SECTION 88 A Person who had a Seminal Emission is Permitted to Recite the Shema. (1-2)

סימן פח בַּעַל קֶרִי מֻתָּר בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1Any impure person, even one whose impurity results from a discharge from his or her body,1 e.g., a zav,2 a zavah,3 and the like, may recite the Shema and Shemoneh Esreh.4 An exception to this rule is any man who had a seminal emission. Ezra [the Scribe] removed such a person from the general category of those who are impure and forbade him from reciting words of Torah,5 or the Shema, or Shemoneh Esreh, so that Torah scholars not frequent their wives like roosters.6 This ordinance never spread throughout the majority of the Jewish people,7 and later it was entirely annulled8 because it led to the neglect of Torah study9 and to the neglect of procreation.10 The [Sages] rescaled the law, permitting such a person too to [recite] words of Torah and the Shema and Shemoneh Esreh without immersion or without having [at least] nine kabin11 [of water poured over him].12 This has become the widespread custom.

Even when the immersion [ordained by Ezra] was in force, it was required only for a healthy person after marital relations. There was no such requirement of an ailing person who had an involuntary seminal emission.13 For (an ailing person after relations) and a healthy person who had an involuntary emission, it is sufficient that nine kabin [of water be poured] over his body from one container — or even from two or three [containers. Water] from four containers, however, cannot be combined [to reach that measure. The contents of three containers can be combined] only if one begins [pouring] the second before the first [is emptied], and the third, before the second [is emptied].

These nine kabin only purify a person if they are poured over him, but not if he immerses himself in them, regardless of whether they are in a container or in the ground14 — unless [the water] amounts to [at least] 40 seah15 ([and is] in the ground). In such an instance, immersion in [this water] is acceptable even for a healthy person after relations, even if it was drawn [with vessels].16

א כָּל הַטְּמֵאִים, אֲפִלּוּ טֻמְאָה יוֹצֵא עֲלֵיהֶם מִגּוּפָן1 כְּגוֹן זָב2 וְזָבָה3 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן – קוֹרִין קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּמִתְפַּלְלִין.א,4 חוּץ מִבַּעַל קֶרִי, שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ עֶזְרָא מִן כְּלַל הַטְּמֵאִין ב וַאֲסָרוֹ בֵּין בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה5 בֵּין בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה,ג כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים מְצוּיִין אֵצֶל נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן כְּתַרְנְגוֹלִים.ד,6 וְלֹא פָּשְׁטָה תַּקָּנָה זוֹ בְּרֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל,ה,7 וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּטְלָה אוֹתָהּ תַּקָּנָה לְגַמְרֵי,ו,8 מִשּׁוּם בִּטּוּל תּוֹרָה9 וּמִשּׁוּם בִּטּוּל פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה,ז,10 וְהֶעֱמִידוּ הַדָּבָר עַל הַדִּין שֶׁאַף בַּעַל קֶרִי מֻתָּר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וּבִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִּתְפִלָּה בְּלֹא טְבִילָה וּבְלֹא רְחִיצָה בְּט' קַבִּין.ח,11,12 וְכֵן פָּשַׁט הַמִּנְהָג.

וְאַף בִּזְמַן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בִּטְבִילָה – לֹא הִצְרִיכוּהוּ אֶלָּא לְבָרִיא שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ, אֲבָל חֹלֶה שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי לְאָנְסוֹ13 – פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם.ט (וְחֹלֶה שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ י) וּבָרִיא לְאָנְסוֹ – דַּיּוֹ בְּט' קַבִּין שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ עָלָיו מִכְּלִי אַחַת אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִב' וְג',יא אֲבָל מִד' כֵּלִים אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין.יב וְהוּא שֶׁיַּתְחִיל הַשֵּׁנִי עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְכֵן הַשְּׁלִישִׁי עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק הַשֵּׁנִי.יג וְתִשְׁעָה קַבִּין אֵלּוּ אֵינָן מְטַהֲרִין אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין עָלָיו אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁטּוֹבֵל בָּהֶם,יד בֵּין שֶׁהֵם בַּכְּלִי בֵּין בַּקַּרְקַע,14 עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה15 (בַּקַּרְקַע טו), וְאָז מוֹעִילִים לִטְבֹּל בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ לְבָרִיא שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם שְׁאוּבִים:טז,16

2 Women have adopted a custom of self-segregating purity according to which they do not enter a synagogue or look at a Torah scroll when they are in the state of niddah.17 Even when they pray, they do not stand in the presence of other women. They do this in observance of a custom and as a gesture of respect,18 not because there is any prohibition involved. During the days when a woman wears white,19 this restriction is not observed. During the High Holidays, i.e., from the first day of Selichos onward, when many gather together to go to the synagogue, even during the days when women are in the state of niddah they are permitted to attend the synagogue, like all others. For otherwise, [such women] would suffer anguish, for all [others] would assemble [in the synagogue] and they would be outside. Similar permission applies in all analogous situations.20 Thus, when a woman is marrying off her son or daughter, or when she has given birth, in which instance it is customary that she attend the synagogue four weeks [after the birth,]21 she is permitted to do so even though she is [in a state of] niddah.

All of the above [restrictions] apply to attending the synagogue, but with regard to praying at home and reciting all the blessings — especially the Grace after Meals and Kiddush, for they are of Scriptural origin22 — women are obligated according to all opinions, even while they are in the state of niddah. There are some who follow the practice of not mentioning G‑d’s name or touching a holy text while they are in the state of niddah, but this custom does not have a halachic basis. At the very least, a woman should listen to the Grace after Meals and Kiddush recited by others.23 If there are no others [from whom a woman can hear these blessings], she personally should recite Kiddush and all the blessings which she is obligated to recite, in an undertone.

(Here end the Laws of the Recitation of the Shema and its Blessings, with G‑d’s help)

ב נָהֲגוּ הַנָּשִׁים טָהֳרָה וּפְרִישׁוּת בְּעַצְמָן יז שֶׁלֹּא לִכָּנֵס לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְשֶׁלֹּא לִרְאוֹת סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה יח בִּשְׁעַת נִדּוּתָן,17 וְגַם כְּשֶׁמִתְפַּלְלִין אֵינָן עוֹמְדוֹת בִּפְנֵי חַבְרוֹתֵיהֶם. וּמִשּׁוּם מִנְהָג וְכָבוֹד עוֹשִׂין כֵּן18 וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר,יט וּבִימֵי לִבּוּנָן19 לֹא נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר.כ וּבְיָמִים נוֹרָאִים כא מִיּוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁל סְלִיחוֹת וְאֵילָךְ כב שֶׁרַבִּים מִתְאַסְּפִים לֵילֵךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – מֻתָּרוֹת לֵילֵךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אַף בִּימֵי נִדּוּתָן כִּשְׁאָר נָשִׁים, כִּי יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְעִצָּבוֹן גָּדוֹל שֶׁהַכֹּל מִתְאַסְּפִין וְהֵן יַעַמְדוּ חוּץ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה,כג,20 כְּגוֹן שֶׁמַּשִּׂיאָה אֶת בְּנָהּ אוֹ בִּתָּהּ, אוֹ שֶׁהִיא בְּעַצְמָהּ יוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁהוֹלְכִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כד אַחַר ד' שָׁבוּעוֹת21 – מֻתֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ הִיא נִדָּה.

וְכָל זֶה לֵילֵךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,כה אֲבָל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּבֵיתָהּ כו וּלְבָרֵךְ כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כז וּבִפְרָט בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כח וְקִדּוּשׁ כט שֶׁהֵן מִן הַתּוֹרָה22 – חַיָּבוֹת לְכֻלֵּי עָלְמָא אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת נִדָּתָן. וּמַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם בִּשְׁעַת נִדָּתָן ל אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִגַּע בַּסֵּפֶר לא – אֵין מִנְהָג זֶה עִקָּר,לב וְעַל כָּל פָּנִים תִּשְׁמַע בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְקִדּוּשׁ מֵאֲחֵרִים,לג,23 וְאִם אֵין אַחֵר תְּקַדֵּשׁ וּתְבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמָהּ בְּלַחַשׁ כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁחַיֶּבֶת בָּהֶן:לד

(סְלִיק הִלְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ בְּעֶזְרַת הַשֵּׁם יִתְבָּרֵךְ):