SECTION 124 Laws Relating to the Conduct of a Sheliach Tzibbur during the Blessings of Shemoneh Esreh; Laws Relating to the Response Amen. (1-14)

קכד דִּין הַנְהָגַת שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּי"ח בְּרָכוֹת וְדִין עֲנִיַּת אָמֵן וּבוֹ י"ד סְעִיפִים:

1 After the congregation concludes their [whispered] Shemoneh Esreh, the sheliach tzibbur should repeat it aloud. [This was ordained so that] if there is someone present who does not know how to pray, he may hear the entire Shemoneh Esreh from the sheliach tzibbur and fulfill his obligation thereby.1 One who is knowledgeable, by contrast, cannot fulfill his obligation through [listening to] the Shemoneh Esreh of the sheliach tzibbur.2

Even one who is not knowledgeable can fulfill his obligation [in this manner] only when [this prayer is recited in the presence of] a congregation, i.e., only when there are nine men listening and paying attention3 to the blessings of the sheliach tzibbur and who will respond Amen afterwards, as explained in sec. 59[:4].

א לְאַחַר שֶׁסִּיְּמוּ הַצִּבּוּר תְּפִלָּתָם – יַחֲזֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַתְּפִלָּה בְּקוֹל רָם,א שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְהִתְפַּלֵּלב – יִשְׁמַע כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְיוֹצֵא,ג,1 אֲבָל הַבָּקִי אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּתְפִלַּת שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר.2

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא אֶלָּא בְּצִבּוּר,ד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁט' יִהְיוּ שׁוֹמְעִין וּמְכַוְּנִים3 לְבִרְכַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְיַעֲנוּ אָמֵן אַחֲרָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ט:ה

2 [An unlettered person] cannot fulfill his obligation [in this manner] unless he understands the Holy Tongue, but does not know how to pray. If, by contrast, he does not understand what the sheliach tzibbur is saying, he cannot fulfill his obligation by listening to him. Instead, he must recite the Shemoneh Esreh himself in a language that he understands, for he does not fulfill his obligation even by saying the words himself unless he understands [what he is saying], (as explained in sec. 62[:2]).4 For when a person does not understand [what he is saying], he is not concentrating even during the first blessing [of Shemoneh Esreh].5 And if one did not concentrate during [that blessing] he has not fulfilled his obligation, as stated in sec. 101[:1]. (This is why [everyone] is obligated to learn and understand the meaning [of the words] of Shemoneh Esreh, or at least [the meaning of] its first blessing.) One who [seeks to] fulfill his obligation [to recite] Shemoneh Esreh by [listening to its repetition by] the sheliach tzibbur must concentrate on everything he says from beginning to end.

After [the sheliach tzibbur has completed his repetition of Shemoneh Esreh, the person who is fulfilling his obligation by listening] must take three steps back (like a person [concluding] his own prayer.6 He should not make an interruption, nor should he talk until he has stepped back) just as he should not make an interruption nor talk until he has stepped [back] after reciting She­moneh Esreh himself, as stated in sec. 122[:1]. [This equivalence is made,] because listening in this manner is considered as a substitute for praying. (The sole exception is a response to a davar shebikedushah,7 for which he may make an interruption even before stepping back, as stated there.

Before he concludes listening to [the repetition of] Shemoneh Esreh, by contrast, he may not make an interruption even to respond to a davar shebikedushah, aside from responding Amen to the blessings recited by the sheliach tzibbur. For Amen is considered part of the blessing, as will be explained,8 and hence is not considered an interruption to Shemoneh Esreh. He should not, however, respond Baruch Hu U’Varuch Shmo,9 because that response may be recited only when one is at a point where an interruption is permitted, as will be explained.9

Similarly, in any situation in which one listens to a blessing with the intention of fulfilling his obligation thereby, e.g., Kiddush, Havdalah, the blessing recited before partaking of fruit or performing a mitzvah, he should not respond Baruch Hu U’Varuch Shmo. [The rationale is that] one who listens [to a blessing in this manner] is considered to be making the statement himself10 — and it is forbidden to make an interruption in the midst of a blessing. [If he did make such a response,] it is possible that even after the fact he did not fulfill his obligation [with that blessing], since he is making an interruption between G‑d’s name11 and [the reference to] His sovereignty12 with a statement that was not ordained by the Sages. This is considered as a deviation from the wording that the Sages ordained13 for the blessings. One ought to caution the many individuals who err in this regard.)14

ב וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמֵּבִין בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁו אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מֵבִין מַה שֶּׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹמֵר – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בִּשְׁמִיעָה מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לְעַצְמוֹ בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁמֵּבִין, כִּי אַף בַּאֲמִירָה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא אֶלָּא אִם כֵן מֵבִין (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"בז),4 שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין אֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן אֲפִלּוּ בְּ"אָבוֹת",5 וּמִי שֶׁלֹּא כִּוֵּן בְּאָבוֹת – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"אח (לְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב הוּא לִלְמֹד לְהָבִין פֵּרוּשׁ הַתְּפִלָּה וּלְפָחוֹת "בִּרְכַּת אָבוֹת"). וְצָרִיךְ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁיּוֹצֵא בִּתְפִלַּת שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לְכַוֵּן לְכָל מַה שֶּׁאוֹמֵר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מֵרֹאשׁ עַד סוֹף.ט

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִפְסַע לַאֲחוֹרָיו ג' פְּסִיעוֹתי (כְּאָדָם שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל לְעַצְמוֹ,יא,6 וְלֹא יַפְסִיק וְלֹא יָשִׂיחַ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּפְסַע) כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק וְאֵינוֹ שָׂח כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּפְסַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קכ"ב,יב שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁמִיעָה זוֹ עוֹלָה לוֹ בִּמְקוֹם תְּפִלָּה (אֶלָּא לַעֲנוֹת דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה7 לְבַד יָכוֹל לְהַפְסִיק קֹדֶם שֶׁפָּסַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.

אֲבָל קֹדֶם סִיּוּם שְׁמִיעַת י"ח אֲפִלּוּ לְדָבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק אֶלָּא לַעֲנוֹת "אָמֵן" אַחַר בִּרְכוֹת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר,יג שֶׁ"אָמֵן" הוּא בִּכְלַל הַבְּרָכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵריד,8 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב הֶפְסֵק בַּתְּפִלָּה, אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר "בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּךְ שְׁמוֹ", שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים "בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּךְ שְׁמוֹ"9 אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעוֹמְדִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַפְסִיק שָׁם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.טו,9

וְכֵן בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁשּׁוֹמֵעַ בְּרָכָה וּמִתְכַוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעָתוֹ,טז כְּגוֹן קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה וּבִרְכַּת הַפֵּרוֹת וְהַמִּצְווֹת – לֹא יַעֲנֶה "בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּךְ שְׁמוֹ",יז שֶׁהֲרֵי שׁוֹמֵעַ כְּעוֹנֶהיח,10 וְאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע הַבְּרָכָה. וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּין ה'11 לְמַלְכוּתיט,12 בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתִּקּוּן חֲכָמִים – הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁנֶּה מִמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁטָּבְעוּ חֲכָמִים13 בִּבְרָכוֹת.כ וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לָרַבִּים שֶׁנִּכְשָׁלִים בָּזֶה):14

3 If a sheliach tzibbur enters a synagogue and finds that the people there had already recited the whispered Shemoneh Esreh and he must recite the congregational prayer immediately, he should assume his position15 and recite Shemoneh Esreh aloud for the congregation. In such a situation he is not required to recite the whispered She­moneh Esreh, for if he can enable others to fulfill their obligation [through his recital aloud], surely he can fulfill his own obligation [thereby. Reciting Shemoneh Esreh aloud in this manner] does not [warrant the censure of our Sages], that16 “a person who pro­jects his voice during Shemoneh Esreh is one of those whose faith is meager,” because he is doing so under pressure [of time].

Similarly, if there is a pressing situation that prevents [a sheliach tzibbur] from reciting the whispered Shemoneh Esreh first, e.g., he fears that the statutory time of prayer17 will pass and he will not be able to complete the repetition of all of its eight­een blessings within that time, he may recite Shemoneh Esreh aloud [immediately]. The congregation should pray with him in a whisper, word by word, until the end of the blessing HaE-l HaKadosh. It is desirable that there be at least one person to respond Amen to the blessings of the sheliach tzibbur, provided that he will have the opportunity to recite Shemoneh Esreh afterwards or he has already recited it.18

ג שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּמָצָא צִבּוּר שֶׁהִתְפַּלְלוּ בְּלַחַשׁכא וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לַעֲבֹר לָהֶם לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה לְאַלְתַּר15 – יוֹרֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּקוֹל רָם לַצִּבּוּר,כב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלַחַשׁ, לַאֲחֵרִים מוֹצִיא – לְעַצְמוֹ לֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן. וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם16 "הַמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹלוֹ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מִקְּטַנֵּי אֲמָנָה",כג כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַדְחָק הוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן.כד

וְכֵן אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְחָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלַחַשׁ תְּחִלָּה,כה כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּרֵא שֶׁמָּא יַעֲבֹר זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּהכו,17 וְלֹא יוּכַל לִגְמֹר כָּל י"ח בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל חֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה תּוֹךְ זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּהכז – יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִיָּד בְּקוֹל רָם וְהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְלִין עִמּוֹ מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה בְּלַחַשׁ עַד לְאַחַר "הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ". וְטוֹב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶחָד לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת שֶׁיַּעֲנֶה "אָמֵן" אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, אִם יִהְיֶה לוֹ שְׁהוּת לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר כָּךְכח אוֹ שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּבָר:כט,18

4 After congregants who are all knowledgeable with regard to prayer have recited Shemoneh Esreh in a whisper, the sheliach tzibbur should nevertheless [lead them15 and] repeat it aloud, in order to fulfill the ordinance of our Sages.19 For when they ordained that the sheliach tzibbur should repeat Shemoneh Esreh, they did not require that an inquiry should [first] be made at every prayer service concerning every individual in the synagogue to see whether or not there is someone present who is not knowledgeable. Rather, they ordained that the sheliach tzibbur should always repeat Shemoneh Esreh, for perhaps at a given time there will be someone in the synagogue who is not knowledgeable and the sheliach tzibbur will discharge his obligation for him.

Similarly, whenever an enactment was ordained for a particular purpose, the intent is not that the enactment should apply only under the particular conditions for which it was ordained. Instead, the intent is that the enactment should apply in all situations, [as a safeguard20] lest the situation for which it was enacted arise. (Indeed, even if the [situation for which the enactment was ordained] utterly ceased to exist, an enactment ordained by a vote of Sages remains in effect until it is annulled by another vote [by a Rabbinic body of greater standing], even though the reason for which the enactment was ordained no longer exists,21 as will be explained in sec. 600[:4].)

There is another [reason] for which the sheliach tzibbur must repeat Shemoneh Esreh — so that Kedushah can be recited by the congregation.

ד קָהָל שֶׁהִתְפַּלְלוּ בְּלַחַשׁ וְכֻלָּם בְּקִיאִים בַּתְּפִלָּהל – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵרֵד שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה15 וְיַחֲזֹר הַתְּפִלָּה בְּקוֹל רָם כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים,19 שֶׁכְּשֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַתְּפִלָּהלא – לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לְחַפֵּשׂ בְּכָל תְּפִלָּה אַחַר כָּל אִישׁ וָאִישׁ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי אִם לָאו, אֶלָּא תִּקְּנוּ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר הַתְּפִלָּה לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה פַּעַם אֶחָד בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי וְיוֹצִיאֶנּוּ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.לב

וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר הַנִּתְקָן בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֵין עִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית הַתַּקָּנָה הַהִיא עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם אוֹתוֹ הַדָּבָר שֶׁנִתְקְנָה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,לג רַק עִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית הַתַּקָּנָה הַהִיא עַל כָּל פָּנִים, גְּזֵרָה20 שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה שָׁם אוֹתוֹ הַדָּבָר שֶׁנִתְקְנָה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם בָּטְלָה הַגְּזֵירָה לְגַמְרֵי – לֹא בָּטְלָה הַתַּקָּנָה שֶׁנִתְקְנָה בְּמִנְיַן חֲכָמִים עַד שֶׁיִמָּנוּ מִנְיָן אַחֵר לְהַתִּירָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּטֵל הַטַּעַם שֶׁבִּגְלָלוֹ תִּקְּנוּ,לד21 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"רלה).

וְעוֹד צָרִיךְ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לַחֲזֹר הַתְּפִלָּהלו כְּדֵי לוֹמַר קְדֻשָּׁה בְּצִבּוּר:

5 When the congregants have completed the recitation of Shemoneh Esreh, but there are still individuals who prolong their prayers, the sheliach tzibbur should not wait for them, even if they are prominent townspeople, because this would cause inconvenience to the congregation as a whole.22 Similarly, if there is a quorum23 in the synagogue [who are ready to begin the service], consideration for the respect due to the congregation at large24 [dictates that] they should not wait for the arrival of a prominent individual or scholar.

According to the current custom, the sheliach tzibbur waits until the head of the Rabbinic court25 completes his prayer. [The rationale is that] most people hurry their prayers, and if certain individuals pray word for word, they will not be able to recite Kedushah with the congregation. This is why the congregation waits [for the community’s Rabbinic leader]. Therefore if no head of a local Rabbinic court is present, [the congregation] should wait for an individual who prays word by word. If, however, he prolongs his prayers, they need not wait for him.

If a person feels the need to pray at length and he is afraid that people will make fun of him, he may step back26 when the sheliach tzibbur begins [the repetition], even though he has not completed his [own recitation of the whispered] Shemoneh Esreh. He may then return to his place and complete [his prayers].

ה כְּשֶׁסִּיְּמוּ הַצִּבּוּר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח וְיֵשׁ יְחִידִים שֶׁמַּאֲרִיכִים בִּתְפִלָּתָםלז – אֵין לִשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לְהַמְתִּין עֲלֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ חֲשׁוּבֵי הָעִיר, מִפְּנֵי טֹרַח הַצִּבּוּר.22 וְכֵן אִם הָיָה מִנְיָן23 בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵין לְהַמְתִּין עַל אָדָם חָשׁוּב אוֹ גָּדוֹל שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא בָּא, מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד צִבּוּר.24

וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיְּסַיֵּם הָאָב בֵּית דִּין25 אֶת תְּפִלָּתוֹ,לח לְפִי שֶׁרֹב הָאֲנָשִׁים מִתְפַּלְלִין בִּמְרוּצָה וְאִם יְחִידִים מִתְפַּלְלִים מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה לֹא יוּכְלוּ לוֹמַר קְדֻשָּׁה עִם הַצִּבּוּר, לָכֵן מַמְתִּינִים. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אֵין אַב בֵּית דִּין בָּעִיר – יַמְתִּינוּ עַל הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמַּאֲרִיךְ אֵין לְהַמְתִּין עָלָיו.לט

וּמִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַאֲרִיךְ וְיָרֵא שֶׁיִּתְלוֹצְצוּ עָלָיומ – יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לַאֲחוֹרָיו26 בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּתְחִיל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרמא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא גָּמַר תְּפִלָּתוֹ,מב וְיַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹ וְיִגְמֹר:

6 While the sheliach tzibbur repeats She­moneh Esreh, all the congregants should remain silent, concentrate on the blessings that he is reciting, and respond Amen. If there are not [at least] nine men listening attentively to his blessings, one can virtually [say] that they were recited in vain.27 For the repetition of She­moneh Esreh by the sheliach tzibbur was ordained to be recited in the presence of [a quorum of] ten, and in the absence of nine men listening attentively to his blessings, it appears that he is reciting blessings in vain.28 Every individual should therefore act as if there are not nine [listeners] without him and should listen attentively to the blessings of the sheliach tzibbur.

People who study or recite supplications while the sheliach tzibbur is repeating Shemoneh Esreh should be rebuked. Even if they pay attention to the conclusion of the blessing in order to respond Amen appropriately so that it will not be an orphaned Amen, as will be explained,29 they are not conducting themselves desirably. (For30 if nine men are not listening attentively to the beginning of the blessings, the sheliach tzibbur is reciting the beginning of the blessings in vain, [since his recitation is not fulfilling] the ordinance of the Sages.

[To explain:] The repetition [of Shemoneh Esreh] by the sheliach tzibbur was ordained [to enable] one who is not knowledgeable to fulfill his obligation. This is possible only when there are nine men listening to him. If there are not nine people listening except at the conclusion of the blessings, then even if the person who is not knowledgeable listens to the blessings in their entirety, he has not fulfilled his obligation. [The rationale runs as follows:] This person heard the beginning of the blessings only in an individual format; [the rule is that] one individual cannot fulfill the obligation of prayer for another;31 and one who recites only the conclusions — without the beginnings — of these blessings has not fulfilled his obligation, as stated in sec. 114[:8]. And since the ordinance of the Sages was that at least nine men should listen to the beginning of the blessings as well in order to enable one who is not knowledgeable to fulfill his obligation, their ordinance did not lapse even at present when all are knowledgeable, as was explained.32

[Accordingly,] every individual should act as if there are not nine [listeners] without him and should listen attentively to every blessing from beginning to end.) For if the scholars turn their attention to their studies, the common people33 will learn from them not to listen to the sheliach tzibbur and [instead] will engage in idle conversation.34 Thus [the scholars] will be causing people at large to sin.

ו כְּשֶׁשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר הַתְּפִלָּה – יֵשׁ לְכָל הַקָּהָל לִשְׁתֹּק וּלְכַוֵּן לַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁמְבָרֵךְ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְלַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן.מג וְאִם אֵין ט' מְכַוְּנִים לְבִרְכוֹתָיומד – קָרוֹב לִהְיוֹת בִּרְכוֹתָיו לְבַטָּלָה,27 כִּי חֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר נִתְקְנָה לְאָמְרָהּ בַּעֲשָׂרָה, וּכְשֶׁאֵין ט' מְכַוְּנִים לְבִרְכוֹתָיו – נִרְאֶה כִּבְרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה.מה,28 לָכֵן כָּל אָדָם יַעֲשֶׂה עַצְמוֹ כְּאִלּוּ אֵין ט' זוּלָתוֹ וִיכַוֵּן לְבִרְכַּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר.

וְיֵשׁ לִגְעֹר בָּאֲנָשִׁים שֶׁלּוֹמְדִים בְּעֵת חֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרמו אוֹ אוֹמְרִים תַּחֲנוּנִים, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מְכַוְּנִים לְסוֹף הַבְּרָכָה לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן כָּרָאוּי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה "אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה" כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרמז,29 – לֹא יָפֶה הֵם עוֹשִים (שֶׁאִם30 אֵין ט' הַמְכַוְּנִים לִתְחִלַּת הַבְּרָכוֹת – הֲרֵי הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹמֵר תְּחִלַּת הַבְּרָכוֹת לְבַטָּלָה שֶׁלֹּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי תִּקְּנוּ חֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִימח וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיאוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁט' שׁוֹמְעִים לוֹ, וְאִם אֵין ט' שׁוֹמְעִים אֶלָּא בְּסוֹף הַבְּרָכוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי שׁוֹמֵעַ בְּכָל הַבְּרָכוֹת – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁתְּחִלַּת הַבְּרָכוֹת לֹא שָׁמַע אֶלָּא בְּיָחִיד וְאֵין הַיָּחִיד מוֹצִיא אֶת הַיָּחִיד בַּתְּפִלָּה,מט,31 וְהַמִּתְפַּלֵּל סוֹף הַבְּרָכוֹת בְּלֹא תְּחִלָּתָן – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קי"ד,נ וְכֵיוָן שֶׁתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הָיְתָה שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ ט' לְפָחוֹת גַּם תְּחִלַּת הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי – לֹא בָּטְלָה תַּקָּנָתָם אַף עַכְשָׁו שֶׁכֻּלָּם בְּקִיאִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.נא,32

וְכָל אָדָם יַעֲשֶׂה עַצְמוֹ כְּאִלּוּ אֵין ט' זוּלָתוֹ, וִיכַוֵּן לְכָל בְּרָכָה מֵרֹאשָׁהּ עַד סוֹפָהּ) שֶׁאִם הַלּוֹמְדִים יִפְנוּ לַלִּמּוּדִיםנב – עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ33 יִלְמְדוּ מֵהֶן שֶׁלֹּא לְהַאֲזִין לְהַשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְיַעַסְקוּ בְּשִׂיחָה בְּטֵלָה,34 נִמְצְאוּ מַחֲטִיאִים אֶת הָרַבִּים:נג

7 Some authorities maintain that the entire congregation should stand while the sheliach tzibbur repeats Shemoneh Esreh.35 [They argue that] since they are listening attentively to the Shemoneh Esreh recited by the sheliach tzibbur, and since one who listens [to a blessing] is considered as if he had recited it himself,10 it is as if they are [now] reciting Shemoneh Esreh themselves. ([In support they explain that] this is why the sounding of the shofar in the midst of the repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh [of Mussaf] by the sheliach tzibbur on Rosh HaShanah is referred to as tekios me’umad, “the shofar blasts [sounded] while standing”36 — because the entire congregation is standing during the repetition of Shemoneh Esreh by the sheliach tzibbur.)

ז יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנד שֶׁכָּל הָעָם יַעַמְדוּ כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַתְּפִלָּה,35 כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּכַוְּנִים וְשׁוֹמְעִים הַתְּפִלָּה מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרנה וְשׁוֹמֵעַ כְּעוֹנֶהנו וּכְאִלּוּ מִתְפַּלְלִין בְּעַצְמָן10 (וְלָכֵן נִקְרְאוּ הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבַּחֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה תְּקִיעוֹת מְעֻמָּד,נז,36 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הָעָם עוֹמְדִים בַּחֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרנח):

8 In response to any blessing that a person hears in any context, it is the custom to say Baruch Hu U’Varuch Shmo (“Blessed be He and blessed be His name”). This practice has its roots in the verse,37 “For I proclaim the name of G‑d, ascribe greatness to our L‑rd.”38 Moreover, even when one mentions a righteous mortal, one ought to bless him, as [indicated by] the verse,39 “The remembrance of a righteous man is for a blessing.”40

Nevertheless, since this is only a custom and not an ordinance of the Sages, one should not make an interruption to make the above response at any point at which it is forbidden to interrupt [one’s prayers] for mundane matters.41 [This applies] even in places in which one may make an interruption in order to respond Amen, such as in the course of Pesukei DeZimrah.42

ח עַל כָּל בְּרָכָה שֶׁאָדָם שׁוֹמֵעַ בְּכָל מָקוֹם נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּךְ שְׁמוֹ",נט עַל שֵׁם הַכָּתוּב:ס,37 "כִּי שֵׁם ה' אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גּוֹדֶל לֵאלֹקֵינוּ".38 וְעוֹד, אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּיר צַדִּיק בָּשָׂר וָדָם – צָרִיךְ לְבָרְכוֹ,שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרסא,39 "זֵכֶר צַדִּיק לִבְרָכָה".40

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג וְלֹא מִתִּקּוּן חֲכָמִים – אֵין מַפְסִיקִין לְאָמְרוֹסב בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת,41 אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַפְסִיק לַעֲנִיַּת אָמֵן כְּגוֹן בִּפְסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה:סג,42

9 Every individual, whether or not he has fulfilled his obligation to recite Shemoneh Esreh, must respond Amen after every single blessing. The intent43 he should have in mind44 is that “the blessing that was recited is true and I believe in it,” for the word Amen signifies an affirmation of belief.45

When reciting Amen after requests and supplications, such as the Amen recited in Kaddish and the like, one’s intent should be oriented to the future — that the speaker’s statements and requests be affirmed and speedily fulfilled. The concluding phrases of the intermediate blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, and of the blessings Retzeh and Sim Shalom, express praise and grateful acknowledgment of G‑d’s name, and also a wish and a hope that the statement will be fulfilled speedily. Accordingly, it is desirable [when reciting Amen] to have both [of the above-mentioned] intents in mind — the intent that the statement is true, and [the wish] that (the speaker’s) statements be affirmed and speedily fulfilled.

ט וְאַחַר כָּל בְּרָכָה וּבְרָכָה יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן,סד בֵּין אוֹתָם שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יְדֵי תְּפִלָּהסה בֵּין אוֹתָם שֶׁלֹּא יָצְאוּ יְדֵי תְּפִלָּה. וְהַכַּוָּנָה43 שֶׁיְּכַוֵּן בְּלִבּוֹ:44 אֱמֶת הִיא הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ הַמְבָרֵךְ וַאֲנִי מַאֲמִין בָּזֶה, כִּי אָמֵן הוּא לְשׁוֹן הַאֲמָנַת דְּבָרִים.סו,45

וְאָמֵן שֶׁאַחַר שְׁאֵלוֹת וּבַקָּשׁוֹת, כְּגוֹן אָמֵן שֶׁבַּקַּדִּישׁ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹשסז – יְכַוֵּן עַל הֶעָתִיד שֶׁיֵּאָמְנוּ דְּבָרָיו וּבַקָּשׁוֹתָיו שֶׁל זֶה וִיקֻיְּמוּ בִּמְהֵרָה.

וּבִבְרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל תְּפִלָּה וּבִרְכַּת "רְצֵה" וְ"שִׂים שָׁלוֹם", שֶׁחֲתִימָתָן הִיא שֶׁבַח וְהוֹדָאָה לִשְׁמוֹ וְגַם יִחוּל וְקִוּוּי שֶׁיְּקֻיַּם דָּבָר זֶה בִּמְהֵרָהסח – טוֹב לְכַוֵּן גַּם כֵן בְּאָמֵן ב' הָעִנְיָנִים, שֶׁאֱמֶת הוּא דָּבָר זֶה וְשֶׁיֵּאָמְנוּ דְּבָרָיו (שֶׁל זֶה) וִיקֻיַּם דָּבָר זֶה בִּמְהֵרָה:

10 One should not engage in mundane conversation46 while the sheliach tzibbur is repeating Shemoneh Esreh. If one does so, he is a sinner and his transgression is too great to bear, even if there are nine men [listening to the sheliach tzibbur] apart from him. For anyone who engages in ordinary conversation in a synagogue while the congregation is involved in the praise of the Omnipresent shows that he has no share in the G‑d of Israel.47 Even one who engages in Torah study [at that time] and thus does not sin to the same degree is not acting desirably, as was explained.48

One should teach his young children and train them to respond Amen. As soon as a child responds Amen, he is assured of a share in the World to Come.49

Young children must be trained to stand with reverence and awe. As to those children who run to and fro in the synagogue for sport, it is preferable that they should not be brought there at all.50

י לֹא יָשִׂיחַ שִׂיחַת חֻלִּין46 בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר הַתְּפִלָּה.סט וְאִם שָׂח – הוּא חוֹטֵא וְגָדוֹל עֲוֹנוֹ מִנְּשׂוֹא אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ ט' זוּלָתוֹ, שֶׁכָּל הַמֵּשִׂיחַ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר עֲסוּקִין בְּשִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹםע – מַרְאֶה בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.47 וַאֲפִלּוּ הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹטֵא כָּל כָּךְעא – לֹא יָפֶה הוּא עוֹשֶׂה,עב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.עג,48

וִילַמֵּד אָדָם בָּנָיו הַקְּטַנִּים וִיחַנְּכֵם לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן.עד וּמִיָּד שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק עוֹנֶה אָמֵן – יֵשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.עה,49

וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּחַנְּכֵם לַעֲמֹד בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה.עו וְאוֹתָן שֶׁרָצִים וְשָׁבִים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בִּשְׂחוֹק – מוּטָב שֶׁלֹּא לַהֲבִיאָם כְּלָל לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת:עז,50

11 One should not respond with a “snatched Amen” (Amen chatufah),51 i.e., pronouncing Amen as if the alef were vocalized with a chataf kamatz (or a kamatz chataf), but rather as a full kamatz.52 Similarly, [the use of the term Amen chatufah] implies that one should not “snatch” [the Amen], i.e., one should not hurry to make that response before the blessing has been fully completed.

Similarly, one should not respond with a “clipped Amen” (Amen ketufah),51 i.e., clipping the final nun by failing to enunciate it discernibly. In addition, [this term implies that] one should not split the word in two.

Likewise, one should not respond with an “orphaned Amen” (Amen yesomah);51 i.e., the response should not be delayed.53 Instead, as soon as the recitation of the blessing is completed, one should respond Amen. Hence, if the sheliach tzibbur prolongs the chanting of the phrase VeImru Amen54 excessively, one should respond Amen at once, for the protracted melody constitutes an interruption.

In the same way, a response of Amen is considered “orphaned” if one made it without hearing the blessing from the person reciting it, even though he knows which blessing is being recited. When does the above apply? When he is obligated to recite the same blessing and wishes to fulfill his obligation by responding Amen to the blessing being recited. If, however, the listener is not obligated to recite it, i.e., he does not wish to fulfill his obligation by listening to it, he may say Amen in response to any blessing even though he did not hear it and even though he did not know which blessing it is.55

Some authorities differ and maintain that if a person does not know to which blessing [he is responding], his response is considered to be an “orphaned Amen.” Hence even if he is not obligated to recite this blessing, he should not respond Amen to it. If, however, he knows which blessing is being recited, even though he did not hear it from the person reciting it he should respond Amen to it, even if he is obligated to recite this blessing. And indeed, he may discharge his obligation in this manner.

The halachah prescribes that we follow the stringencies of both approaches. If one is obligated to recite a particular blessing and desires to discharge his obligation [by responding Amen], he must hear that blessing from the person reciting it. If not, even if he knows which blessing is being recited, it is considered an orphaned Amen — as maintained by the first opinion. And even if he is not obligated to recite the blessing, if he does not know which blessing is being recited, he should not answer Amen — as maintained by the second opinion.56

Some authorities maintain that even when the blessing is not obligatory and one knows which blessing is being recited, if its recitation was ordained in order to enable others to fulfill their obligation, as with the repetition [of She­moneh Esreh] by the sheliach tzibbur, one should not respond Amen to it unless he hears it [in the same manner] as if he had desired to fulfill his obligation [by listening to it. The rationale runs as follows:] The Sages’ ordinance was that the sheliach tzibbur should repeat Shemoneh Esreh to enable one who is not knowledgeable to fulfill his obligation; [as a condition for this,] the congregation must listen in silence to all of the blessings from the sheliach tzibbur and respond Amen to his [blessings]; hence there is an obligation to hear them from the sheliach tzibbur even if one has already recited Shemoneh Esreh.

As to the blessings for the communal Torah reading, by contrast, one may respond Amen even though he did not hear them.57 [The rationale for the distinction is that] these blessings were not ordained for the sake of the congregation, but [merely] because it is appropriate that one who reads the Torah publicly58 should recite a blessing. Though there is an obligation for the congregation to listen to them, as will be explained in sec. 139,59 the blessing is basically [recited] for the reader’s sake and not for their sake, as are the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh.

As an initial preference, weight should be given to the view cited above,60 and one should take care to listen to the sheliach tzibbur as he recites the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh.

If one was unable to listen to them, e.g., he was reciting Shemoneh Esreh [in a whisper] and when he completed it the sheliach tzibbur completed one of the blessings, he should respond Amen if he knows which blessing was recited. [He should respond Amen with them] even if he did not complete his Shemoneh Esreh until many61 of the congregation had already responded Amen. (One should not say Amen in response to Amen, but in response to a blessing, and it must be said as soon as the blessing is concluded. Otherwise, it is an orphaned Amen. Nevertheless,) if most of the congregants have not finished saying Amen, he should respond together with them (even though there is an interval between the end of the blessing and the beginning of his response). Since most of the congregants have not finished saying Amen, the concept of the blessing has not been completed entirely, for responding Amen is also part of the blessing, as will be explained in sec. 167[:3].

By contrast, after most of the congregants have finished saying Amen, even though a minority are still responding at length, their extension is of no consequence, for one who prolongs the recitation of Amen more than necessary is acting in error,51 and hence the concept of the blessing has been completed entirely. (If one would begin responding Amen at this point, it would be an orphaned Amen, since a long time elapses between the end of the blessing as sounded by the person reciting it and the moment one begins to respond. Though the congregation’s response of Amen is also part of the blessing, one should not respond after their [response], for Amen should not be recited in response to those who say Amen, but in response to the person who recited a blessing. If, however, there is no interval between the end of the blessing and the beginning of one’s response, one may say Amen after [the congregants] respond Amen. Suppose, for example, one heard someone say Amen in response to a blessing and he knows which blessing was just recited. He [too] may respond Amen immediately afterwards, provided that the person who originally responded did not prolong his recitation of Amen to the extent that congregants do. Their response of Amen is prolonged, because they cannot synchronize it so that they all start and finish at the same moment.)

A certain authority maintains that even if most of the congregants have finished saying Amen, (and even if they all finished,) one may recite Amen afterwards and this is considered as responding to the blessing (since they all began immediately after the blessing) — provided he responds immediately after them. (With regard to actual practice, everything depends on [the length of] the interval between the end of the blessing recited and the end of the response of the listeners.)

Similarly with regard to Kaddish, Kedushah, and Barchu: as long as most of the congregants have not completed [their response], one may respond with them even if he heard nothing from the sheliach tzibbur. (According to the latter opinion, this applies even if most of the congregants completed [their response], as long as there remain nine together with him [who have not completed it]. Thus, together with the sheliach tzibbur, they are ten. [This is necessary,] because no davar shebikedushah7 can be recited without a quorum of ten.) [The above applies] even according to the opinion that whoever has an obligation cannot fulfill it by responding unless he hears [the statement to which he is responding. The rationale is that] he is considered obligated in this sense only with regard to matters that he is obligated to recite even individually.62 This is not the case with regard to Kaddish, Kedushah, and Barchu.

יא לֹא יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן חֲטוּפָה,עח,51 דְּהַיְנוּ כְּאִלּוּ הָאָלֶ"ף נְקוּדָה בַּחט"ףעט (קמ"ץ אוֹ קמץ חט"ף, אֶלָּא בְּקמ"ץ גָּדוֹלפ).52 וְכֵן שֶׁלֹּא יַחְטֹף וִימַהֵר לַעֲנוֹת אוֹתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּסַיֵּם הַמְבָרֵךְ.פא

וְכֵן לֹא יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן קְטוּפָה,פב,51 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּחְסִיר קְרִיאַת הַנּוּ"ן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיאָהּ בַּפֶּה שֶׁתְּהֵא נִכֶּרֶת. וְכֵן לֹא יִפְסֹק הַתֵּבָה לִשְׁתַּיִם.פג

וְלֹא יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה,פד,51 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּין עִם הָעֲנִיַּת הָאָמֵן,פה,53 אֶלָּא מִיָּד שֶׁכָּלְתָה הַבְּרָכָה מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן.פו וְאִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מַאֲרִיךְ הַרְבֵּה בְּנִגּוּן שֶׁל "וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן"פז,54 – יֹאמַר מִיָּד אָמֵן, כִּי הַאֲרָכַת הַנִּגּוּן הַרְבֵּה הוּא הֶפְסֵק.

וְכֵן אִם לֹא שָׁמַע הַבְּרָכָה מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה הוּא מְבָרֵךְ,פח מֵאַחַר שֶׁלֹּא שְׁמָעָהּ אִם עוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן – הֲרֵי זֶה אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּאוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה לְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּפט וְרוֹצֶה לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּעֲנִיַּת אָמֵן אַחַר הַמְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּ, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בָּהּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בָּזֶהצ – רַשַּׁאי לַעֲנוֹת אַחַר כָּל בְּרָכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שְׁמָעָהּ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה בְּרָכָה הִיא.55

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצא שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה – הֲרֵי זֶה אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בָּהּ – לֹא יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ. אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה הִיא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שְׁמָעָהּ מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ – עוֹנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא חַיָּב בָּהּ,צב וְיוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּעֲנִיָּה זוֹ.

וַהֲלָכָה כִּשְׁתֵּי הַסְּבָרוֹת לְהַחֲמִיר,צג שֶׁאִם הוּא חַיָּב בְּאוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָהצד וְרוֹצֶה לָצֵאת בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע אוֹתָהּ מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ. וְאִם לָאו, אַף שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה בְּרָכָה הִיא – הֲרֵי זֶה אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְאַף אִם אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בָּהּ,צה אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה הִיא – לֹא יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.צו,56

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצז שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּ וְיוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה הִיא, אִם הַבְּרָכָה נִתְקְנָה לְהוֹצִיא רַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן כְּגוֹן חֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרצח – לֹא יַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הִיא שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַתְּפִלָּהצט לְהוֹצִיא אֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי וְהַצִּבּוּר חַיָּבִים לִשְׁתֹּק וְלִשְׁמֹעַ כָּל בְּרָכָה מִפִּי הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְלַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן,ק אִם כֵן הֲרֵי בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ עֲלֵיהֶם חוֹבָה לְשָׁמְעָן מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּבָר.קא אֲבָל אַחַר בִּרְכוֹת הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּצִבּוּר יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע,קב,57 שֶׁהַבְּרָכוֹת לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ הַצִּבּוּר נִתְקְנָה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקּוֹרֵא בְּצִבּוּר58 רָאוּי לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ. וְאַף שֶׁחוֹבָה עַל הַצִּבּוּר לְשָׁמְעָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קל"ט,קג,59 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עִקַּר בִּרְכָתוֹ הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא לְצֹרֶךְ הַצִּבּוּרקד כְּמוֹ בַּתְּפִלָּה. וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה,קה,60 לִזָּהֵר לִשְׁמֹעַ בִּרְכוֹת י"ח מִפִּי הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר.

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִשְׁמֹעַ,קו כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח וּכְשֶׁסִּיֵּם תְּפִלָּתוֹ סִיֵּם שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּרָכָה אַחַת – עוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו אִם יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה בְּרָכָה הִיא. וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא סִיֵּם תְּפִלָּתוֹ עַד שֶׁהַרְבֵּה מִן הַצִּבּוּר עָנוּ כְּבָר אָמֵן61 (וְאֵין עִנְיַן אָמֵן אַחַר אָמֵן אֶלָּא אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה, וְצָרִיךְ לַעֲנוֹת מִיָּד שֶׁכָּלְתָה הַבְּרָכָה, וְאִם לָאו הִיא אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן) אִם לֹא כָּלְתָה אָמֵן מִפִּי רֹב הַצִּבּוּר – עוֹנֶה עִמָּהֶם (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שִׁהוּי בֵּין גְּמַר הַבְּרָכָה לְהַתְחָלַת עֲנִיָּתוֹ), לְפִי שֶׁכָּל שֶׁלֹּא כָּלְתָה אָמֵן מִפִּי רֹב הָעוֹנִים – עֲדַיִן לֹא נִשְׁלַם עִנְיַן הַבְּרָכָה לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁעֲנִיַּת אָמֵן גַּם כֵן מִן הַבְּרָכָה הִיא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז.קז

אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּלְתָה אָמֵן מִפִּי רֹב הַצִּבּוּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמִּעוּט מַאֲרִיכִים – אֵין בְּהַאֲרָכָתָם כְּלוּם, שֶׁהַמַּאֲרִיךְ בְּאָמֵן יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא טוֹעֶה,קח,51 וְאִם כֵן נִשְׁלַם כְּבָר עִנְיַן הַבְּרָכָה לְגַמְרֵי (וְזֶה שֶׁמַּתְחִיל עַתָּה לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן – אָמֵן יְתוֹמָה הִיא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שִׁהוּי הַרְבֵּה בֵּין גְּמַר הַבְּרָכָה מִפִּי הַמְבָרֵךְ לְהַתְחָלַת עֲנִיָּתוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמֵן שֶׁל הַצִּבּוּר גַּם כֵן מִן הַבְּרָכָה הִיא – אֵין לוֹ לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶם, שֶׁאֵין עוֹנִין אָמֵן אַחַר הָעוֹנִין אָמֵן אֶלָּא אַחַר הַמְבָרֵךְ . אֲבָל אִם אֵין שִׁהוּי בֵּין גְּמַר הַבְּרָכָה לְהַתְחָלַת עֲנִיָּתוֹ – יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת אַחַר הָעוֹנִים אָמֵן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמַע אֶחָד עוֹנֶה אָמֵן אַחַר אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָהקט וְהוּא יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה הִיא – יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת אַחֲרָיו מִיָּד אִם זֶה לֹא הֶאֱרִיךְ כָּל כָּךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מַאֲרִיכִים וּמִשְׁתַּהִים בַּעֲנִיָּתָם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיְּצַמְצְמוּ כֻּלָּם לְהַתְחִיל וְלִפְסֹק בְּרֶגַע אֶחָד). וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרקי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ כָּלְתָה אָמֵן מִפִּי רֹב הַצִּבּוּר (וַאֲפִלּוּ סִיְּמוּ כֻּלָּם) – יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן אַחֲרֵיהֶם וְנֶחְשָׁב כְּעוֹנֶה אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה (כֵּיוָן שֶׁכֻּלָּם הִתְחִילוּ מִיָּד אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה), וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲנֶה אַחֲרֵיהֶם מִיָּד [(]וּלְעִנְיַן מַעֲשֶׂה – הַכֹּל לְפִי עִנְיַן שִׁהוּי שֶׁמִּגְּמַר בִּרְכַּת הַמְבָרֵךְ לְסִיּוּם עֲנִיַּת הָעוֹנִים).

