּשׁ", שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּבְעוּ נֻסָּח זֶה בִּקְדֻשָּׁה – יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג בּוֹ דִּין קְדֻשָּׁה כְּמוֹ בְּ"קָדוֹשׁ" וּ"בָרוּךְ", וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה,ח וְלִשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר יֵשׁ ט' הַשּׁוֹמְעִים וּמְכַוְּנִים לוֹ,ט וְלוֹ מִי שׁוֹמֵעַ?) וְאִם רָצָה לוֹמַר מִלָּה בְּמִלָּהי עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּלַחַשׁ6 – אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם אוֹמְרִים כָּל מִלָּה וּמִלָּה יַחְדָּויא – אֲמִירַת שְׁנֵיהֶם נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כְּאַחַת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ג.יב אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵן לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא מִדֹּחַק,יג וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ט.יד

וְכָל זֶה בְּיָחִיד,טו אֲבָל אִם כָּל הַצִּבּוּר נָהֲגוּ לוֹמַר "נַקְדִּישָׁךְ" עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּלַחַשׁ מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר – אֵין לִמְחוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּקְדִּישִׁין בַּעֲשָׂרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא צִבּוּר7 אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֶחָד אוֹמֵר וְט' שׁוֹמְעִין וְעוֹנִין, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁכָּל אֶחָד אוֹמֵר לְעַצְמוֹ8 כִּיחִידִים הֵם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקצ"ד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּדָבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ, שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא: אֵין אוֹמְרִים דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה, אֲבָל עֲשָׂרָה רַשָּׁאִים כֻּלָּם לוֹמַר "נְקַדֵּשׁ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "קָדוֹשׁ" וּ"בָרוּךְ" שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר הַקְדֻשָּׁה, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אוֹמְרִים כָּל הַצִּבּוּר אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ עֲנִיָּה אַחַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, כְּגוֹן קְדֻשַּׁת "וּבָא לְצִיּוֹן" לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶרֶת אֶלָּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה.טז,9 אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּקְדֻשַּׁת י"ח יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּמוֹ בְּקַדִּישׁ, שֶׁ"אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא" הוּא עֲנִיָּה שֶׁעוֹנִין הַצִּבּוּריז אַחַר "יִתְגַּדַּל" שֶׁאָמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, כְּמוֹ עֲנִיַּת אָמֵן אַחַר הַבְּרָכוֹת, וְכֵן בִּקְדֻשָּׁה יֵשׁ לַעֲנוֹת "קָדוֹשׁ" וּ"בָרוּךְ" אַחַר "נַקְדִּישָׁךְ" אוֹ "נְקַדֵּשׁ" שֶׁאָמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵן מִדֹּחַק שֶׁמֻּכְרָח לוֹמַר עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ט.יח

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין כֵן מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶםיט,10 אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא מִדֹּחַק, לוֹמַר כָּל נֻסַּח הַקְדֻשָּׁה עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה בְּלַחַשׁ וְתֵבֹת "נַקְדִּישָׁך וְנַעֲרִיצָךְ" וְ"קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ" בְּקוֹל רָם:11

2 It is forbidden to speak during the recitation of Kedushah. Concerning anyone who speaks at these times it is written,12 “It is not Me that you called, O Yaakov,” as stated in sec. 56[:7]. Even if [an individual sees that] there is a quorum without him, it is forbidden for him to speak. Even study [is forbidden] except during the time the sheliach tzibbur is actually chanting melodies, but not when he is articulating the words. The wording added on Shabbos13 is not an integral part of Kedushah. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to converse between Kadosh... and Baruch..., as explained in sec. 56[:7]. In fact it is desirable not to speak until after the Amen following [the blessing] HaE-l HaKadosh.

The sheliach tzibbur should make a point of completing [the phrases beginning] Leumasam and U’veDivrei Kodshecha before the congregation start saying [the phrases beginning] Baruch and Yimloch.

ב אָסוּר לְדַבֵּר בְּאֶמְצַע קְדֻשָּׁה.כ וְכָל הַמְדַבֵּר – עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר:כא,12 "וְלֹא אֹתִי קָרָאתָ יַעֲקֹב וְגו'", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ו.כב וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ מִנְיָן בִּלְעָדוֹ – אָסוּר.כג וַאֲפִלּוּ לִלְמֹד, אִם לֹא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מְנַגֵּן בִּשְׁעַת הַנִּגּוּן, וְלֹא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּחַתֵּךְ הָאוֹתִיּוֹת. וְהַנֻּסָּח שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין בְּשַׁבָּת13 – אֵינוֹ מִכְּלַל קְדֻשָּׁה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר בֵּין "קָדוֹשׁ" לְ"בָרוּךְ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ו.כד וְטוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לְסַפֵּר עַד אַחַר אָמֵן שֶׁל "הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ".כה

וְיִרְאֶה הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לְסַיֵּם "לְעֻמָּתָם כו' וּבְדִבְרֵי כו'" קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ הַקָּהָל "בָּרוּךְ" וְ"יִמְלֹךְ":כו

3 It is customary to raise one’s eyes heavenward when reciting Kadosh, kadosh, kadosh, and it is desirable that they be closed. Similarly, it is customary to sway and raise oneself [on tiptoe] from the ground [three times].14 Support for this custom is found in Sefer Heichalos:15 “Blessed are you to G‑d, O heavens and those who descend from the celestial chariot — if you tell and relate to My children what I do when they recite Kedushah and say Kadosh, kadosh, kadosh.... Teach them that their eyes should be raised heavenward, to their place of prayer, and that they should raise themselves upward. For no satisfaction of Mine in the world can match the moment at which their eyes are raised toward My eyes and My eyes [are focused] on theirs. At that time, I take hold of the image of Yaakov in My throne of glory, and embrace it and kiss it. I recall their exile and hasten their redemption.”

The Midrash likewise states:16 “[It is written,]17 ‘With two [wings, the angel] flies.’ On this basis, [the Sages] ordained that a person should raise himself18 on his feet at the time Kadosh, kadosh, kadosh, is said.” This is in contrast to those who leap or jump. There is an authority who has received the tradition that one should raise his body and heels when reciting Baruch... and Yimloch..., as is done when saying Kadosh.19

There is another authority who for an esoteric reason was accustomed to bow when reciting the words Baruch and Yimloch and to stand upright when saying G‑d’s name [in those phrases. Following this custom] does not violate the prohibition against bowing in a place not ordained by the Sages, just as there is no prohibition to bow in the middle of the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, for the reasons explained in sec. 113[:3].

One should make a point of standing with his feet together when he recites Kedushah with the sheliach tzibbur, in the manner described in sec. 95[:1].20

ג וְנוֹהֲגִין לִישָּׁא הָעֵינַיִם לַמָּרוֹם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ".כז וְטוֹב שֶׁתִּהְיֶינָה סְגוּרוֹת.כח וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁמְּנַעַנְעִין גּוּפָן וְנוֹשְׂאִין אוֹתוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ,כט,14 וְסֶמֶךְ לַמִּנְהָג מִסֵּפֶר הֵיכָלוֹת:15 בְּרוּכִים אַתֶּם לַה' שָׁמַיִם וְיוֹרְדֵי מֶרְכָּבָה אִם תֹּאמְרוּ וְתַגִּידוּ לְבָנַי מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּקְדִּישִׁין וְאוֹמְרִים "קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ", וְלַמְּדוּ אוֹתָן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֵינֵיהֶם נְשׂוּאוֹת לַמָּרוֹם לְבֵית תְּפִלָּתָם וְנוֹשְׂאִים עַצְמָם לְמַעְלָה, כִּי אֵין לִי הֲנָאָה בָּעוֹלָם כְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה שֶׁעֵינֵיהֶם נְשׂוּאוֹת בְּעֵינַי וְעֵינַי בְּעֵינֵיהֶם, וּבְאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אֲנִי אוֹחֵז בְּכִסֵּא כְּבוֹדִי בִּדְמוּת יַעֲקֹב וּמְחַבְּקָהּ וּמְנַשְּׁקָהּ וּמַזְכִּיר גָּלוּתָם וּמְמַהֵר גְּאֻלָּתָם. וְאָמְרוּ בַּמִּדְרָשׁ:ל,16 "וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף",17 מִכָּאן תִּקְּנוּ לָעוּף18 אָדָם עַל רַגְלָיו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים "קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ", וְלֹא כְּאוֹתָם שֶׁדּוֹלְגִים וְקוֹפְצִים.לא וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁקַּבָּלָה בְּיָדוֹלב שֶׁיָּרִים גּוּפוֹ וַעֲקֵבָיו לְמַעְלָה בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְ"יִמְלֹךְ" כְּמוֹ בְּ"קָדוֹשׁ".19

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁהָיָה נוֹהֵג מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לוֹלג לִכְרֹעַ בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְ"יִמְלֹךְ" וְלִזְקֹף בַּשֵּׁם. וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בְּכוֹרֵעַ בְּאֶמְצַע בִּרְכוֹת י"ח, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קי"ג.לה

וְיִזָּהֵר לְכַוֵּן רַגְלָיו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹמֵר קְדֻשָּׁה עִם שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,לו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ"ה:לז,20

4 A person who has heard Kedushah in one place and then enters a synagogue and finds the congregation reciting Kedushah should respond again together with them.

ד הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ קְדֻשָּׁה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְנִכְנַס לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּמָצָא צִבּוּר אוֹמְרִים קְדֻשָּׁה – חוֹזֵר וְעוֹנֶה עִמָּהֶם:לח