SECTION 107 [Laws Relating to] One who is Unsure whether he Recited Shemoneh Esreh; Laws Relating to a Voluntary Shemoneh Esreh. (1-5)

סימן קז הַמְּסֻפָּק אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל וְדִין תְּפִלַּת נְדָבָה וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 If one is unsure as to whether he recited She­moneh Esreh or not, he must pray again.1 He should make the following stipulation: “If I have not recited Shemoneh Esreh, let [the present prayer] fulfill my obligation. If I have already recited She­moneh Esreh, let this be a freewill offering.”2

Although in all [other] cases of an unresolved doubt regarding a Rabbinic obligation we rule leniently,3 [the Sages] required such a person to pray again, for [they said], “If only a person would pray all day long!”1 — [i.e.,] as a freewill offering. It is only that when a person is certain that he already recited Shemoneh Esreh and is praying again as a freewill offering, he must add something new to his prayer to make it clear that it is a freewill offering, so that he will not resemble someone who offered two [morning or evening] sacrifices, thereby transgressing the prohibition against adding to the mitzvos.4 For the obligatory prayer takes the place of the daily burnt-offering, and a voluntary prayer takes the place of a freewill burnt-offering. If, however, a person was in doubt as to whether he prayed or not, he need not add a new element to his second Shemoneh Esreh, for there is nothing more innovative than praying again because of a doubt.5

If one adds a new element, he may pray as a freewill offering as many times as he desires, with the exception of the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf, which may not be recited as a freewill offering. [This applies] even to the Mussaf of Rosh Chodesh,6 for in that prayer one speaks of “the Mussaf offerings according to their law” — and the Mussaf offerings may be brought only from communal funds; an individual cannot donate them.

On Shabbos and on festivals, no She­moneh Esreh at all may be recited as a freewill offering, because vowed offerings and gift-offerings7 are not sacrificed on those days.8

א אִם הוּא מְסֻפָּק אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח אִם לָאו – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל,א,1 וּמַתְנֶה וְאוֹמֵר: אִם לֹא הִתְפַּלַּלְתִּי – תְּהֵא לְחוֹבָתִי, וְאִם הִתְפַּלַּלְתִּי – תְּהֵא לְנִדְבָתִי.ב,2 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל סָפֵק מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל3 – הִצְרִיכוּ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל,ג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַלְּוַאי שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל אָדָם כָּל הַיּוֹםד,1 בְּתוֹרַת נְדָבָה.ה אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם בָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּבָר וְחוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּתוֹרַת נְדָבָה – צָרִיךְ לְחַדֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה דָּבָר בִּתְפִלָּתוֹו כְּדֵי לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהוּא נְדָבָה,ז וְלֹא יְהֵא כְּמַקְרִיב ב' תְּמִידִין וְעוֹבֵר מִשּׁוּם "בַּל תּוֹסִיף",ח,4 שֶׁתְּפִלַּת חוֹבָה הִיא בִּמְקוֹם עוֹלַת הַתָּמִידט וּתְפִלַּת נְדָבָה הִיא בִּמְקוֹם עוֹלַת נְדָבָה. אֲבָל אִם מְסֻפָּק אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל אִם לָאו – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְחַדֵּשׁ שׁוּם דָּבָר בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ הַב',י שֶׁכְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל עַל הַסָּפֵק – אֵין לְךָ חִדּוּשׁ גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה.יא,5

וְעַל יְדֵי חִדּוּשׁ חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בִּנְדָבָה כָּל הַפְּעָמִים שֶׁיִּרְצֶה,יב חוּץ מִתְּפִלַּת מוּסָף שֶׁאֵין מִתְפַּלְלִין אוֹתָהּ בִּנְדָבָהיג אֲפִלּוּ מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ,6 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹמֵר "וּמוּסָפִים כְּהִלְכָתָם"יד וְהַמּוּסָפִים אֵינָן קְרֵבִין אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר וְאֵין הַיָּחִיד יָכוֹל לְהִתְנַדֵּב אוֹתָם.טו וּבְשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אֵינָן מִתְפַּלְלִין נְדָבָה כְּלָל,טז לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת7 קְרֵבִין בָּהֶם:יז,8

2 If a person began reciting Shemoneh Esreh as an obligatory prayer, for he thought he had not yet recited it, then realized in the midst of his recitation that he already prayed, he must cease even in the midst of a blessing.1 Even if he could add a new element to his Shemoneh Esreh, he may not complete it as a freewill offering, because he began it as an obligatory offering, and one may not bring a sacrifice that is part obligatory and part voluntary.

ב אִם הִתְחִיל לְהִתְפַּלֵּליח לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה, שֶׁהָיָה סוֹבֵר שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלֵּל עֲדַיִןיט וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְפַּלֵּל – צָרִיךְ לִפְסֹק אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה.1 וַאֲפִלּוּ יָכוֹל לְחַדֵּשׁ בָּהּ דָּבָר – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ לְשֵׁם נְדָבָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִיל בָּהּ לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה,כ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהָבִיא קָרְבָּן שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ חוֹבָה וְחֶצְיוֹ נְדָבָה:כא

3 The above-mentioned addition of a new element [means] that one must insert a new [request] in each of the intermediate blessings that echoes the theme of that blessing.9 If, however, one added a new element to even one blessing, this is sufficient to make it clear that this Shemoneh Esreh is voluntary and not obligatory.

ג חִדּוּשׁ זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ הוּא, שֶׁיְּחַדֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה דָּבָר בְּכָל בְּרָכָה מִן הָאֶמְצָעִית מֵעֵין הַבְּרָכָה.9 וְאִם חִדֵּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת – דַּיּוֹ, כְּדֵי לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהוּא נְדָבָה וְלֹא חוֹבָה:כב

4 A congregation may not recite a voluntary Shemoneh Esreh, for a community does not bring a freewill offering, except for [the burnt-offerings sacrificed as] “the dessert of the altar”10 when the altar was not in use, and this was a rare occurrence. Therefore a She­moneh Esreh should not be recited corresponding to this. An individual may, however, recite She­moneh Esreh as a freewill offering even when he is praying with a congregation.11

ד אֵין צִבּוּר מִתְפַּלְלִים תְּפִלַּת נְדָבָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין צִבּוּר מְבִיאִין קָרְבַּן נְדָבָהכג אֶלָּא לְקֵיץ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ10 כְּשֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ בָּטֵל וְזֶהוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי,כד לָכֵן אֵין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח כְּנֶגֶד זֶה. אֲבָל יָחִיד יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת נְדָבָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּצִבּוּר:כה,11

5 A person who desires to recite Shemoneh Esreh as a freewill offering must know himself to be eager and vigilant, and assess himself as being able to concentrate throughout Shemoneh Esreh from beginning to end. If, however, he cannot concentrate properly, we apply to him [the prophet’s words of censure]:12 “Of what value to Me are your many offerings?” If only he were able to concentrate during the three prayers required every day!

ה הָרוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת נְדָבָה – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא מַכִּיר אֶת עַצְמוֹ זָרִיז וְזָהִיר וְאוֹמֵד בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיּוּכַל לְכַוֵּן בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד סוֹף,כו אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן יָפֶה – אָנוּ קוֹרִין בּוֹ12 "לָמָּה לִּי רֹב זִבְחֵיכֶם",כז וְהַלְוַאי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְכַוֵּן בְּג' תְּפִלּוֹת הַקְּבוּעִים לַיוֹם: