SECTION 118 The Conclusion of the Blessing Hashivah [and the Following Blessings]. (1-2)

סימן קיח חֲתִימַת בִּרְכַּת הָשִׁיבָה וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 The blessing [that begins with the words] Hashivah Shofteinu1 concludes with the phrase, Melech Ohev Tzedakah U’Mishpat (“the King Who loves righteousness and justice”).2 The concept of sovereignty is not mentioned in the conclusion of any of the other blessings, only in [the blessing regarding] justice — in the spirit of the verse,3 “A king establishes the land by justice.”

In the days between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur,4 one should conclude this blessing with the words, HaMelech HaMishpat, which means “the King of Judgment.” [The prefix ha- for a noun in the construct state] is occasionally found in Scripture,5 as in the expression6 haaron habris and the like.

[The laws that apply] should one say Melech Ohev Tzedakah U’Mishpat [during those ten days] are set out in sec. 582[:2].7

א "הָשִׁיבָה שׁוֹפְטֵינוּ"1 חוֹתֵם בָּהּ "מֶלֶךְ אוֹהֵב צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט",א,2 מַה שֶׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁאֵין מַלְכוּת בַּחֲתִימָתָן אֶלָּא בְּמִשְׁפָּט בִּלְבַד, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ב,3 "מֶלֶךְ בְּמִשְׁפָּט יַעֲמִיד אָרֶץ".ג

וּמֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה עַד יוֹם כִּפּוּר4 חוֹתֵם "הַמֶּלֶךְ הַמִּשְׁפָּט",ד וּפֵרוּשׁוֹה הוּא מֶלֶךְ הַמִּשְׁפָּט, וְכֵן הוּא לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא5 לִפְעָמִים כְּמוֹ6 "הָאָרוֹן הַבְּרִית"ו וְדוֹמָיו. וְאִם אָמַר "מֶלֶךְ אוֹהֵב צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט" – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקפ"ב:ז,7

2 In the blessing [cursing] the heretics (Birkas HaMinim),8 one should also include “the wicked” (hazeidim),9 as implied by the verse,10 “Destruction [shall overtake] transgressors (posh’im) and sinners (chata’im) together, and those who abandon G‑d (ozvei HaShem) shall perish.” “Those who abandon G‑d” refers to the heretics (minim), who do not believe that the faith of Moshe originates in Heaven. And the term posh’im refers to “the wicked” (hazeidim), for it signifies those who are rebellious,11 as in the verse,12 “The King of Moav has rebelled (pasha) against me.”13

In the blessing [that requests Heaven’s mercies for] the righteous,14 one must also mention righteous converts,15 for it is written,16 “You shall rise before the aged [and show deference to an elder17].” In the following verse it is written,18 “When a convert will dwell among you....” Since the converts are mentioned in proximity to the righteous,19 they are included in the same blessing.

ב בְּ"בִרְכַּת הַמִּינִים"ח,8 צָרִיךְ לִכְלֹל גַּם הַ"זֵדִים",9 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ט,10 "וְשֶׁבֶר פֹּשְׁעִים וְחַטָּאִים יַחְדָּו וְעֹזְבֵי ה' יִכְלוּ", "עֹזְבֵי ה'" אֵלּוּ הַמִּינִיםי שֶׁאֵינָם מַאֲמִינִים בְּדַת מֹשֶׁה שֶׁהָיְתָה מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, וּ"פֹשְׁעִים" אֵלּוּ הַזֵּדִים, כִּי פּוֹשְׁעִים אֵלּוּ הַמּוֹרְדִים,11 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב:יא,12 "מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב פָּשַׁע בִּי".יב,13

וּבְ"בִרְכַּת הַצַּדִּיקִים"14 צָרִיךְ לִכְלֹל גַּם גֵּרֵי צֶדֶק,15 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:יג,16 "מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְגו'",17 וּכְתִיב אַחֲרָיו:18 "וְכִי יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְגו'", הֲרֵי גֵּרִים סְמוּכִים לַצַּדִּיקִים,יד,19 לְכָךְ כּוֹלְלָם בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת: