SECTION 94 The Requirement to Orient Oneself towards Eretz Yisrael; the Laws [Pertaining to Praying] while Riding or while Sitting in a Boat. (1-10)

סימן צד צָרִיךְ לְכַוֵּן כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְדִין הָרוֹכֵב אוֹ יוֹשֵׁב בִּסְפִינָה וּבוֹ י' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply] when one stands up to pray [Shemoneh Esreh].1 If he is in the Diaspora, he should face Eretz Yisrael2 — as it is written,3 “They will pray to You by way of their land” — and he should focus [his thoughts] in the direction of Jerusalem, the Beis HaMikdash, and the Holy of Holies.4

If he is in Eretz Yisrael, he should turn to face Jerusalem — as it is written,5 “They will pray to G‑d via the city which You have chosen” — and he should focus his thoughts on the Beis HaMikdash and the Holy of Holies.

If he is in Jerusalem, he should turn to face the Beis HaMikdash — as it is written,6 “They will pray toward this House” — and he should direct his thoughts toward the Holy of Holies.

If he is standing behind the [Beis Ha]Mikdash, to the west of the location of the Holy of Holies,7 he should turn to face east, toward the Holy of Holies, as it is written,8 “And they shall pray toward this place.” (In the present era it is forbidden to stand in the [site of the] Beis HaMikdash itself, for everyone is impure due to [presumed contact with] a corpse9 and we do not have the ashes of the [Red] Heifer [with which to purify ourselves],10 as will be explained in sec. 561.11)

If one is standing to the north [of the Beis HaMikdash], he should turn south to face it. If one is standing to its south, he should turn north to face it. “The entire Jewish people thus direct their hearts toward one place.”2 In this spirit the Sages saw an allusion [to the Temple Mount] in the verse,12 “Your neck is like the Tower of David, built with lofty turrets (לתלפיות — letalpiyot),” for this word suggests “the mount (תל — tel) to which all mouths (פיות — piyot) are directed.”2

א בְּקוּמוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל,1 אִם הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץא – יַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל,2 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ב,3 "וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֵלֶיךָ דֶּרֶךְ אַרְצָם". וִיכַוֵּן גַּם כְּנֶגֶד יְרוּשָׁלַיִםג וּכְנֶגֶד הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּכְנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים.4

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל – יַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו כְּנֶגֶד יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ד,5 "וְהִתְפַּלְּלוּ אֶל ה' דֶּרֶךְ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ". וִיכַוֵּן גַּם כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּכְנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳדָשִׁים.

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם – יַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו לַמִּקְדָּשׁ,ה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ו,6 "וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה". וִיכַוֵּן גַּם כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקָדָשִׁים.

הָיָה עוֹמֵד אֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ (אֲבָל בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ אָסוּר לַעֲמֹד בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה,ז שֶׁכֻּלָּם טְמֵאֵי מֵתִים9 שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ אֵפֶר פָּרָה,ח,10 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקס"אט)11 בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ שֶׁל בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁיםי – יַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו לַמִּזְרָח כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:יא,8 וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה". וְאִם הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּצְפוֹנוֹ – יַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו לַדָּרוֹם כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. וְאִם עוֹמֵד בִּדְרוֹמוֹ – יַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו לַצָּפוֹן כְּנֶגְדּוֹ.

נִמְצְאוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מְכַוְּנִים לִבָּם לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד.יב,2 וְעַל זֶה דָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:יג "כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת",יד,12 תֵּל שֶׁכָּל פִּיּוֹת פּוֹנִים בּוֹ:2

2 In places where it is customary to pray in directions other than [toward Jerusalem],13 one should at least turn his face in the direction of Eretz Yisrael if he is in the Diaspora, toward Jerusalem if he is in Eretz Yisrael, and toward the [Beis Ha]Mikdash if he is in Jerusalem.

We face the east, because we are living to the west of Eretz Yisrael,14 and thus we are facing Eretz Yisrael. This is why the Aron HaKodesh15 is [usually] positioned in the east [of the synagogue]. Even if it was placed on another side, [the congregation] should pray to the east.

Nevertheless, in these countries16 which are located to the far north — even though they are also to the west of Eretz Yisrael — the Aron HaKodesh and the direction for prayer, i.e., the “eastern” wall, should not be positioned due east, but rather southeast, (inclining slightly according to the angle of the direction of Jerusalem from the mean east position.17 [The mean east position] is the place from which the sun rises for a particular city at the times of the actual equinox in the spring and fall.18 This is the [time of year] at which the ecliptic19 intersects the horizon of this city. This is why the days and the nights are equal at the time of the equinox in the spring and the fall.)

This [mean east position] is further [east] in all of these countries20 than the point in the heavens that is directly above Jerusalem.21 It is necessary to calculate the latitude of the point of intersection between the arc that represents the longitude of Jerusalem as it intersects the equator22 and the arc which circumscribes the quarter of a sphere23 from our location to [the mean east position,] i.e., the place where our horizon intersects the ecliptic19 [at sunrise on the day of the equinox]. If the latitude of the point where this arc24 intersects the longitude of Jerusalem is greater than the latitude of Jerusalem,25 one should incline slightly southward according to this increment. If the latitude of this point is less than the latitude of Jerusalem, one should incline slightly to the north.26 This [calculation] depends on [the extent of] the eastward distance of the country from the Atlantic Ocean27 and the extent of its northerly distance from the equator beyond that of Jerusalem.28These calculations are easy for those who are familiar with the calculations of spherical trigonometry.29

ב בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לְרוּחַ מִשְּׁאָר רוּחוֹתטו,13 – עַל כָּל פָּנִים יְצַדֵּד פָּנָיו לְצַד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם הוּא בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ, וְלִירוּשָׁלַיִם אִם הוּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלַמִּקְדָּשׁ אִם הוּא בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאָנוּ מַחֲזִירִין פָּנִים לַמִּזְרָח, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָנוּ יוֹשְׁבִין בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל,14 וְנִמְצָא פָּנֵינוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל.טז וְלָכֵן קוֹבְעִים אֲרוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ15 בַּמִּזְרָח. וַאֲפִלּוּ קְבָעוּהוּ לְצַד אַחֵר – יִתְפַּלְלוּ לְצַד מִזְרָח.יז

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ16 שֶׁהֵן לְצַד צָפוֹן הַרְבֵּהיח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל – לֹא יִקְבְּעוּ מְקוֹם הָאָרוֹן וְצַד הַתְּפִלָּה דְּהַיְנוּ כֹּתֶל מִזְרָחִי כְּנֶגֶד אֶמְצָעִית רוּחַ מִזְרָחִית שֶׁלָּהֶם, אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד מִזְרָחִית דְּרוֹמִיתיט (קְצָתכ כְּפִי עֶרֶךְ נְטִיַּת נְקֻדַּת אֶמְצַע מִזְרָח שֶׁלָּהֶם מִכְּנֶגֶד יְרוּשָׁלַיִם,17 וּנְקֻדָּה זוֹ הוּא מְקוֹם יְצִיאַת שֶׁמֶשׁ לְעִיר זוֹ בִּתְקוּפַת נִיסָן וְתִשְׁרֵי הָאֲמִתִּית,18 וְהוּא מְקוֹם פְּגִישַׁת גַּלְגַּל מַשְׁוֶה הַיּוֹם19 בְּאֹפֶק עִיר זֶה, שֶׁלָּכֵן הַיּוֹם וְהַלַּיְלָה שָׁוִים שָׁם בִּתְקוּפַת נִיסָן וְתִשְׁרֵי).

