SECTION 114 Laws Relating to the Mention of the Wind, the Rain, and the Dew. (1-11)

סימן קיד דִּין הַזְכָּרַת הָרוּחַ וְגֶשֶׁם וְטַל וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 The second blessing [of Shemoneh Esreh] does not begin with the words Baruch [Atah...], because it follows in direct sequence to the [preceding] blessing.1 Similarly, all the other blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh] follow in direct sequence to each other. Hence they conclude Baruch [Atah...], but do not begin Baruch [Atah...].

During the Mussaf Service of Shemini Atzeres, we begin mentioning [the granting of] rain in the second blessing2 and we do not cease until the Mussaf Service of the first day of Pesach.3 [The role of] this mention is to make the request acceptable;4 i.e., before making a request for rain when the appropriate time comes, which is in the rainy season, we mention G‑d’s might in causing the rains to fall so that our request will be accepted in good grace.5 [The Sages] placed this mention in the blessing that praises G‑d for resurrecting the dead, because the rains are considered as equivalent to the Resurrection.2 For just as the Resurrection of the Dead [brings] life to the world, so too, the rains [bring] life to the world.6

Logically, it would have been appropriate to begin mentioning [the rain] and [requesting G‑d’s grace] on the first day of Sukkos, because on Sukkos [the world] is judged with regard to [the granting of] water.3 Nevertheless, since the rains during Sukkos indicate a curse, for it is impossible to dwell in the sukkah while it is raining,7 we do not mention rain until the seven days of dwelling in the sukkah have passed.8 It would have been appropriate to begin mentioning [the rains] immediately on the night of [Shemini Atzeres],9 but since not everyone is present in the synagogue for the Evening Service, there would be some who would mention it and others who would not,10 and thus they would [be forming] separate groups.11

And why is [the rain] not mentioned in the Morning Service [of Shemini Atzeres]? Because it is forbidden to mention it until the sheliach tzibbur or the synagogue attendant announces morid hageshem (“He who causes rain to descend”) before Shemoneh Esreh, and in the Morning Service such an announcement may not be made, because the blessing Gaal Yisrael must be directly linked to Shemoneh Esreh.12 Therefore even one who is sick or subject to forces beyond his control — who throughout the year is allowed, even in the synagogue, to recite Shemoneh Esreh before the congregation does, as stated in sec. 90[:11] — is forbidden to recite the Mussaf Service of Shemini Atzeres before the congregation does even when he is praying at home, because it is forbidden to make the mention of rain before it is announced communally.

If, however, he knows that such a communal announcement was made, even though he did not hear it personally, he should mention the rain. For this reason, if one arrives at the synagogue after the congregation has already begun reciting [the Mussaf Service], he [too] should [recite the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf] and mention rain, even though he did not hear the announcement.13 A person who lives in a place where there is no minyan should wait to recite [the Mussaf service] until the time at which congregations at large [recite it].

א בְּרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה אֵינָהּ פּוֹתַחַת בְּ"בָרוּךְ", מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא סְמוּכָה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ,א,1 וְכֵן כָּל בְּרָכוֹת הָאֲחֵרוֹת הֵן סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ, לָכֵן הֵן חוֹתְמוֹת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְאֵין פּוֹתְחוֹת בְּ"בָרוּךְ".ב

וּמַתְחִילִין לְהַזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם בִּבְרָכָה שְׁנִיָּהג,2 בִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף שֶׁל שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת, וְאֵין פּוֹסְקִין עַד תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח.ד,3 וְהַזְכָּרָה זוֹ הִיא רִצּוּי שְׁאֵלָה,ה,4 שֶׁטֶּרֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁאֲלוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים בְּעוֹנָתָם כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַשְּׁאֵלָהו – מְרַצִּין5 לְפָנָיו בְּהַזְכָּרַת גְּבוּרוֹתָיו שֶׁמּוֹרִיד גְּשָׁמִים.ז וְקָבְעוּ הַזְכָּרָה זוֹ בְּבִרְכַּת "מְחַיֶּה הַמֵּתִים", מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַגְּשָׁמִים הֵם שְׁקוּלִים כִּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים,ח,2 שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁתְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם – כָּךְ הַגְּשָׁמִים חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם.ט,6

וְהָיָה מִן הַדִּין לְהַזְכִּיר וּלְרַצּוֹת לְפָנָיו מִיּוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג, שֶׁבֶּחָג נִדּוֹנִים עַל הַמַּיִם,י,3 אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַגְּשָׁמִים הֵם סִימַן קְלָלָה בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֵישֵׁב בַּסֻּכָּה בִּשְׁעַת הַגֶּשֶׁםיא,7 – אֵין מַזְכִּירִין הַגֶּשֶׁם עַד עֲבֹר ז' יְמֵי יְשִׁיבָה בַּסֻּכָּה.יב,8 וְרָאוּי הָיָה לְהַתְחִיל לְהַזְכִּיר מִיָּד בְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,יג,9 אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁבִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית אֵין כָּל הָעָם בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – נִמְצָא זֶה מַזְכִּיר וְזֶה אֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר10 וְיֵעָשׂוּ אֲגֻדּוֹת אֲגֻדּוֹת.יד,11

וְלָמָּה אֵין מַזְכִּירִין בְּשַׁחֲרִית?טו לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם עַד שֶׁיַּכְרִיז הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּרטז אוֹ הַשַּׁמָּשׁיז בְּקוֹל רָם "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה,יח וּבְשַׁחֲרִית אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַכְרִיז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה.יט,12 לְפִיכָךְ אַף מִי שֶׁהוּא חוֹלֶה אוֹ אָנוּסכ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לְהַקְדִּים תְּפִלָּתוֹ לִתְפִלַּת הַצִּבּוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתכא בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן צ'כב – אָסוּר לוֹ לְהַקְדִּים תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף שֶׁל שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת לִתְפִלַּת הַצִּבּוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵיתוֹ,כג לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם עַד שֶׁיַּכְרִיזוּ בְּצִבּוּר.

אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהִכְרִיזוּ בְּצִבּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא שָׁמַע – מַזְכִּיר.כד,13 וּמִטַּעַם זֶה הַבָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְהַצִּבּוּר הִתְחִילוּ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל – יִתְפַּלֵּל וְיַזְכִּירכה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא שָׁמַע כְּשֶׁהִכְרִיזוּ. וְהַדָּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִנְיָן – יַמְתִּין עַד זְמַן שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִים בַּקְּהִלּוֹת:כו

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2 Similar concepts apply with regard to ceasing [to make this addition]. We do not cease mentioning rain until the announcement morid hatal14 is made in the synagogue before the Mussaf Service on the first day of Pesach. This is the case in the places where it is customary in the summer to say morid hatal instead of [mashiv haruach u’]morid hageshem,15 because there the announcement to mention dew signals that rain should no longer be mentioned. Before this announcement is made, the community does not cease mentioning rain, so as not to create a confusion of practices with one mentioning it and one failing to mention it, in divergent groups. If, however, an individual recites the [Morning or Evening] Shemoneh Esreh alone, he may mention dew instead of rain.16

In these countries17 (where it is not customary to mention dew in the summer instead of rain and thus there is no announcement concerning dew to signal that one should no longer mention rain), it is customary not to cease mentioning rain until the Afternoon Service when [the congregation] has already heard how the sheliach tzibbur had omitted the mention of rain in [the repetition of] the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf. In the whispered Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf, the entire congregation and the sheliach tzibbur mention rain so that there will not be a confusion of practices. [This course of action is taken] because it is inappropriate to announce before Shemoneh Esreh that one should cease mentioning rain. To do so would appear as if [the congregation] is spurning the rains — and the Sages teach that18 “we do not pray for [the cessation of] abundant good.”19

The reason the sheliach tzibbur does not cease mentioning [rain] in the Morning Service is that those people who did not attend the synagogue in the Evening Service [might err].9 When they hear that the sheliach tzibbur does not mention [rain] in the Morning Service, they may assume that one ceases mentioning it in the Evening Service, for in all situations, [the halachic status of] the day follows [that of the previous] night. [It could thus be that] in the following year they will not mention [rain] in the Evening Service. [This would lead to a confusion of practices,] with some mentioning [rain] and some not mentioning it.

ב וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן הַפְסָקָה, אֵין פּוֹסְקִין מִלְּהַזְכִּיר עַד שֶׁמַּכְרִיזִין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת "מוֹרִיד הַטָּל"14 קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח,כז בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "מוֹרִיד הַטָּל" בִּמְקוֹם "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם"15 בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה,כח שֶׁהַכְרָזַת הַטַּל סִימָן הוּא לָהֶם לְהַפְסָקַת הַזְכָּרַת הַגֶּשֶׁם, וְקֹדֶם הַכְרָזָה זוֹ אֵין הַצִּבּוּר מַפְסִיקִין מִלְּהַזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר מְעֹרָב בֵּינֵיהֶםכט שֶׁזֶּה מַזְכִּיר וְזֶה אֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר וְיִהְיֶה אֲגֻדּוֹת אֲגֻדּוֹת. אֲבָל הַיָּחִיד שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹל – רַשַּׁאי לְהַזְכִּיר הַטַּל בִּמְקוֹם גֶּשֶׁם.16

וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ17 (שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְהַזְכִּיר טַל בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה בִּמְקוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁםלא וְאֵין הַכְרָזַת טַל סִימָן כְּלָל לְהַפְסָקַת הַזְכָּרַת גֶּשֶׁםלב) נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק מִלְּהַזְכִּיר גֶּשֶׁם עַד תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ כְּבָר מִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁפָּסַק בִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף,לג אֲבָל בִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף כָּל הַקָּהָל וְגַם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מַזְכִּירִין הַגֶּשֶׁם בִּתְפִלַּת לַחַשׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר מְעֹרָב בֵּין הַצִּבּוּר, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַכְרִיז קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁיַּפְסִיקוּ מִלְּהַזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְמָאֲנִים בִּגְשָׁמִים,לד עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁאָמְרוּ:לה,18 אֵין מִתְפַּלְלִין עַל רֹב טוֹבָה.19 וּמַה שֶּׁאֵין הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר פּוֹסֵק בִּתְפִלַּת הַשַּׁחַרלו הוּא מִשּׁוּם אוֹתָם שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּעַרְבִית,9 וּכְשֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר בְּשַׁחֲרִית יִסְבְּרוּ שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין מִלְּהַזְכִּיר בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית,לז שֶׁהַיּוֹם הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַלַּיְלָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם, וְלַשָּׁנָה הַבָּאָה לֹא יַזְכִּירוּ בְּעַרְבִית, וְנִמְצָא זֶה מַזְכִּיר וְזֶה אֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר:

3 The Sages did not require that dew and wind be mentioned,20 neither when mentioning [G‑d’s praise] in the second blessing, nor when making a petition in the blessing that requests material prosperity,21 for they are never withheld. If, however, one chooses to mention them, he may do so.22

In fact, it is universal custom to recite mashiv haruach (“He causes the wind to blow”) when mentioning rain in the rainy season, but wind is not mentioned in the petition [for rain in the blessing for material prosperity]. It is not mentioned in the summer at all, for it is sought in the rainy season only, to dry the abundant moisture of the earth. If one did not mention [wind] in the rainy season or if one did mention it in the summer, he is not required to return [and repeat the blessing], even if he had not yet completed it.23

Dew is something that is always sought.24 [Hence,] there are places where it is customary to mention it in the summer,15 and to request it both in the summer and in the rainy season.25 For although the dew never ceases, we are asking that it should descend as a blessing, since there are times when it [does not descend as a] blessing.

If one mentioned [dew] in the rainy season, or failed to mention it in the summer, or requested it neither in the summer nor the rainy season, he is not required to return [and repeat the blessing] even if he had not yet completed it, since the Sages did not require the mention of dew and wind at all.

In these countries17 it is customary to request dew during the rainy season, but not in the summer, and not to mention it [in the second blessing], neither in the summer nor in the rainy season.26 If one mentioned [or] requested it [in the summer] — (e.g., he said, vesein tal {“And grant dew”} and remembered before saying umatar {“and rain”})27 — he is not required to repeat the blessing.

ג בַּטַּל וּבָרוּחוֹת לֹא חִיְּבוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַזְכִּיר,לח,20 לֹא בַּהַזְכָּרָה שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים וְלֹא בַּשְּׁאֵלָה שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים,לט,21 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן נֶעְצָרִים לְעוֹלָם.מ וְאִם בָּא לְהַזְכִּיר – מַזְכִּיר.22

וְנוֹהֲגִין בְּכָל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת לוֹמַר "מַשִּׁיב הָרוּחַ" בַּהַזְכָּרָה בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים,מא וְאֵין מַזְכִּירִין אֶת הָרוּחַ בַּשְּׁאֵלָה. אֲבָל בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה אֵין מַזְכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ כְּלָל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְבַּקֵּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים כְּדֵי לְנַגֵּב לַחוּת הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהוּא מְרֻבֶּה.מב וְאִם לֹא הִזְכִּירוֹ בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים,מג אוֹ שֶׁהִזְכִּירוֹ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה – אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא סִיֵּם עֲדַיִן הַבְּרָכָה.מד,23

וְהַטַּל שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר הַמִּתְבַּקֵּשׁ לְעוֹלָםמה,24 – יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִיןמו לְהַזְכִּירוֹ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה15 וְלִשְׁאֹל אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה בֵּין בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים,25 שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵין נֶעְצָר לְעוֹלָם מִכָּל מָקוֹם מְבַקְשִׁים שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לִבְרָכָה,מז שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אֵינוֹ לִבְרָכָה.מח וְאִם הִזְכִּירוֹ בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים,מט אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּירוֹ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה,נ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁאַל אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה בֵּין בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִיםנא – אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא סִיֵּם עֲדַיִן הַבְּרָכָה,נב מֵאַחַר שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבוּ חֲכָמִים כְּלָל לְהַזְכִּיר בַּטַּל וּבָרוּחוֹת. וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּנג,17 נוֹהֲגִים לִשְׁאֹל הַטַּל בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים וְלֹא בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, וְלֹא לְהַזְכִּירוֹ לֹא בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּהנד וְלֹא בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים.26 וְאִם הִזְכִּירוֹ וְשָׁאַל אוֹתוֹ – אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ (כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר "וְתֵן טַל" וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁאָמַר "וּמָטָר"נה):27

4 If one said morid hageshem in the summer, he is required to repeat the blessing, because in the summer, rain is nothing but an indication of a curse.28 [The Sages] therefore required a person whose prayer mentioned a curse to pray again without a curse, repeating the blessing in which he mentioned it. He must therefore go back to the beginning of the blessing. If he would return to the phrase mechalkel chayim,29 he would not negate the fact that he had mentioned rain inappropriately, for when morid hageshem is mentioned in the rainy season, the requirement is [also] to say mechalkel chayim directly afterwards.30

If one remembers [making the inappropriate addition] after concluding the [second] blessing, he must return to the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh. [The rationale is that] whenever one errs in the recitation of a blessing to the extent that he is required to repeat it and correct his mistake, and he did not return before concluding this blessing, it is not sufficient that he return to the point at which he erred in order to correct his error. Instead, he must go back to the beginning of the blessing, as will be explained.31 And in this context, the three first blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh] are considered as one blessing, as will be explained.31

ד אִם אָמַר "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה – מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ,נו לְפִי שֶׁהַגְּשָׁמִים בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה אֵינָם אֶלָּא סִימַן קְלָלָה,28 לָכֵן הִצְרִיכוּ לָזֶה שֶׁהִזְכִּיר קְלָלָה בִּתְפִלָּתוֹנז שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלֹא קְלָלָה אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה שֶׁהִזְכִּיר בָּהּ קְלָלָה. לְפִיכָךְ הוּא צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ הַבְּרָכָה,נח שֶׁאִם יַחֲזֹר לִ"מְכַלְכֵּל חַיִּים"29 – לֹא יְבַטֵּל בָּזֶה מַה שֶּׁהִזְכִּיר שֶׁלֹּא כַּדִּין, שֶׁכֵן דִּינָהּ שֶׁל הַזְכָּרָה בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים לוֹמַר "מְכַלְכֵּל חַיִּים" אַחַר "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם".30 וְאִם נִזְכַּר אַחַר חֲתִימַת הַבְּרָכָהנט – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ הַתְּפִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַטּוֹעֶה בְּאֵיזוֹ בְּרָכָה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְתַקֵּן טָעוּתוֹ וְלֹא חָזַר עַד שֶׁחָתַם בְּרָכָה זוֹס – לֹא דַּי לוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לְמָקוֹם שֶׁטָּעָה לְתַקֵּן טָעוּתוֹ, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ הַבְּרָכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,סא,31 וְג' בְּרָכוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כִּבְרָכָה אַחַת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:סב,31

5 One is required to repeat [Shemoneh Esreh if he made such an addition] even at a time when rain does not indicate a curse, for example, when the spring equinox has not yet passed.32 [Moreover,] even if rain is needed, one is required to repeat [the blessing if he mentions rain]. Since most of the time when we no longer mention it, rain would indicate a curse, the Sages did not make any distinctions and ruled that one who mentions rain after the time we cease mentioning it is required to return [to the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh].

Even in countries that always require rain [even] in the summer, in a situation where if a person requested rain in the blessing for material prosperity he would not be required to repeat it, as explained in sec. 117[:1], nevertheless, if one mentioned rain in the second blessing, he is required to repeat that blessing. For the land’s need of rain is not of consequence with regard to the mention of rain [in the second blessing]; it is of consequence only with regard to the request for rain [in the blessing for material prosperity]. (For when requesting [rain] one requests for his own land, but when mentioning [rain in the second blessing in the summer], one would be praising the Holy One, blessed be He, for causing rain to fall at an inappropriate time, when it indicates a curse for Eretz Yisrael and similar lands. This is why he must repeat that blessing, without the curse.)

ה וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַגֶּשֶׁם אֵינוֹ סִימַן קְלָלָה,סג כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא עֲדַיִן נִיסָן שֶׁל חַמָּה,סד,32 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם צְרִיכִים לִגְשָׁמִיםסה – מַחֲזִירִים אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁרֹב הַזְּמַן שֶׁפּוֹסְקִין מִלְּהַזְכִּיר גֶּשֶׁם הַגֶּשֶׁם בּוֹ סִימַן קְלָלָה, לֹא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁמִּשָּׁעָה שֶׁפּוֹסְקִים מִלְּהַזְכִּיר אִם הִזְכִּיר – מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ.סו

וַאֲפִלּוּ בָּאֲרָצוֹת שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם הֵן צְרִיכוֹת לִגְשָׁמִים בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה,סז בְּעִנְיַן שֶׁאִם שָׁאַל בָּהֶן גְּשָׁמִים בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה בְּ"בִרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים" אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קי"ז,סח מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הִזְכִּיר בָּהֶן גֶּשֶׁם בִּ"תְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים" – מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁצֹּרֶךְ אֲרָצוֹת לִגְשָׁמִים אֵינוֹ עִנְיָן לְהַזְכָּרָה אֶלָּא לִשְׁאֵלָהסט (שֶׁבַּשְּׁאֵלָה הוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ עַל אַרְצוֹ, אֲבָל בַּהַזְכָּרָה הוּא מְשַׁבֵּחַ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא מוֹרִיד גְּשָׁמִים שֶׁלֹּא בְּעִתָּם שֶׁהֵם סִימַן קְלָלָה לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ, לָכֵןע צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלוֹמַר אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה בְּלֹא קְלָלָה):

6 If one does not say morid hageshem in the rainy season, he is required to repeat [the blessing] (even if he said mashiv haruach). This applies only if he did not mention dew.9 If he mentioned dew, he is not required to repeat the blessing (even if he did not conclude the blessing). Even though dew is never withheld, mentioning it is still a praise of G‑d, like the mention of rain. For just as rain [brings] life to the world, so too, dew [brings] life to the world,33 for through it grain is blessed. (In several sources the Sages referred to dew as “the dew that vivifies.”34 Such an appellation was not given to wind. For although the world cannot exist without wind,35 wind is not called “life for the world” as rain and dew are. This explains why some people mention dew throughout the summer,26 so that if they will forget to say morid hageshem in the rainy season, it can be assumed that they say morid hatal, as they were accustomed to do in the summer. [Hence,] they are not required to repeat [the blessing].)

ו בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים אִם לֹא אָמַר "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם"עא (אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר "מַשִּׁיב הָרוּחַ") – מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ.עב וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּיר טַל,עג,9 אֲבָל אִם הִזְכִּיר טַלעד – אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ (אֲפִלּוּ לֹא סִיֵּם הַבְּרָכָהעה), שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַטַּל אֵינוֹ נֶעְצָרעו מִכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁבַח הוּא לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהַזְכָּרָתוֹעז כְּמוֹ בְּהַזְכָּרַת הַגֶּשֶׁם, שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַגְּשָׁמִים חַיִּים לָעוֹלָםעח כָּךְ הַטַּל הוּא חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם,עט,33 שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָּךְפ מִתְבָּרֶכֶת הַתְּבוּאָהפא (וּבְכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹתפב קָרְאוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַטַּל "טַל תְּחִיָּה",34 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵן הָרוּחַ שֶׁאַף שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָעוֹלָם בְּלֹא רוּחוֹתפג,35 –אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם כְּמוֹ גֶּשֶׁם וְטַל.

לְכָךְ יֵשׁ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁמַּזְכִּירִין הַטַּל כָּל יְמוֹת הַחַמָּה,פד,26 כְּדֵי שֶׁאִם יִשְׁכְּחוּ לוֹמַר "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים – חֲזָקָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ "מוֹרִיד הַטָּל" כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵם רְגִילִים בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתָן):

7 When do we apply the rule that one is required to repeat the blessing if he did not mention either rain or dew in the rainy season? When he completed the entire blessing and began the blessing that follows it. Then he must return to the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh, for the reason given above.36 If, however, he remembered [his omission] before he completed the blessing, he should say mashiv haruach umorid hageshem at the place at which he remembered. For the Sages did not specify a certain point within that blessing at which rain should be mentioned. They merely said2 that [G‑d’s] might [in granting] the rains37 should be mentioned in [the blessing of] the Resurrection. It is customarily mentioned before mechalkel chayim (“He sustains life”) because rain is [essential] to [our] sustenance and livelihood. [Nevertheless,] if [rain] was not mentioned before mechalkel chayim, the entire blessing is an appropriate place for it.

Even if one concluded the blessing [without mentioning rain], but remembered before beginning Atah Kadosh,38 he is not required to return to the beginning [of Shemoneh Esreh]. Instead, one should say mashiv haruach umorid hageshem without concluding [it as one concludes a blessing], and then say Atah Kadosh. [The rationale is that] as long as one does not begin the blessing that follows, it is not considered as if he has finished this blessing entirely with regard to the factors that require him to repeat the blessing.39 By contrast, it is considered as the conclusion of the blessing with regard to matters that do not require repetition of the blessing, e.g., [the omission of] Havdalah40 in the blessing Chonen HaDaas, and [the omission of] Yaaleh veyavo in the Evening Service of Rosh Chodesh. These passages should not be recited after one concludes the blessing even though he has not yet begun the following blessing, as will be explained in sec. 294[:7] and sec. 422.41

ז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמַּחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹפה אִם לֹא הִזְכִּיר גֶּשֶׁם וְלֹא טַל בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, כְּשֶׁסִּיֵּם כָּל הַבְּרָכָה וְהִתְחִיל בְּרָכָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ וְאָז חוֹזֵר לְרֹאשׁ הַתְּפִלָּה מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,פו,36 אֲבָל אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁסִּיֵּם הַבְּרָכָה – יֹאמַר "מַשִּׁיב הָרוּחַ" וּ"מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנִּזְכַּר, שֶׁלֹּא קָבְעוּ חֲכָמִים מָקוֹם בְּתוֹךְ הַבְּרָכָה לְהַזְכִּיר שָׁם הַגֶּשֶׁם, אֶלָּא אָמְרוּ סְתָם:פז,2 מַזְכִּירִין גְּבוּרוֹת גְּשָׁמִים37 בִּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְאָמְרוֹ לִפְנֵי "מְכַלְכֵּל חַיִּים" לְפִי שֶׁהַגֶּשֶׁם כַּלְכָּלָה וּפַרְנָסָה,פח אֲבָל אִם לֹא אֲמָרוֹ לִפְנֵי "מְכַלְכֵּל חַיִּים" – בְּכָל הַבְּרָכָה מְקוֹמָהּ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם סִיֵּם הַבְּרָכָה וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְחִיל "אַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ"פט,38 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לָרֹאשׁ, אֶלָּא יֹאמַר "מַשִּׁיב הָרוּחַ וּמוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" בְּלֹא חֲתִימָה וְשׁוּב אוֹמֵר "אַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ", שֶׁכָּל שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בַּבְּרָכָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ – לֹא נִקְרָא סִיּוּם בְּרָכָה זוֹ לְגַמְרֵי לְעִנְיַן דְּבָרִים שֶׁמַּחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ,צ,39 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּקְרָא סִיּוּם לְעִנְיַן דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ,צא כְּגוֹן הַבְדָּלָה40 בְּ"חוֹנֵן הַדָּעַת" וְ"יַעֲלֶה וְיָבוֹא" בְּעַרְבִית רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁאֵין לְאָמְרָם כְּשֶׁסִּיֵּם הַבְּרָכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בְּרָכָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רצ"דצב וְתכ"ב:צג,41

8 The first three blessings [of Shemoneh Esreh] are considered as a single unit because they share a common purpose — to set forth the praises of the Omnipresent before requesting one’s needs,42 like a servant who enumerates his master’s praises before asking for a gift. Similarly, the final three [blessings] are considered as a single unit, for they are comparable to a servant taking leave of his master after receiving a gift from him, as explained in sec. 112[:1].

Accordingly, if one erred at any point in the first three blessings, he must go back to the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh, and [if he erred at any point] in the three final blessings, he must go back to the blessing Retzeh.42 [This applies] whether he is praying as an individual or [as the sheliach] tzibbur, provided it is an error that cannot be corrected unless one goes back to the beginning of the blessing in which he erred. To cite examples:

[a] one erred in the concluding phrase of a blessing, replacing it by a conclusion appropriate for a different blessing, or

[b] one concluded [the third blessing with the words] HaE-l HaKadosh during the Ten Days of Repentance,43

and [in either case] did not remember until after the lapse of [the brief time span that is called] kdei dibbur.44 [In such instances,] he cannot correct his error by [merely] going back and concluding correctly, for going back [and making such a correction] is effective only when done within [the above time span].

If such [an error is made] in [one of] the intermediate blessings, one must return to the beginning of that particular blessing.

This also applies if one concluded [the blessing] appropriately, but (he replaced the entire preceding text of the blessing by a different text that does not reflect the content of the blessing at all and did not realize [his error] until he concluded the blessing.) (Alternatively, [it applies] when one said nothing of the body of the blessing, but only its concluding phrase. Thus) he recited the blessing in a short form only,45 like that of the blessings [recited before partaking of] fruit or [before performing] the mitzvos, whose opening and conclusion is the same [phrase. Since] he deviated from the version46 that the Sages instituted for the blessing, he did not fulfill his obligation and, if it is one of the intermediate blessings, he must return to the beginning of that blessing. If it is one of the first three [blessings], he must return to the beginning [of Shemoneh Esreh]. And if it is one of the final three [blessings], he must go back to the blessing Retzeh. (Needless to say, [the above applies] if he skipped a blessing entirely and did not remember until after he concluded the blessing that follows.) For were he not [to do] so, if he were to recite it in the place that he remembered, the second blessing47 would be like an error in the midst [of Shemoneh Esreh].48

If, however, one skipped part of the text in the middle of a blessing49 (and even if he replaced the omission by another text that was unrelated to this blessing), as long as he concluded [the blessing] appropriately (and recited a related request before concluding the blessing,50 [even] if he did so in a manner that deviated from the version ordained by the Sages), he is not considered to have deviated from the wording of the blessing ordained by the Sages, as explained in sec. 66[:12] and sec. 68[:1]. For one is not considered to have deviated from the wording ordained by our Sages unless he changed the beginning or the conclusion of the blessings that begin with Baruch and conclude with Baruch. (And [with regard to the] blessings of Shemoneh Esreh that conclude with Baruch, but do not begin with Baruch, even if one alters the beginning of the blessing and expresses its content in other wording,51 the law is the same as if one made a deviation in the middle of the blessing. The rationale is that the blessings follow in sequence to each other52 and thus the beginning [of each one] is considered as if it were the middle of the blessing.)

ח ג' בְּרָכוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּאַחַת,צד הוֹאִיל וְעִנְיָנָם אֶחָד לְסַדֵּר שִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹםצה קֹדֶם שְׁאֵלוֹת צְרָכָיו,42 כְּעֶבֶד שֶׁמְּסַדֵּר שֶׁבַח לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁמְּבַקֵּשׁ פְּרָס מִמֶּנּוּ, וְכֵן ג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כְּאַחַת, שֶׁהֵן כְּעֶבֶד שֶׁקִּבֵּל פְּרָס מֵרַבּוֹ וְנִפְטַר וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קי"ב.צו לְפִיכָךְ, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁטָּעָה בְּג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת – חוֹזֵר לְרֹאשׁ הַתְּפִלָּה, וּבְג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת – חוֹזֵר לָעֲבוֹדָה,צז,42 בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יָחִיד בֵּין צִבּוּר,צח אִם הוּא טָעוּת שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵן יַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁטָּעָה בָּהּ, כְּגוֹןצט שֶׁטָּעָה בַּחֲתִימָתָהּק שֶׁחָתַם בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ בְּעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה אַחֶרֶת,קא אוֹ שֶׁחָתַם "הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ" בַּעֲשֶׂרֶת יְמֵי תְּשׁוּבָה43 וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר,קב,44 שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְתַקֵּן טָעוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיַחְתֹּם כַּהֹגֶן, שֶׁאֵין חֲזָרָה מוֹעֶלֶת אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר.

וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בִּבְרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ בְּרָכָה זוֹ.קג

וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם חָתַם כַּהֹגֶן אֶלָּא (שֶׁכָּל נֻסַּח הַבְּרָכָה עַד הַחֲתִימָה אָמַר נֻסָּח אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא כְּעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה זוֹ כְּלָלקד וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁחָתַם) (אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר שׁוּם נֻסָּח תְּחִלָּה רַק הַחֲתִימָה בִּלְבַדָּהּקה שֶׁנִּמְצָא) שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר בְּרָכָה זוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמַטְבֵּעַ קָצָר,45 כְּבִרְכַּת הַפֵּרוֹת וְהַמִּצְווֹת שֶׁפְּתִיחָתָן הִיא חֲתִימָתָן,קו וְשִׁנָּה מִמַּטְבֵּעַ46 שֶׁטָּבְעוּ חֲכָמִים בִּבְרָכוֹת – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,קז וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ בְּרָכָה זוֹ אִם הִיא מִבְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת, וּבְג' רִאשׁוֹנוֹת צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לָרֹאשׁ, וּבְג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת לָעֲבוֹדָה (וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם דִּלֵּג בְּרָכָה אַחַת לְגַמְרֵיקח וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד אַחַר חֲתִימַת בְּרָכָה שֶׁאַחֲרֶיהָ), שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן כְּשֶׁיֹּאמַר בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּזְכַּר – הֲוֵי לֵיהּ הַשְּׁנִיָּה47 כְּטָעוּת בָּאֶמְצַע.קט,48

אֲבָל אִם דִּלֵּג בְּאֶמְצָעָהּקי,49 (וַאֲפִלּוּ אָמַר בִּמְקוֹם הַדִּלּוּג נֻסָּח אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעֵין בְּרָכָה זוֹקיא), כָּל שֶׁחָתַם כַּהֹגֶן (וְאָמַר קֹדֶם הַחֲתִימָהקיב אֵיזוֹ בַּקָּשָׁה כְּעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה זוֹ50 וַאֲמָרָהּ בִּלְשׁוֹן מְשֻׁנֶּה מִתִּקּוּן חֲכָמִיםקיג) – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא מְשַׁנֶּה מִמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁטָּבְעוּ חֲכָמִים בִּבְרָכוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"וקיד וְס"ח,קטו שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא מְשַׁנֶּה מִמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁטָּבְעוּ חֲכָמִיםקטז אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁנֶּה בִּפְתִיחָתָן אוֹ בַּחֲתִימָתָן בִּבְרָכוֹת שֶׁחוֹתְמוֹת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וּפוֹתְחוֹת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" [(]וּבִרְכוֹת י"ח שֶׁחוֹתְמוֹת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְאֵינָן פּוֹתְחוֹת בְּ"בָרוּךְ", אַף אִם שִׁנָּה פְּתִיחָתָהּ וַאֲמָרָהּ בִּלְשׁוֹן אַחֵר בְּעִנְיַן הַבְּרָכָה51 – דִּינוֹ כְּאִלּוּ שִׁנָּה בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן בְּרָכוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹקיז,52 וְכָל פְּתִיחָתָהּ הִיא כְּמוֹ אֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה):

9 Whenever [the Sages] ruled that one must return to the blessing in which he erred, for example —

[a] he skipped [a blessing]

[b] he erred in the concluding phrase of one of the intermediate blessings53 or in [one of] the final three blessings in which instance, he should return to the blessing Retzeh, which is the beginning [of that bracket], or

[c] he mentioned rain in the summer in which instance should return to the beginning of the second blessing54 if he had not yet completed the blessing,

— they issued those rulings only when one erred inadvertently. If, however, one acted willfully and intentionally, he must return to the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh. This also applies when one speaks intentionally [in the midst of Shemoneh Esreh], as explained in sec. 104[:4].

ט כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמְרוּ חוֹזֵר לַבְּרָכָה שֶׁטָּעָה בָּהּ,קיח כְּגוֹן שֶׁדִּלֵּג, אוֹ טָעָה בַּחֲתִימַת בְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת,53 אוֹ בְּג' אַחֲרוֹנוֹת שֶׁחוֹזֵר לָעֲבוֹדָה שֶׁהִיא רֵאשִׁיתָן, אוֹ שֶׁהִזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה שֶׁחוֹזֵר לְרֹאשׁ בְּרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה54 אִם לֹא סִיֵּם הַבְּרָכָהקיט – הַכֹּל לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁטָּעָה בְּשׁוֹגֵג, אֲבָל בְּמֵזִיד וּמִתְכַוֵּן – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ הַתְּפִלָּה. וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם שָׂח בְּמֵזִיד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ד:קכ

10 [The following rules apply if] one [recites Shemoneh Esreh] and does not know whether he mentioned rain or not: Within 30 days [of the day when a change was made], it is assumed55 that he mentions what he would mention habitually. After 30 days, [we assume that] he mentions what he is required to mention. Accordingly, if in the summer he is in doubt as to whether he mentioned morid hageshem, for [the first] 30 days it is assumed that he mentioned it as was his habit throughout the winter. Hence, he must repeat [the blessing]. In the rainy season, [if] during the [first] 30 days [he is unsure of whether he mentioned morid hageshem], in these countries where dew is not mentioned in the summer, he must repeat [the blessing]. For during those [first] 30 days, it is assumed that he mentioned neither dew nor rain.56

After 30 days have passed, he is not required to repeat the blessing, because his tongue has already become accustomed to [pray] as required and it can be assumed that he prayed according to his [present] habit. Even if he erred or transgressed and did not pray for a day or two, [his conduct] does not change the prevailing assumption.57 Since that assumption was established during the majority of those days, that is sufficient. In view of the fact that [despite] not having mentioned it for a day, he afterwards went back, mentioned it, and [continued doing so] until the end of the 30 days, the 30-day assumption has been established.

י הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם הִזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם אִם לָאוקכא – עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם חֲזָקָה55 מַה שֶּׁהוּא לָמוּד הוּא מַזְכִּיר, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ מַה שֶּׁהוּא צָרִיךְ הוּא מַזְכִּיר. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם מְסֻפָּק בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה אִם הִזְכִּיר "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" – עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהִזְכִּירוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה רָגִיל כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹרֶף וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר.קכב וּבִימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים צָרִיךְ גַּם כֵן לַחֲזֹרקכג עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם – בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין מַזְכִּירִין טַל בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה,קכד וַהֲרֵי כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הוּא בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּיר לֹא טַל וְלֹא גְּשָׁמִים – מִן הַסְּתָם.56 לְאַחַר ל' יוֹם אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְרַגֵּל לְשׁוֹנוֹ לוֹמַר כַּהֲלָכָה וּמִן הַסְּתָם אָמַר כְּהֶרְגֵּל לְשׁוֹנוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שָׁגַג אוֹ פָּשַׁע יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם וְלֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל כְּלָלקכה – לֹא הוּרַע חֶזְקָתוֹ בָּזֶה,57 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֻחְזַק בְּרֹב אֵלּוּ יָמִים – דַּיּוֹ בְּכָךְ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּיר אֵיזֶה יוֹם חָזַר אַחַר כָּךְ וְהִזְכִּיר עַד תֹּם ל' יוֹם – הֲרֵי זֶה בַּחֲזָקָה שֶׁל ל' יוֹם:

11 If, on the first day of Pesach,58 one recited the second blessing from Atah gibor until and including morid hatal — or, in these countries, until and including mechalkel chayim — 90 times [consecutively] without saying morid hageshem, [it is assumed that] his tongue has [thereby] become habituated to say rav lehoshia morid hatal59 or rav lehoshia mechalkel chayim.60 [This repetition is regarded] as if he had recited this passage for 30 days. For [even] in 30 weekdays61 one will not recite [this blessing] more than 90 times, three times every day. If one establishes a habit when reciting [these phrases] on diverse occasions, how much more can we assume that a habit was established when [the repetition] is made consecutively. Therefore, [after having been habituated in this manner,] if one does not remember whether he mentioned rain, it is assumed that he did not mention it and he is not required to repeat the blessing.

Similarly, if on Shemini Atzeres62 one says Atah gibor until morid hageshem inclusive 90 times, and afterwards is unsure whether he mentioned rain, it is assumed that he mentioned it.

(There are those who differ with this [ruling]. As an initial preference,63 it is desirable to respect their opinion and not to pursue this [tactic] and then rely on it. If, however, one did so and then became doubtful as to whether or not he mentioned [morid hatal], he is not required to repeat [the blessing], for [the initial view] is given primacy.)

יא אִם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַחקכו,58 אוֹמֵר בִּרְכַּת "אַתָּה גִּבּוֹר" עַד "מוֹרִיד הַטָּל" וְעַד בִּכְלָל, אוֹ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּקכז עַד "מְכַלְכֵּל חַיִּים" וְעַד בִּכְלָל, בְּלֹא "מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" צ' פְּעָמִים – הֲרֵי נִתְרַגֵּל לְשׁוֹנוֹ לוֹמַר (וְ)"רַב לְהוֹשִׁיעַ" (וּ)"מוֹרִיד הַטָּל"59 אוֹ (וְ)"רַב לְהוֹשִׁיעַ מְכַלְכֵּל חַיִּים",60 כְּאִלּוּ אָמַר כֵן ל' יוֹם,קכח שֶׁבְּל' יוֹם מִימוֹת הַחֹל61 גַּם כֵן אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא צ' פְּעָמִים, ג' פְּעָמִים בְּכָל יוֹם, וְאִם הֻרְגַּל כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר מְפֻזָּרִין – קַל וָחֹמֶר בִּרְצוּפִין. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם אַחַר כָּךְ אֵינוֹ זוֹכֵר אִם הִזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם – חֲזָקָה שֶׁלֹּא הִזְכִּירוֹ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר. וְכֵן אִם בִּשְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת62 אוֹמֵר צ' פְּעָמִים "אַתָּה גִּבּוֹר" עַד וּ"מוֹרִיד הַגֶּשֶׁם" וְעַד בִּכְלָל וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִסְתַּפֵּק אִם הִזְכִּיר הַגֶּשֶׁם – חֲזָקָה שֶׁהִזְכִּירוֹ (וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה.קכט וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה,63 שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵן לִסְמֹךְ עַל זֶה. אֲבָל אִם עָשָׂה כֵּן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִסְתַּפֵּק אִם הִזְכִּירוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר, כִּי כֵן עִקָּר):