SECTION 119 Laws Relating to One who Wishes to Make Additions to the Blessings. (1-6)

קיט דִּין הָרוֹצֶה לְהוֹסִיף בַּבְּרָכוֹת וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 [When reciting] any of the intermediate blessings, if one desires to add [a request] that echoes its theme, he may do so.1

What is implied? If one knows a person who is sick,2 one may entreat for mercy for him in the blessing Refaeinu. One who needs sustenance may make such a request in the blessing for material prosperity.3 In the blessing Shomeia Tefillah, however, one may ask for any of his needs, because it includes all requests.

When one adds a request, he should begin with [the standard text of] the blessing and add the request. One should not add the request and then begin the blessing, because the version ordained by the Sages4 must be accorded primacy, and one’s own addition should be only supplementary.

There is an authority who maintains that if one makes an addition in the midst of a blessing that is analogous to the theme of that blessing, and the addition asks for mercy for the Jewish people at large, it should be expressed in the plural, not the singular, so that it will not constitute an interruption in the midst of Shemoneh Esreh. This addition should be made only at the end of the blessing and not in the midst of it, for when one makes requests for the community at large in the midst of a blessing, he appears to be adding to the text ordained by the Sages.

When does the above [restriction] apply? When one is praying as an individual. In congregational prayer, by contrast, [additional requests on behalf of the public] are permitted [in the midst of a blessing]. This is why Selichos prayers5 [may be] recited in the midst of the blessing Selach Lanu6 and similarly, in the midst of the middle blessing7 on Yom Kippur.

[However,] if one is asking for his personal needs, e.g., there is illness in his home or a need for sustenance, he may make such a request even in the midst of a blessing, provided he words it in the singular, not in the plural, so that he will not appear to be adding to the text ordained by our Sages.

In the blessing Shomeia Tefillah, [uniquely,] one may [add] requests in the singular or in the plural, whether for personal or public needs, because [this] blessing relates to requests for needs of all kinds and [in fact] was ordained for that purpose.

Nevertheless, when one adds an individual request — even one that [is interposed within one of the intermediate blessings and] reflects its theme, or one that is added to the blessing Shomeia Tefillah — he should not prolong it. By contrast, one may prolong requests made after [completing] Shemoneh Esreh and before leaving one’s place.8 [Indeed, at that point one may recite] the entire series of [supplications that are added on] Yom Kippur.1 The reason that Selichos prayers, with their numerous supplications, are customarily recited in the midst of the blessing Selach Lanu,6 is that these relate to the needs of the people at large. Similarly, it is permitted to recite many Selichos prayers and supplications on behalf of one person in the midst of a blessing if many people require his Torah [knowledge], for this is accounted as a communal need.

It is desirable to show concern for these [guidelines] even though there are authorities who differ with [the above-mentioned view] and permit all of the above (and their rulings appear to deserve primacy).

א אִם רָצָה לְהוֹסִיף בְּכָל בְּרָכָה מֵהָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת מֵעֵין הַבְּרָכָה – מוֹסִיף.א,1 כֵּיצַד? הָיָה לוֹ חוֹלֶה2 – מְבַקֵּשׁ עָלָיו רַחֲמִים בְּ"בִרְכַּת רְפָאֵנוּ". הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְפַרְנָסָה – מְבַקֵּשׁ בְּ"בִרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים".ב,3 אֲבָל בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה"ג יָכוֹל לִשְׁאֹל כָּל צְרָכָיו,ד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כּוֹלֶלֶת כָּל הַבַּקָּשׁוֹת.ה וּכְשֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף – מַתְחִיל בַּבְּרָכָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹסִיף, אֲבָל לֹא יוֹסִיף וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַתְחִיל הַבְּרָכָה,ו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת עִקָּר מִמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים4 וּבַקָּשָׁתוֹ תִּהְיֶה טְפֵלָה.ז

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרח שֶׁכְּשֶׁמּוֹסִיף בַּבְּרָכָה מֵעֵין אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה, אִם מוֹסִיף וּמְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים בִּשְׁבִיל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל – צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים וְלֹא בִּלְשׁוֹן יָחִיד, שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כְּהֶפְסֵק בַּתְּפִלָּה. וְלֹא יוֹסִיף אֶלָּא בְּסוֹף הַבְּרָכָה וְלֹא בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁשּׁוֹאֵל צָרְכֵי רַבִּים בְּאֶמְצַע הַבְּרָכָה – נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל מַטְבֵּעַ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים.ט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיָחִיד, אֲבָל בְּצִבּוּר – מֻתָּרִים.י וְלָכֵן אוֹמְרִים סְלִיחוֹת5 בְּאֶמְצַע בִּרְכַּת "סְלַח לָנוּ",יא,6 וְכֵן בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה אֶמְצָעִית7 שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים.יב וְאִם שׁוֹאֵל צְרָכָיו מַמָּשׁ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חוֹלִי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְפַרְנָסָה – יָכוֹל לִשְׁאֹל אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶמְצַע הַבְּרָכָה, וְהוּא שֶׁיֹּאמַר בִּלְשׁוֹן יָחִיד וְלֹא בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, שֶׁלֹּא יִדְמֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל מַטְבֵּעַ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים. וּבְ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" יָכוֹל לִשְׁאֹל בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן יָחִיד בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, בֵּין צְרָכָיו מַמָּשׁ בֵּין צָרְכֵי רַבִּים, שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" כּוֹלֶלֶת כָּל הַצְּרָכִים וּלְכָךְ נִתְקְנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁמּוֹסִיף לְצֹרֶךְ יָחִיד – לֹא יַאֲרִיךְיג אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֵעֵין הַבְּרָכָה אוֹ בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה", אֲבָל לְאַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁעָקַר רַגְלָיו – רַשַּׁאי לְהַאֲרִיךְ8 אֲפִלּוּ כְּסֵדֶר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים.יד,1 וּמַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין לּוֹמַר סְלִיחוֹת בִּ"סְלַח לָנוּ"6 וּמַרְבִּים בְּתַחֲנוּנִים בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה, זֶהוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם צָרְכֵי רַבִּים.טו וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ יָחִידטז מֻתָּר לוֹמַר סְלִיחוֹת וְתַחֲנוּנִים הַרְבֵּה בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה אִם רַבִּים צְרִיכִים לְתוֹרָתוֹ, שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּצֹרֶךְ רַבִּים.

וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה,יז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל דְּבָרָיו וּמַתִּירִים כָּל זֶהיח (וְדִבְרֵיהֶם נִרְאִים עִקָּריט):

2 It is desirable to confess, in the singular, in the course of the blessing Shomeia Tefillah, in addition to the confession that is recited in the plural after Shemoneh Esreh, and then to request one’s sustenance, even if he is wealthy.9

ב טוֹב לְהִתְוַדּוֹת בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" בִּלְשׁוֹן יָחִיד, מִלְּבַד הַוִּדּוּי שֶׁבִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים שֶׁאַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה, וְלִשְׁאֹל אַחַר כָּךְ מְזוֹנוֹתָיו אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עָשִׁיר:כ,9

3 One who entreats for mercy for a friend in the latter’s presence need not mention his name.10 [This is indicated by Moshe’s prayer],11 “I beseech You, O G‑d. Please heal her.” He did not mention Miriam by name. When one is not in the person’s presence, however, one should mention his name.12

ג הַמְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל חֲבֵרוֹכא בְּפָנָיו – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ,10 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:כב,11 "אֵל נָא רְפָא נָא לָהּ", וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר שֵׁם מִרְיָם. אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיוכג – צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ:12

4 Though the first three blessings are considered as a single entity,13 as also are the last three blessings, the thirteen intermediate blessings are not considered as a single entity. Therefore if one omitted one blessing or made an error14 that requires [correction by] repetition, there is no need to return to the blessing Atah Chonen.15 [It is sufficient to return] to the beginning of the blessing in which one erred or which one omitted. Nevertheless, from that point onward, one must recite [all the blessings] in order.16 [For example,] if he did not recall [his error] until after he had recited several [other] blessings, he must go back and recite [the mistaken or omitted blessing and] all those that follow it.17 For if he were to recite that blessing alone at the point at which he remembered [and then resume from that point], he would have changed the order of the blessings. Hence he would not have fulfilled his obligation. For the order of the blessings was ordained by the Men of the Great Assembly, among whom were several prophets,18 and they based their arrangement of the blessings on Scriptural sources.19

ד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּאַחַתכד,13 וְכֵן ג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם י"ג אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִים כְּאַחַת.כה לְפִיכָךְ, אִם דִּלֵּג בְּרָכָה אַחַת, אוֹ שֶׁטָּעָה בָּהּ טָעוּת14 שֶׁמַּחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְבִרְכַּת "אַתָּה חוֹנֵן"15 אֶלָּא לְרֹאשׁ הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁטָּעָה בָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁדִּלֵּג. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִשָּׁם וְאֵילָךְ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר עַל הַסֵּדֶר,כו,16 שֶׁאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר כַּמָּה בְּרָכוֹת – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלוֹמַר כֻּלָּן אַחֲרֶיהָ,17 שֶׁאִם יֹאמַר אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה לְבַדָּהּ בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּזְכַּר – נִמְצָא שִׁנָּה סִדְּרָן שֶׁל בְּרָכוֹת וְלֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, שֶׁסֵּדֶר בְּרָכוֹת הוּא מֵאַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמֵהֶם כַּמָּה נְבִיאִים,כז,18 וְסָמְכוּ סִדְרָן עַל הַמִּקְרָאוֹת:כח,19

5 On the basis of the above, [it follows that] a sheliach tzibbur who forgot to recite Aneinu on a fast day [as a separate blessing] between the blessings Goel Yisrael and Refaeinu, and did not remember until he completed the blessing Refaeinu, should not go back and recite it. For if he went back, he would have to say Aneinu and then Refaeinu so that he would not be changing the order of the blessings. This is impossible, for then the blessing Refaeinu would have been recited in vain, for one is not required to repeat his prayers for the sake of the blessing Aneinu, as explained in sec. 565.20

If [the sheliach tzibbur] did not conclude the blessing Refaeinu, he should recite Aneinu and then Refaeinu. The statement that he is not required to repeat his prayers [for the sake of the blessing Aneinu] applies only when he cannot correct his mistake unless he goes back and repeats the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh. If, however, he can recite the blessing Aneinu alone, he should go back [and recite it]. This is not called going back, since he is reciting it in its proper place, between the blessings Goel Yisrael and Refaeinu.21

If he remembered [that he had not recited Aneinu] after concluding the blessing Refaeinu but before the end of the blessing Shomeia Tefillah, he should recite Aneinu in the course of the blessing Shomeia Tefillah, as an individual does [in the whispered Shemoneh Esreh]. Similarly, if [originally] there were not ten people in the synagogue who were fasting22 and they arrived after Refaeinu, [the sheliach tzibbur] should recite Aneinu in the blessing Shomeia Tefillah. [In either case, this blessing] should conclude with the words, “Blessed are You, G‑d, Who responds in time of distress and Who hears prayer.” This is not considered as coupling two concepts in the conclusion [of a blessing],23 because the blessing Shomeia Tefil­lah and its conclusion imply that [G‑d hears all prayers,] both the prayers of a fast day and one’s other prayers. Accordingly, if he were to have concluded by saying “Who hears prayer” alone, he would have fulfilled his obligation.

If [the sheliach tzibbur] forgot [to say Aneinu] when reciting the blessing Shomeia Tefillah as well, he should recite it as a separate blessing,24 after “[Blessed are You, G‑d, Who blesses His people Israel] with peace.”25 This is not considered as changing the order of the blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh], because [they] have already been completed.

ה לְפִיכָךְ,כט שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁשָּׁכַח לוֹמַר "עֲנֵנוּ" בְּתַעֲנִית צִבּוּר בֵּין "גּוֹאֵל" לְ"רוֹפֵא"ל וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁחָתַם בִּרְכַּת "רְפָאֵנוּ" – לֹא יַחֲזֹר, שֶׁאִם הָיָה חוֹזֵר הָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "עֲנֵנוּ" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "רְפָאֵנוּ" שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁנּוֹת סִדְרָן שֶׁל בְּרָכוֹת, וְזֶה אִי אֶפְשָׁר, שֶׁאִם כֵן בִּרְכַּת "רְפָאֵנוּ" הִיא בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל "עֲנֵנוּ" כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקס"ה.לא,20 אֲבָל אִם לֹא חָתַם "רְפָאֵנוּ"לב – יֹאמַר "עֲנֵנוּ" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "רְפָאֵנוּ". וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְתַקֵּן טָעוּתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵן יַחֲזֹר וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכוֹת הַתְּפִלָּה שֵׁנִית, אֲבָל לוֹמַר בִּרְכַּת "עֲנֵנוּ" לְבַדָּהּ – מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁזֶּה אֵינָהּ נִקְרָא חֲזָרָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹמְרָהּ בִּמְקוֹמָהּ בֵּין "גּוֹאֵל" לְ"רוֹפֵא".21

וְאִם נִזְכַּר אַחַר חֲתִימַת "רְפָאֵנוּ" קֹדֶם חֲתִימַת "שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" – יֹאמַר "עֲנֵנוּ" בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" כְּיָחִיד.לג וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם לֹא הָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה הַמִּתְעַנִּים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתלד,22 וּבָאוּ אַחַר "רְפָאֵנוּ" – אוֹמֵר בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה",לה וְיַחְתֹּם "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הָעוֹנֶה בְּעֵת צָרָה וְשׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה".לו וְאֵין זוֹ חֲתִימָה בִּשְׁתַּיִם,לז,23 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" וַחֲתִימָתָהּ מַשְׁמָעָהּ בֵּין עַל תְּפִלַּת תַּעֲנִית בֵּין עַל שְׁאָר הַתְּפִלָּה. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם חָתַם בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה" לְבַד – יָצָא. וְאִם שָׁכַח גַּם בְּ"שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה"לח – אוֹמְרָהּ בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ24 אַחַר "בַּשָּׁלוֹם".25 וְאֵין זֶה שִׁנּוּי מִסֵּדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִסְתַּיְּמוּ בִּרְכוֹת י"ח:

6 If one erred and recited Aneinu before the blessing Re’eh Na BeOnyeinu, he must repeat Aneinu after the blessing Re’eh Na, because if he does not repeat it, he will have recited the blessing Re’eh Na out of order. For its place is before Aneinu and the order of the blessings is an absolute requirement.26

ו אִם טָעָה וְאָמַר "עֲנֵנוּ" קֹדֶם "רְאֵה נָא בְעָנְיֵנוּ"לט – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלוֹמַר "עֲנֵנוּ" אַחַר "רְאֵה נָא", שֶׁאִם לֹא יַחֲזֹר – נִמְצָא שֶׁאָמַר בִּרְכַּת "רְאֵה נָא" שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, שֶׁמְּקוֹמָהּ קֹדֶם "עַנֵנוּ", וְסֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת מְעַכֵּב:26