וּמָקוֹם זֶה בְּכָל מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ20 הוּא לְהָלְאָה מִנְּקֻדַּת נֹכָח הָרֹאשׁ שֶׁל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם,כא,21 וְצָרִיךְ לְחַשֵּׁב כַּמָּה יִהְיֶה כְּנֶגֶד יְרוּשָׁלַיִםכב בָּרֹחַב שֶׁמִּגַּלְגַּל מַשְׁוֶה הַיּוֹם22 עַד רֹבַע עָגֹל23 שֶׁמִּנֹּכַח הָרֹאשׁ שֶׁלָּנוּ עַד מְקוֹם פְּגִישַׁת הָאֹפֶק שֶׁלָּנוּ בְּמַשְׁוֶה הַיּוֹם,כג,19 וְאִם רֹחַב זֶה שֶׁמֵּעִגוּל זֶה24 עַד מַשְׁוֶה הַיּוֹם כְּנֶגֶד יְרוּשָׁלַיִם הוּא יוֹתֵר מֵרֹחַב שֶׁמִּמַּשְׁוֶה הַיּוֹם עַד נֹכָח הָרֹאשׁ שֶׁל יְרוּשָׁלַיִםכד,25 – צָרִיךְ לְצַדֵּד קְצָת לְדָרוֹם כְּפִי עֶרֶךְ יִתְרוֹן הַזֶּה, וְאִם הוּא פָּחוֹת מִזֶּה – צָרִיךְ לְצַדֵּד לְצָפוֹן קְצָת.26 וְדָבָר זֶה תָּלוּי בְּמֶרְחַק הַמְּדִינָה מִיָּם הַמַּעֲרָבִיכה כְּלַפֵּי הַמִּזְרָח27 וּבְהַרְחָקָה מִטַּבּוּר הָאָרֶץכו כְּלַפֵּי צָפוֹן יוֹתֵר מִמֶּרְחַק יְרוּשָׁלַיִם.כז,28 וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן זֶה קַל לְהַיּוֹדְעִים דַּרְכֵי הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן בִּמְשֻׁלָּשׁ כַּדּוּרִי:כח,29

Fig. 2
Fig. 2


L = Lisbon A = Amsterdam N = North Pole J = Jerusalem
E = east (= mean east; not due east, which would simply be a line of latitude)
X = intersection of Amsterdam’s mean east and Jerusalem’s line of longitude
Z = intersection of Lisbon’s mean east and Jerusalem’s line of longitude
Q = intersection of Jerusalem’s line of longitude and the equator

3 One who desires to follow our Sages’ teaching30 that “he who desires to gain wisdom should face south31 and he who desires to attain wealth should face north”32 may conduct himself in this manner even when he is part of a congregation, despite the fact that when praying they are facing east. Nevertheless, he must incline his face33 towards the east, i.e., toward Eretz Yisrael, even when he is praying alone. He may also do the opposite, i.e., he may stand facing east, and incline his face to the south or to the north so that he will gain either wisdom or wealth. This latter approach is more appropriate when he is praying with a congregation so that it will not appear that he has separated himself somewhat from them, for they are standing [in prayer] while facing east whereas he is facing the south or the north. If, however, he forgot and stood up to recite Shemoneh Esreh while facing the north or the south and already began to pray, it is sufficient that he incline his face to the east. He should not change the position of his feet to face east.

By contrast, should he have forgotten and stood up [to pray while facing] the west, he should not turn his face at all, for it is impossible for him to turn his face to the east34 and pray. Therefore there is no need for him to turn his head at all, unless he desires to gain either wisdom or wealth. He need not change the position of his feet to face east, for there were Sages who would pray to the west as an initial preference, since “the Divine Presence abides in the west.”35 There was also a Sage who would pray in whichever direction that he happened to face, because he pointed out that the Divine Presence abides everywhere.35 One may rely on these views after the fact, if one has already begun praying while facing a particular direction; one should not interrupt his prayers to change his position and face Eretz Yisrael.

ג וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְקַיֵּםכט אָמְרָם:ל,30 הָרוֹצֶה לְהַחְכִּים יַדְרִים31 וּלְהַעֲשִׁיר יַצְפִּין32 – יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אֲפִלּוּ בְּצִבּוּר,לא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מִתְפַּלְלִין לְמִזְרָח. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לְצַדֵּד פָּנָיו לְמִזְרָחלב,33 כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ מִתְפַּלֵּל בְּיָחִיד. וְיָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת גַּם בְּהִפּוּךְ,לג שֶׁעִקַּר עֲמִידָתוֹ יִהְיֶה לְמִזְרָח, וִיצַדֵּד פָּנָיו לְדָרוֹם אוֹ לְצָפוֹןלד כְּדֵי לְהַחְכִּים אוֹ לְהַעֲשִׁיר. וְדֶרֶךְ זֶה יוֹתֵר נָכוֹן כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּצִבּוּר, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁחָלוּק מֵהַצִּבּוּר קְצָת,לה שֶׁהֵם עוֹמְדִים לְמִזְרָח וְהוּא לְדָרוֹם אוֹ לְצָפוֹן. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁכַח וְעָמַד לְצָפֹן אוֹ לְדָרוֹם וְהִתְחִיל כְּבָר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל – אֲזַי דַּי לוֹ שֶׁיַּהֲפֹךְ פָּנָיו לַמִּזְרָח, וְלֹא יַעֲקֹר רַגְלָיולו לַהֲפֹךְ עֲמִידָתוֹ לְמִזְרָח.לז

אֲבָל אִם שָׁכַח וְעָמַד לְמַעֲרָב – לֹא יַהֲפֹךְ פָּנָיו כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲפֹךְ פָּנָיו לַמִּזְרָח34 וְיִתְפַּלֵּל, לָכֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ לַהֲפֹךְ פָּנָיו כְּלָל,לח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רוֹצֶה לְהַחְכִּים אוֹ לְהַעֲשִׁיר.לט וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲקֹר רַגְלָיו לַהֲפֹךְ עֲמִידָתוֹ לַמִּזְרָח, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִן הַחֲכָמִיםמ שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְפַּלְלִים לְכַתְּחִלָּה לַמַּעֲרָב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָהמא בַּמַּעֲרָב,מב,35 וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל לְאֵיזֶה רוּחַ שֶׁהָיָה מִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסּוֹבֵר שֶׁשְּׁכִינָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם,35 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִיל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לְאֵיזוֹ רוּחַ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ לַעֲקֹר רַגְלָיו וְלַעֲמֹד כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל:מג

4 A blind person, and likewise one who is unable to determine the directions in order to pray while facing Eretz Yisrael, should direct his heart to his Father in Heaven,2 as it is written, “And they shall pray to G‑d.”5

ד סוּמָאמד וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן הָרוּחוֹת לְהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵלמה – יְכַוֵּן לִבּוֹ לְאָבִיו שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם,2 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: "וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל ה'":מו,5

5 If a person is riding a donkey, he is not required to climb down in order to pray,2 even if he has someone to hold his donkey for him [while he prays]. Instead, he may pray while traveling. If possible, he should turn his face toward Eretz Yisrael.36 Similarly, when [traveling] in a ship or a wagon, if he can stand, he should. If not, he should sit in his place and pray and, if possible, he should turn his face toward Eretz Yisrael.2

If he is traveling by foot, he may pray while he walks, even if he is not facing Jerusalem. Even when he is not in a place of danger, and even when he is traveling for his own mundane affairs,37 the Sages did not require him to interrupt his journey and stand while reciting Shemoneh Esreh. [The rationale is] that the delay will be hard for him to bear; he will be disconcerted and will not be able to concentrate. [However,] everything depends on the journey, the place, the degree of his fear, and his ability to compose himself.

If, however, he has moved ahead of the caravan [with which he is traveling] and has someone to hold his donkey, he should dismount and pray. Certainly, if [in such a situation] he is journeying by foot, he should stand [in one place] and pray. Standing at this point will not make his heart unsettled, since he would have to wait for the caravan regardless.

On the other hand, some authorities maintain that whatever the situation, one should stand still while reciting the first blessing38 [of Shemoneh Esreh], for if one does not concentrate while reciting that blessing, he must repeat his prayer,39 and when one prays while journeying, he is not able to focus his attention to such a degree. Therefore, [if he is riding], he must restrain the animal from proceeding until he completes this first blessing. He is not required, however, to climb down. It is proper to give weight to this view if one is not in a dangerous place.

As an initial preference, from dawn40 onward, one should not set out on a journey until he has recited the entire Shemoneh Esreh at home while standing, as stated in sec. 89[:9]. Nevertheless, if one transgressed and did depart, he may pray while traveling, even if he is traveling nearby, within the city’s [Shabbos] limits.41 Even if he will still have ample time to pray after he reaches his destination, he may pray while traveling as soon as the time for prayer arrives. He is not required to refrain from praying until he reaches his destination in order to pray there while standing. Since he already became obligated to pray while traveling, he can fulfill his halachic obligation in his immediate circumstances. He is not obligated to defer42 the mitzvah so that he can pray while standing, since in his present circumstances he is exempt from standing.

Nevertheless, in order to fulfill the mitzvah in its optimum manner,43 it is proper that he should wait until he arrives at his destination in order to pray while standing, if he knows that there he will have a private place where he will not be disturbed by the members of the household. [Delaying his prayers in this manner] does not [violate the charges] that mitzvos should not be deferred”44 and “those who are eager perform a mitzvah at the earliest opportunity,”45 since his intent is to fulfill the mitzvah in an optimum manner.

ה הָיָה רוֹכֵב עַל הַחֲמוֹר – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לֵירֵד וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּלמז,2 אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ מִי שֶׁיִּתְפֹּס אֶת חֲמוֹרוֹ, אֶלָּא מִתְפַּלֵּל דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹמח וְיַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ.מט,36 וְכֵן אִם הָיָה בַּסְּפִינָה אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קָרוֹן, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד – עוֹמֵד, וְאִם לָאו – יוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וּמִתְפַּלֵּל,נ וְיַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ.2 וְאִם הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו – מִתְפַּלֵּל דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ,נא אַף אִם אֵין פָּנָיו כְּנֶגֶד אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת37 – לֹא הִצְרִיכוּהוּ לְהַפְסִיק הֲלִיכָתוֹ וְלַעֲמֹד בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּפִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁיֻּקְשֶׁה בְּעֵינָיו אִחוּר דַּרְכּוֹ וְיִטָּרֵד לִבּוֹ וְלֹא יוּכַל לְכַוֵּן.נב וְהַכֹּל לְפִי הַדֶּרֶךְ וּלְפִי הַמָּקוֹם וּלְפִי יִרְאָתוֹ וְיִשּׁוּב דַּעְתּוֹ.נג

אֲבָל אִם קָדַם הוּא לְהַשַּׁיָּרָא וְיֵשׁ לוֹ מִי שֶׁיֶאֱחוֹז אֶת חֲמוֹרוֹ – יֵרֵד לְמַטָּה וְיִתְפַּלֵּל.נד וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן כְּשֶׁמְּהַלֵּךְ בְּרַגְלָיו, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הוּא לַעֲמֹד וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, שֶׁבַּעֲמִידָה זוֹ לֹא יִטָרֵד לִבּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּבַּלְעֲדֵי כֵּן צָרִיךְ הוּא לְהַמְתִּין עַל הַשַּׁיָּרָא.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנה שֶׁבְּכָל עִנְיָן צָרִיךְ הוּא לַעֲמֹד בְּאָבוֹת38 כְּדֵי לְכַוֵין, שֶׁאִם לֹא כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ בְּאָבוֹת – צָרִיךְ הוּא לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל,נו,39 וּכְשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן כָּל כָּךְ. לָכֵן צָרִיךְ לְעַכֵּב הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁלֹּא תְּהַלֵּךְ עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר בִּרְכַּת אָבוֹת, אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לֵירֵד לְמַטָּה.נז וְרָאוּי לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם אִם הוּא שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה.נח

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה, לֹא יֵצֵא לַדֶּרֶךְ מִשֶּׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר40 עַד שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל תְּחִלָּה בְּבֵיתוֹ כָּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח מְעֻמָּד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן פ"ט.נט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וְיָצָא – יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ,ס אֲפִלּוּ מְהַלֵּךְ סָמוּךְ לָעִיר בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם,סא,41 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְחוֹז חֶפְצוֹ בְּעוֹד שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲדַיִן שְׁהוּת הַרְבֵּה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּדֶּרֶךְ מִיָּד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה, וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לְהִתְעַכֵּב42 מִלְּהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְחוֹז חֶפְצוֹ כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם מְעֻמָּד,סב שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר חָל עָלָיו חוֹבַת הַתְּפִלָּה וְהוּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ – יָכוֹל לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַדִּין בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא שָׁם, וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לְהַחְמִיץ הַמִּצְוָה כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מְעֻמָּד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הוּא פָּטוּר מֵהָעֲמִידָה.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר43 נָכוֹן הוּא שֶׁיַּמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְחוֹז חֶפְצוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם מְעֻמָּד,סג אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ שָׁם מָקוֹם מְיֻחָד שֶׁלֹּא יְבַלְבְּלוּהוּ בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת. וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם "אֵין מַחְמִיצִין אֶת הַמִּצְווֹת"סד,44 וּ"זְרִיזִים מַקְדִּימִין לְמִצְוָה",סה,45 כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר:סו

6 If one is sitting in a ship or a wagon and is afraid to stand throughout Shemoneh Esreh and [hence] prays while seated, he should nevertheless stand, if possible, when he must bow, so that he will bow46 while standing. He should also take three steps [backward at the end, as required].47 If he is riding an animal, he should have it take three steps back, and that is considered as if he himself had taken three steps back. Alternatively, while on the animal he should move back, as he would do if he were taking his leave of a king.47

ו הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב בִּסְפִינָה אוֹ בַּעֲגָלָה וּמְפַחֵד לַעֲמֹד בְּכָל הַתְּפִלָּה וּמִתְפַּלֵּל מְיֻשָּׁב,סז מִכָּל מָקוֹם יַעֲמֹד בִּמְקוֹם הַכְּרִיעוֹתסח אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא כּוֹרֵעַ46 מְעֻמָּד וּפוֹסֵעַ ג' פְּסִיעוֹת.סט,47 וְאִם רוֹכֵב עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה – יַחֲזִיר הַבְּהֵמָה ג' פְּסִיעוֹת לַאֲחוֹרֶיהָע וְעוֹלֶה לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ פּוֹסֵעַ בְּעַצְמוֹ, אוֹ יַחֲזִיר עַצְמוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֶמְתּוֹ, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נוֹהֵג אִם בָּא לְהִפָּטֵר מִן הַמֶּלֶךְ:עא,47

7 An elderly person who cannot stand may sit in his place and pray. Similarly, one who is sick may pray48 even when lying on his side, provided he can concentrate. If one is so weak that he cannot verbalize his prayers, it is desirable that he should at least think about them in his heart, as it is written,49 “Say in your hearts on your beds.” [This he should do] even though one does not fulfill his obligation through thought [alone], as will be explained in sec. 101[:4].

If he cannot concentrate he should recite the Shema alone, if that is possible, since [the obligation to] focus one’s thoughts when reciting the Shema applies only to the first verse, and it is easily possible to focus one’s thoughts [for that].

ז זָקֵן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד – יוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וּמִתְפַּלֵּל.עב וְכֵן חוֹלֶה.48 וּמִתְפַּלֵּלעג אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹכֵב עַל צִדּוֹ,עד וְהוּא שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְכַוֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ.

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּפִיו מִפְּנֵי חֲלִישׁוּתו – טוֹב שֶׁעַל כָּל פָּנִים יְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ,עה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:עו,49 "אִמְרוּ בִלְבַבְכֶם עַל מִשְׁכַּבְכֶם", וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּהִרְהוּר,עז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"א.עח

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ – קוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע לְבַדָּהּ אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ,עט לְפִי שֶׁכַּוָּנַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא פָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹןהפ וּבְקַל יוּכַל לְכַוֵּן:פא

8 If one [is sitting] with gentiles on either side and he fears that they may interrupt him while he is praying or damage his wares if he stands and prays, he should sit in his place and pray, because his thoughts are not composed. He should sit, pray, and bow, even though he is required to take three steps back at the end of his prayer.47

One should be careful not to lean against a wall, a pillar, or a friend while praying, as will be explained in sec. 141.50

ח מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ נָכְרִים מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן וּמִתְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא יַפְסִיקוּהוּ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹפב אוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַפְסִידוּ מִקְחוֹ אִם יַעֲמֹד וְיִתְפַּלֵּל – יֵשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְיִתְפַּלֵּל, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת עָלָיו. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִפְסֹעַ ג' פְּסִיעוֹת בְּסוֹף הַתְּפִלָּהפג – יוֹשֵׁב וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וְכוֹרֵעַ.פד,47

יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמֹךְ עַצְמוֹ לַכֹּתֶל אוֹ לְעַמּוּד אוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁעַת תְּפִלָּה,פה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קמ"א:פו,50

9 If one was forced to recite Shemoneh Esreh while sitting or walking, when he has the opportunity he should preferably pray again while standing, as a freewill offering2 — provided that he is certain that he will be able to concentrate properly while praying, as will be explained in sec. 107[:5].

ט מִי שֶׁהֻכְרַח לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מְיֻשָּׁבפז אוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ – טוֹב שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִתְפַּלֵּל מְעֻמָּד כְּשֶׁיּוּכַל בְּתוֹרַת נְדָבָהפח,2 אִם הוּא בָּטוּחַ שֶׁיּוּכַל לְכַוֵּן יָפֶה בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"ז:פט

10 [The following directives apply when] one is traveling and is approaching an inn belonging to gentiles. If he can move off the road in order to recite Shemoneh Esreh while standing, in a place that it is very likely that passersby will not interrupt him, it is preferable to move off the road and pray there than to pray in a non-Jew’s house which will certainly contain idols and abominations.51 One should not bring any holy object into such a place.52 For Moshe our teacher said,53 “When I depart from the city, [I shall spread out my hands to G‑d].” He did not want to pray in the Egyptian city, because it was filled with idols.

If, however, one cannot move off the road to a place in which he will not be interrupted, he should pray in a corner of the inn where he will not be disturbed by the members of the household. He need not be concerned about the presence of idols, for all of our prayers are recited in towns filled with idols.54

If it is impossible to move off the road and one must pray while walking or sitting, and in the inn he will likewise not be able to find a corner in which he will not be disturbed, it is preferable to pray on the road while walking or sitting, for then he will be able to concentrate better. If at the inn he will be able to pray in a field, a courtyard, or a garden, that is preferable, for in that way he can fulfill both [obligations], praying while standing and with concentration.

י מִי שֶׁבָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהוּא סָמוּךְ לְמָלוֹן שֶׁל נָכְרִים,צ אִם יָכוֹל לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל מְעֻמָּד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁקָּרוֹב הַדָּבָר לְגַמְרֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיקוּהוּ שָׁם עֹבְרֵי דְּרָכִים – מוּטָב שֶׁיִּסְתַּלֵּק וְיִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁםצא מִשֶּׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּבַיִת שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יֵשׁ בּוֹ גִּלּוּלִים וְתוֹעֵבוֹת,51 וְאֵין לְהַכְנִיס לְשָׁם דָּבָר (שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁהצב),52 שֶׁהֲרֵי מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם אָמַרצג,53 "כְּצֵאתִי אֶת הָעִיר וְגו'", וְלֹא רָצָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בִּכְרַךְ שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם, לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה הָעִיר מְלֵאָה גִּלּוּלִים. אֲבָל אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיקוּהוּ – יִתְפַּלֵּל בַּמָּלוֹן בְּאֵיזוֹ קֶרֶן זָוִיּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יְבַלְבְּלוּהוּ בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת. וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְגִלּוּלִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל תְּפִלָּתֵינוּ בַּעֲיָרוֹת מְלֵאוֹת גִלּוּלִים.54

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וְצָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מְהַלֵּךְ אוֹ מְיֻשָּׁבצד וְגַם בַּמָּלוֹן לֹא יִמְצָא קֶרֶן זָוִיּוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְבַלְבְּלוּהוּ – מוּטָב לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּדֶּרֶךְ מְהַלֵּךְ אוֹ מְיֻשָּׁב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָז יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן יוֹתֵר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּמָּלוֹן בְּבִקְעָה אוֹ בֶחָצֵר אוֹ בְּגִנָּה – מוּטָב, וְיֵצֵא יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מְעֻמָּד וּבְכַוָּנָה:צה