וְכֵן בְּקַדִּישׁ וּקְדֻשָּׁה וְ"בָּרְכוּ",קיא כָּל שֶׁלֹּא סִיְּמוּ רֹב הַצִּבּוּר – עוֹנֶה עִמָּהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא (שָׁמְעוּ כֻּלָּם) [שָׁמַע כְּלוּם] מִפִּי הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר [(]וְלַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה אֲפִלּוּ סִיְּמוּ רֻבָּן, כָּל שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ ט' עִמּוֹ שֶׁהֵם עֲשָׂרָה עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, שֶׁאֵין דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה7 פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָהקיב). וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל שֶׁהוּא מְחֻיָּב בְּדָבָר אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בָּעֲנִיָּה עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר לְעִנְיַן זֶהקיג אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁמְּחֻיָּב לְאָמְרוֹ אַף בְּיָחִיד,62 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵן בְּקַדִּישׁ וּקְדֻשָּׁה וּ"בָרְכוּ":

12 One should not respond with a shortened Amen.51 Rather, the response should be prolonged slightly, [for the length of time in which one could] recite the words E-l Melech Ne’eman (“G‑d, faithful King”). This is the meaning of the term Amen and, [indeed,] Amen serves as an acronym for this phrase.63

On the other hand, one should not prolong its recitation excessively,51 for a word does not sound [correct] when [this is done]. If some of those who respond prolong their recitation excessively, the sheliach tzibbur or another person reciting the blessing is not required to wait for them, provided that the blessing that follows is one that not everyone is obligated to hear. If [through the recitation of this blessing] he enables people at large to fulfill their obligation, he must wait for those who erroneously prolong the recitation of Amen, so that they, too, will hear and fulfill their obligation.

יב וְלֹא יַעֲנֶה אָמֵן קְצָרָה,קיד,51 אֶלָּא אֲרֻכָּה קְצָת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לוֹמַר "אֵל מֶלֶךְ נֶאֱמָן",קטו כִּי זֶהוּ פֵּרוּשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָמֵן וְהֵם רָאשֵׁי תֵּבוֹת שֶׁלָּהּ.קטז,63

וְלֹא יַאֲרִיךְ בָּהּ יוֹתֵר מִדַאי,קיז,51 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין קְרִיאַת הַתֵּבָה נִשְׁמַעַת כְּשֶׁמַּאֲרִיךְ יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי.קיח וְאִם יֵשׁ קְצָת מֵהָעוֹנִים שֶׁמַּאֲרִיכִים יוֹתֵר מִדַּאיקיט – אֵין צָרִיךְ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹ שְׁאָר הַמְבָרֵךְ לְהַמְתִּין עֲלֵיהֶם, אִם בְּרָכָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ הִיא בְּרָכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ חוֹבָה עַל הַכֹּל לִשְׁמֹעַ. אֲבָל אִם מוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָןקכ – צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין אַף עַל הַטּוֹעִים וּמַאֲרִיכִים בְּאָמֵן, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ וְיֵצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן גַּם הֵם:

13 When responding Amen, one should not raise his voice above that of the person who recited the blessing.64 This is [implied by] the verse,65 “[Proclaim] G‑d’s greatness with me; let us exalt His name together.”

יג הָעוֹנֶה אָמֵן – לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ קוֹלוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵהַמְבָרֵךְ,קכא,64 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:קכב,65 "גַּדְּלוּ לַה' אִתִּי וּנְרוֹמְמָה שְׁמוֹ יַחְדָּו":

14 If a person forgot and did not recite Yaaleh veyavo on Rosh Chodesh or on Chol HaMoed, or if he forgot anything else [whose omission] requires one to repeat [the entire Shemoneh Esreh], he has a means of rectifying this. He may listen attentively to the recitation of all the eighteen blessings66 by the sheliach tzibbur from beginning to end, like one who prays individually. He may not make any interruption, nor speak, and [at the end of Shemoneh Esreh] he should take three steps back. Since he already recited Shemoneh Esreh and merely forgot to include [a particular matter], the sheliach tzibbur may fulfill his obligation for him even though he is knowledgeable.67

Nevertheless, not everyone can listen attentively to the sheliach tzibbur from beginning to end. (Perhaps one’s attention will wander and he will not hear the sheliach tzibbur recite something that is an absolute requirement68 for the Shemoneh Esreh [to be acceptable].) Hence, it is preferable that he recite the She­moneh Esreh himself.

יד מִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְלֹא אָמַר "יַעֲלֶה וְיָבוֹא" בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁקכג אוֹ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵדקכד וְכֵן בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר בִּשְׁבִילוֹקכה – יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה שֶׁיְכַוֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ וְיִשְׁמַע מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כָּל י"ח בְּרָכוֹת66 מֵרֹאשׁ עַד סוֹףקכו כְּאָדָם שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל לְעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא יַפְסִיק וְלֹא יָשִׂיחַ וּפוֹסֵעַ ג' פְּסִיעוֹת לְאַחֲרָיו,קכז שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁכַח מִלְּהַזְכִּיר – הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מוֹצִיאוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בָּקִי.קכח,67

אַךְ אֵין כָּל אָדָם יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד סוֹףקכט (וְשֶׁמָּא לְבָבוֹ יִפְנֶה וְלֹא יִשְׁמַע מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אֵיזֶה דָּבָר הַמְעַכֵּב68 בַּתְּפִלָּהקל[)], לָכֵן מוּטָב לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַצְמוֹ: