SECTION 69 Laws Relating to the Practice of Poreis al Shema. (1–9)

סימן סט דִּין פּוֹרֵס עַל שְׁמַע וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 If several people prayed individually and heard neither Kaddish nor Kedushah, one of them should stand up and say Kaddish1 and Barchu and the first of the blessings [preceding] the Shema, i.e., Yotzer Or, a second time. (The remainder of the congregation should listen and respond Amen)2 (for the reason explained in sec. 57).3 This practice is called being poreis al Shema. The verb shares the root of perusah, which means “a piece,” as in the word meaning “a slice,” for one is saying only part of the blessings [of the Shema].4 After the blessing Yotzer Or has been completed, he should say [the first two blessings of Shemoneh Esreh:] the blessing that recalls the Patriarchs and the one that recalls G‑d’s might,5 then the Kedushah, and the blessing beginning Atah Kadosh. This [sheliach tzibbur] is called “the one who goes over [and stands] before the ark.”6 These practices may not be observed if fewer than ten people are present, for they are considered devarim shebikedushah.7

The listeners are permitted to go their ways after Kedushah,8 but the one who stands before the ark must complete the entire Shemoneh Esreh even though he already said [it] privately, for the recitation of Shemoneh Esreh may not be interrupted. It does not resemble the blessings of the Shema in which one may make an interruption and [in the above case of poreis al Shema] one says only the blessing Yotzer Or, since he has already recited the Shema and its blessings. [The rationale for the distinction is that] the blessings of the Shema do not have a [binding] order, i.e., the order in which they are said is not an absolute requisite.9 Since they are not linked to each other to the extent that they must be said in a certain sequence, an interruption between them is permitted if one has already fulfilled his obligation.

The blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, by contrast, have a specific sequence which [the Sages] ordained for their recitation.10 If one changed that sequence, he must return to the beginning and say [the blessings] in order, for they are all linked to each other in the sequence set out by the Sages. Therefore, once a person began saying some of them, he must complete them all in their specified sequence, even though he has already fulfilled his obligation.

א אִם יֵשׁ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהִתְפַּלְלוּ כָּל אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ בְּיָחִיד וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ לֹא קַדִּישׁ וְלֹא קְדֻשָּׁה – עוֹמֵד אֶחָד מֵהֶם וְאוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ1 וּ"בָרְכוּ" וּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁהוּא "יוֹצֵר אוֹר" פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּהא (וּשְׁאָר הַצִּבּוּר שׁוֹמְעִין וְעוֹנִין אָמֵן)2 (מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"זב).3 וְעִנְיָן זֶה נִקְרָא "פּוֹרֵס עַל שְׁמַע",ג פּוֹרֵס מִלְּשׁוֹן חֲתִיכָה, כְּמוֹ פְּרוּסָה, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִין אֶלָּא מִקְצָת מִבִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ,ד,4 וּלְאַחַר שֶׁסִּיְּמוּ בִּרְכַּת "יוֹצֵר אוֹר" – אוֹמֵר בִּרְכַּת "אָבוֹת" וּ"גְּבוּרוֹת"5 וּקְדֻשָּׁה וְ"אַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ". וְזֶה נִקְרָא עוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה.ה,6 וְאֵין עוֹשִׂים דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה,ו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם דְּבָרִים שֶׁבִּקְּדֻשָּׁה.ז,7

וְהַשּׁוֹמְעִים רַשָּׁאִים לָלֶכֶת לְדַרְכָּם אַחַר קְדֻשָּׁה,8 אֲבָל הָעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה צָרִיךְ לִגְמֹר כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְפַּלֵּל לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בִּתְפִלַּת י"ח,ח שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְבִרְכ[וֹ]ת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁהוּא מַפְסִיק בָּהֶן, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא בִּרְכַּת "יוֹצֵר אוֹר" בִּלְבַדָּהּ, הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר קָרָא לְעַצְמוֹ תְּחִלָּה קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ, לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע אֵין לָהֶם סֵדֶר,ט שֶׁסִּדְרָן אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב,9 לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן נִתְלוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְסַדֵּר זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ, לָכֵן רַשַּׁאי לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם אִם כְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אֲבָל בִּרְכוֹת הַתְּפִלָּה יֵשׁ לָהֶם סֵדֶרי שֶׁתִקְּנוּ לְסַדְּרָן זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ,10 וְאִם שִׁנָּה סִדְרָן – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ לְסַּדְּרָן עַל הַסֵּדֶר, לְפִי שֶׁכֻּלָּן נִתְלוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ כְּסֵדֶר שֶׁקָּבְעוּ חֲכָמִים, לְפִיכָךְ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְחִיל בְּמִקְצָתָם – צָרִיךְ לִגְמֹר אֶת כֻּלָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן סְדוּרוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ:

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2 Other authorities maintain that the term poreis al Shema [refers to a practice observed] when [a group of people] have not yet recited the Shema and its blessings. One of them recites Kaddish and Barchu and says the blessings of the Shema. The others listen, respond Amen to his [blessings], and thereby fulfill their obligations. (This is why a minor cannot be poreis al Shema,11 for anyone who is not obligated12 [in a particular matter] cannot fulfill the obligation on behalf of someone who is obligated.)13

[According to this interpretation,] the word poreis means “to spread out and present.” It refers to the presentation and ordering of everything recited before the Shema (and afterwards), i.e., Kaddish, Barchu, and the blessings of the Shema. [This interpretation is borne out] by the paraphrase of the Targum, which uses the verb yifros to translate the Hebrew verb meaning “recites the blessing,” in the verse,14 “for he recites the blessing for the sacrifice.”

[Our Sages] instituted this arrangement in order to enable those who are not knowledgeable [and cannot recite the blessings] to fulfill their obligations, just as they did with regard to [the repetition of] Shemoneh Esreh. In the present age, when all are knowledgeable15 and everyone recites the blessings for himself, it is sufficient [for the sheliach tzibbur to recite aloud] only Kaddish and Barchu. After this everyone recites the blessings of the Shema for himself.

If the Shema and its blessings have already been recited, there is no need to go back and repeat even the first of the blessings, neither the person who is leading the prayers [as poreis al Shema], nor the listeners. (For this reason even a minor can be poreis al Shema, as explained in sec. 53[:13]). This is the custom practiced in these countries.

ב וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיא שֶׁהַפּוֹרֵס עַל שְׁמַע הוּא כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא קָרְאוּ קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁאָז אוֹמֵר אֶחָד מֵהֶם קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" וּמְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכוֹת שְׁמַע,יב וְהֵם שׁוֹמְעִין וְעוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן וְיוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן (וּלְפִיכָךְ גַּם כֵּן לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל קָטָן לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע,יג,11 שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב12 – אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא יְדֵי חוֹבָהיד).13 ו"פוֹרֵס" הוּא לְשׁוֹן פְּרוּסָה וְהַצָּעָה,טו וְהוּא כִּנּוּי לְכָל מַה שֶּׁפּוֹרֵס וּמְסַדֵּר לִפְנֵי קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע (וְאַחֲרֶיהָ), דְּהַיְנוּ קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" וּבִרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע.14 "כִּי הוּא יְבָרֵךְ הַזֶּבַח"טז תִּרְגּוּמוֹ "אֲרֵי הוּא יִפְרֹס זְבָחָא".יז

וְתִקְּנוּ כֵּן כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִקְּנוּ בַּתְּפִלָּה.יח אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו שֶׁכֻּלָּם בְּקִיאִים15 וְכָל אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ – דַּי בְּקַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" בִּלְבַד, וְכָל אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ בִּרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע.יט

וְאִם כְּבָר קָרְאוּ קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, לֹא הַפּוֹרֵס וְלֹא הַשּׁוֹמְעִים (וּלְפִיכָךְ גַּם כֵּן קָטָן יָכוֹל לִפְרֹס (מִמַּה) [כְּמוֹ] שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"גכ). וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ:כא

3 Some authorities maintain that the practice of being poreis al Shema be observed in the Evening Service as in the Morning Service. In these countries it is customary to be lenient [and not to require this practice] in the Evening Service, for Kaddish is not said in the Evening Service before Barchu,16 and for Barchu alone, there is no need to be so meticulous. (Nevertheless, if a person wants to undertake a stringency and be poreis al Shema in the Evening Service, one should not protest. Indeed, such a person is worthy of blessing.)

ג יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכב שֶׁפּוֹרְסִין עַל שְׁמַע בְּעַרְבִית כְּמוֹ בְּשַׁחֲרִית. וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל בְּעַרְבִית, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ בְּעַרְבִית קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ",16 וּמִשּׁוּם "בָּרְכוּ" בִּלְבַד אֵין מַקְפִּידִין כָּל כָּךְכג (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֶחָד רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ וְלִפְרֹס בְּעַרְבִית – אֵין מוֹחִין בְּיָדוֹ, וְתָבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָהכד):

4 If a person has not heard Kaddish, Barchu, and Kedushah and desires to be poreis al Shema or to “stand before the ark,” even though there are ten men in the synagogue he must seek out six men — i.e., five in addition to himself — who have not yet heard [these prayers], so that the majority of the quorum [of ten] be constituted by people who have not heard them.

Other authorities maintain that even nine who have already heard [these prayers] may be joined with one who has not, thus enabling him to be poreis [al Shema] and “stand before the ark.” [Their rationale is that] since [those nine] listen to the davar shebikedushah that he recites and respond to it, he is sanctifying G‑d in [a congregation of] ten.

In practice, by initial preference one should seek out six people who have not yet heard [these prayers]. If this number is not to be found, one may rely on the latter view.

According to all authorities, it is not necessary that the person who is poreis [al Shema] be someone who has not heard [these prayers]. Even someone who has already heard [them] may [lead the prayers] and “stand before the ark” on behalf [of a person who has not yet fulfilled his obligation]. This [ruling follows the principle governing] all the mitzvos that depend on speech or hearing: A person who is obligated to observe the practice at hand may fulfill it on behalf of others even though he has already fulfilled his own obligation. He may recite [the required prayer] while they listen, for whoever listens [to a prayer being recited is considered] as if he responded to it.17

Despite [this license], if the person who has not heard [the above-listed prayers] is knowledgeable enough to be poreis al Shema and to “stand before the ark,” it is preferable that he [recite these prayers] rather than [have them recited by] someone who has already heard them and has fulfilled his obligation, as explained in sec. 273[:6] with regard to Kiddush.18 The current custom is that mourners always [recite these prayers]19 even if they have already heard them, and even though there is another person present who has not heard [them] and knows how to [recite them] himself. This is not a proper custom.

It is customary in some places for the sheliach tzibbur to say Barchu every day after the final Kaddish, in order to enable anyone who arrived late at the synagogue and did not hear Barchu to fulfill his obligation.20 Even if it happens that no one arrived at the synagogue after Barchu21 this is not a matter for concern,22 except on Shabbosos and festivals, as will be explained in sec. 133.23 This custom should not be revoked in synagogues, lest strife arise. In Houses of Study, however, where there is no reason to suspect that strife will arise,24 the custom should be instituted that the sheliach tzibbur not recite Barchu unless someone arrives after [that prayer] was [first] recited.25

Nevertheless, the sheliach tzibbur should not [repeat] Barchu for anyone who was present when Barchu was [first] recited and listened and responded with the congregation (if he did not yet reach the blessing Yotzer Or). [This applies] even [if that person] did not recite the blessing Yotzer Or with the congregation because he prolonged his recitation of the order of the daily sacrifice and Pesukei DeZimrah and thus will have to recite Yotzer Or alone — despite the fact that he did not have license to do so, because he should have skipped Pesukei DeZimrah in order to pray with the congregation.26 The same applies if the person heard Barchu from one of the people who received an aliyah to read from the Torah on [Monday or Thursday],27 and responded. This is sufficient, and the sheliach tzibbur should not repeat [Barchu] for him (if he has not yet reached the blessing Yotzer Or).

However, when [this individual] reaches the blessing Yotzer Or, he may recite Kaddish and Barchu if he sees to it that there be nine people who will listen and respond, even though he already heard [Barchu] and responded with the congregation (and they also heard [Barchu] and responded). Nevertheless, since he intends to link [Barchu] to [the blessing] Yotzer Or, he may repeat [it]. (The same applies if he reaches [the blessing] Yotzer Or when the sheliach tzibbur reaches the final Kaddish: the sheliach tzibbur may repeat Barchu for him.)

Similarly, care must be taken in these countries that mourners who are poreis al Shema do not do this on behalf of someone who has already heard Barchu, even if he heard it only from one of the people who received an aliyah to the Torah, (unless [the person for whom he is poreis] will [thereby] link Barchu to [the blessing] Yotzer Or).

It is customary to be poreis al Shema after the whispered recitation of Shemoneh Esreh, for the reason explained in sec. 54[:4].28 All those who have not yet heard Barchu gather at the entrance to the synagogue near the mourners who are poreis al Shema. The result is undesirable, because some of the [other] congregants are still saying Shemoneh Esreh and these people are passing in front of them — and it is forbidden to pass in front of people saying Shemoneh Esreh.29 This warrants attention.

ד מִי שֶׁלֹּא שְׁמַע קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" וּקְדֻשָּׁה וְרוֹצֶה לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע אוֹ לֵירֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת עֲשָׂרָה – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר אַחַר שִׁשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמְעוּ עֲדַיִן, דְּהַיְנוּ חֲמִשָּׁה וְהוּא, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רֹב הַמִּנְיָן מֵאוֹתָם שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמְעוּ.כה

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכו שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ ט' שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ מִצְטָרְפִים לְאֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע שֶׁיּוּכַל לִפְרֹס וְלֵירֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם שׁוֹמְעִים לְדָבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה שֶׁמּוֹצִיא בְּפִיו וְעוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו – הֲרֵי הוּא מְקַדֵּשׁ ה' בַּעֲשָׂרָה.

וּלְעִנְיַן מַעֲשֶׂה – יֵשׁ לַחֲזֹר לְכַתְּחִלָּה אַחַר שִׁשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמְעוּ, וְאִם אֵינָם נִמְצָאִים – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.כז

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁמִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע יִפְרֹס בְּעַצְמוֹ,כח אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁשָּׁמַע כְּבָר יָכוֹל לִפְרֹסכט וְלַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,ל כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא בְּכָל הַמִּצְווֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בְּדִבּוּר אוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעָה, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁמְּחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָא כְּבָר יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן, שֶׁיֹּאמַר הוּא וְהֵם יִשְׁמְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ,לא שֶׁשּׁוֹמֵעַ כְּעוֹנֶה.לב,17

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע הוּא בָּקִי לִפְרֹס וְלַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה – מוּטָב שֶׁיִּפְרֹס וְיַעֲבֹר הוּא מִשֶּׁיִּפְרֹס וְיַעֲבֹר אַחֵר שֶׁכְּבָר שָׁמַע וְיָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,לג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"גלד לְעִנְיַן קִדּוּשׁ.18 וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם הָאֲבֵלִים פּוֹרְסִים שְׁמַע19 וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁמְעוּ וְיֵשׁ אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע וְיוֹדֵעַ לִפְרֹס בְּעַצְמוֹ, וְאֵין מִנְהָג זֶה נָכוֹן.לה

וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹמֵר "בָּרְכוּ" בְּכָל יוֹם אַחַר קַדִּישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן,לו כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא מִי שֶׁמִּתְאַחֵר לָבוֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְלֹא שָׁמַע עֲדַיִן "בָּרְכוּ".20 וְאַף אִם אֵרַע שֶׁלֹּא בָּא אָדָם לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אַחַר "בָּרְכוּ"21 – אֵין מְדַקְדְּקִים בְּכָךְ22 לְבַד מִשַּׁבָּתוֹת וְיוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קל"ג.לז,23 וְאֵין לְבַטֵּל מִנְהָגָם בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, מִפְּנֵי הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת. אֲבָל בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְמַחֲלֹקֶת24 – יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר "בָּרְכוּ", אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּא אֶחָד אַחַר "בָּרְכוּ".לח,25

אֲבָל כָּל מִי שֶׁהָיָה בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת "בָּרְכוּ" וְשָׁמַע וְעָנָה עִם הַצִּבּוּר, אַף שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרַךְ "יוֹצֵר אוֹר" עִם הַצִּבּוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֶאֱרִיךְ בְּסֵדֶר הַתָּמִיד וּבִפְסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לוֹמַר "יוֹצֵר אוֹר" בְּיָחִיד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לְדַלֵּג פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עִם הַצִּבּוּרלט,26 – אֵין לִשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לוֹמַר בָּרְכוּ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ (אִם הוּא עֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיעַ לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר"), הוֹאִיל וְהוּא כְּבָר שָׁמַע וְעָנָה אַחַר "בָּרְכוּ" עִם הַצִּבּוּר. וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם שָׁמַע "בָּרְכוּ" מֵאֶחָד מֵהָעוֹלִים לִקְרוֹת בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה בְּיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה27 וְעָנָה אַחֲרָיו – דַּיּוֹ, וְאֵין הַשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ (אִם לֹא הִגִּיעַ עֲדַיִן לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר"). אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר" – יָכוֹל לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" אִם מַזְמִין לוֹ ט' שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ וְיַעֲנוּ אַחֲרָיו. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר שָׁמַע וְעָנָה עִם הַצִּבּוּר (וְגַם הֵם שָׁמְעוּ וְעָנוּ), מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הוּא בָּא לִסְמֹךְ לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר" – יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְאָמְרוֹ (וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁאִם הִגִּיעַ לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר" כְּשֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הִגִּיעַ לְקַדִּישׁ אַחֲרוֹן – חוֹזֵר הַשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר "בָּרְכוּ" בִּשְׁבִילוֹ).מ וְכֵןצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהָאֲבֵלִים פּוֹרְסִים שְׁמַע, שֶׁלֹּא יִפְרְסוּ בִּשְׁבִיל מִי שֶׁשָּׁמַע בָּרְכוּ אֲפִלּוּ מֵהָאֶחָד הָעוֹלִין לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּא לִסְמֹךְ "בָּרְכוּ" לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר").

נוֹהֲגִין לִפְרֹס שְׁמַע אַחַר תְּפִלַּת י"ח בְּלַחַשׁ מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ד,מא,28 וְכָל אוֹתָם שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמְעוּ בָּרְכוּ מִתְקַבְּצִים אָז לְפֶתַח בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵצֶל הָאֲבֵלִים, שֶׁהֵם פּוֹרְסִים שְׁמַע וְנִמְשָׁךְ מִזֶּה קִלְקוּל שֶׁעֲדַיִן מִקְצָת הַקָּהָל מִתְפַּלְלים וְאֵלּוּ עוֹבְרִין לִפְנֵיהֶם, וְאָסוּר לַעֲבֹר כְּנֶגֶד הַמִּתְפַּלְלין.מב,29 עַל כֵּן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה:מג

5 Even one individual who has already recited Shemoneh Esreh alone, but has not heard Kedushah, may “go down [and stand] before the ark” and repeat the entire Shemoneh Esreh for the sake of the Kedushah. Nevertheless, if one has not already said Shemoneh Esreh, he should not say the whispered Shemoneh Esreh first, unless there are [altogether] six individuals present — the majority of a quorum — who have not yet said Shemoneh Esreh. [These six] are then considered as a congregation in the complete sense.30 They should first say the whispered Shemoneh Esreh, then one of them repeats the Shemoneh Esreh aloud, provided there are nine who will listen and respond Amen.31

If, however, fewer than six people have not said Shemoneh Esreh, the sheliach tzibbur should not say the whispered Shemoneh Esreh first, even if he is one of those who have not yet said [it]. Rather, he should begin immediately by praying aloud, because the basic objective here is the possibility of saying Kedushah.32 (For this reason, he should say only until HaE-l HaKadosh aloud, but no further, for the Sages permitted the recitation of Shemoneh Esreh aloud33 only when repeated by a sheliach tzibbur. This person is not a sheliach tzibbur, for he has no permission to repeat She­moneh Esreh; he is praying only once, solely to fulfill his own obligation.)

ה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ יָחִיד שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע קְדֻשָּׁה יָכוֹל לֵירֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וְלַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה בִּשְׁבִיל הַקְּדֻשָּׁה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל עֲדַיִן – אֵין לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלַחַשׁ תְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שִׁשָּׁה שֶׁהֵם רֹב מִנְיָןמד שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלְלוּ עֲדַיִן שֶׁאָז הֵם כְּמוֹ צִבּוּר גָּמוּר,30 וּמִתְפַּלְלים בְּלַחַשׁ תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹזֵר אֶחָד מֵהֶם הַתְּפִלָּה בְּקוֹל רָם, אִם יֵשׁ ט' שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ וְיַעֲנוּ אָמֵן.מה,31 אֲבָל בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלְלוּ – לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּלַחַשׁ תְּחִלָּה, אֲפִלּוּ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הוּא מֵאוֹתָן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלְלוּ עֲדַיִן, אֶלָּא יַתְחִיל מִיָּד בְּקוֹל רָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי עִקָּר הַכַּוָּנָה הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַקְּדֻשָּׁהמו,32 (וּמִטַּעַם זֶה לֹא יֹאמַר בְּקוֹל רָם אֶלָּא עַד "הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ" וְלֹא יוֹתֵר, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹלוֹ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹמז,33 אֶלָּא בַּחֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בִּלְבַד, וְזֶה אֵינוֹ שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לַחֲזֹר הַתְּפִלָּה, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְפַּלֵּל אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת בִּשְׁבִיל חוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ בִּלְבַדמח):

6 [Consider a situation in which] a person arrived late at the synagogue and heard neither Barchu nor Kedushah, and suspects that there will not be ten men [present] when he reaches Shemoneh Esreh. Some authorities permit such a person to be poreis al Shema and to “stand before the ark” to say Shemoneh Esreh immediately and then to recite the Shema and its blessings, without repeating Shemoneh Esreh. Even though [in this manner] he will not be linking the blessing Gaal Yisrael to Shemoneh Esreh,34 this is no cause for concern, for what he has in mind is to recite Kedushah as part of [a quorum of] ten.

Initially one should not take this leniency, but should pray in the prescribed order and link the blessing Gaal Yisrael to Shemoneh Esreh. If there are ten men in the synagogue [when one reaches Shemoneh Esreh], he should [then] recite the Kedushah. [The rationale is that] one should not make an interruption between the blessing Gaal Yisrael and Shemoneh Esreh in order to [recite] Kedushah,35 (as explained in sec. 66[:10]).

ו מִי שֶׁנִּתְאַחֵר לָבוֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְלֹא שָׁמַע לֹא "בָּרְכוּ" וְלֹא קְדֻשָּׁה, וְחוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִהְיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִתְפִלָּה – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןמט שֶׁיִּפְרֹס וְיַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה מִיָּד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ, וְלֹא יַחֲזֹר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ סוֹמֵךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה34 – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, הוֹאִיל וְכַוָּנָתוֹ לוֹמַר קְדֻשָׁה בַּעֲשָׂרָה. וְאֵין לְהָקֵל בָּזֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֶלָּא יִתְפַּלֵּל כַּסֵּדֶר וְיִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה. וְאִם יִהְיֶה עֲשָׂרָה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – יֹאמַר קְדֻשָּׁה,נ (א) שֶׁאֵין לְהַפְסִיקנא בֵּין גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה מִשּׁוּם קְדֻשָּׁה35 (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"ונב):

7 Neither the sheliach tzibbur nor anyone else may make an interruption between the blessing Gaal Yisrael and the morning Shemoneh Esreh, or within the recitation of the Shema and its blessings, in order to be poreis al Shema for the sake of those who arrived at the synagogue after the congregation responded to Kaddish and Barchu and the sheliach tzibbur already begun the blessing Yotzer Or. If, however, he has not yet begun [that blessing], he should repeat Barchu for those individuals who arrived after the congregation responded to Barchu.

Between the blessing Gaal Yisrael36 and the evening Shemoneh Esreh, by contrast, an interruption is permissible in order to enable others to fulfill their obligation [to respond to] Barchu, because in any case an interruption is made [at this point] with various verses37 and with Kaddish, for the Evening Service is a voluntary matter, as will be explained in sec. 236.38

ז אָסוּר לִשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹ לְאַחֵר לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית אוֹ בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ כְּדֵי לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע לְאוֹתָם שֶׁבָּאוּ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְאַחַר שֶׁעָנוּ הַקָּהָל קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" וְהִתְחִיל כְּבָר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּבִרְכַּת "יוֹצֵר אוֹר",נג אֲבָל אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְחִיל – חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר "בָּרְכוּ" פַּעַם שֵׁנִית בִּשְׁבִיל אוֹתָם שֶׁבָּאוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁעָנוּ הַקָּהָל "בָּרְכוּ".נד אֲבָל בֵּין גְּאֻלָּה36 לִתְפִלָּה שֶׁל עַרְבִית – מֻתָּר לְהַפְסִיק לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בְּ"בָרְכוּ", שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּלֹא זֶה מַפְסִיקִין בֵּין גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה בִּפְסוּקִיםנה,37 וְקַדִּישׁ הוֹאִיל וּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית רְשׁוּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ו:נו,38

8 There is an authority who maintains that [the following stringency should be observed] if a congregation has recited Shemoneh Esreh in a synagogue, [then] another [quorum] of congregants comes to pray according to the order prescribed for congregational prayer, and one of them leads the service so that they can fulfill their obligations with regard to devarim shebikedushah.39 The second sheliach tzibbur should not stand in the same place in which the first one stood if the earlier worshipers are still in the synagogue [even though] they have completed their prayers. For this would cast a slur on the first congregation, giving the impression that they had not fulfilled their obligation by their earlier service, and that this individual was now arising to enable them to fulfill their obligation. If, however, the earlier congregants have left the synagogue, there is no need to be concerned about this.40

If the second congregation do not have a sheliach tzibbur [to lead them], even the sheliach tzibbur from the first congregation may “stand before the ark” once again, in order to [enable] them to fulfill their obligation to [respond to] (devarim shebikedushah. He may go back and once again recite the entire Shemoneh Esreh for them, for the sake of the Kedushah within it, as explained [above].41 He should not, however, repeat the whispered Shemoneh Esreh, nor [the blessing] Yishtabach, nor the blessings of the Shema, for [in the present age] all are knowledgeable [with regard to] the blessings and recite them themselves.)

If the first congregation took out a Torah scroll and read from it, it is customary in certain places that the [congregation] following them not take out a Torah scroll again, to be read from in the same synagogue. Some have explained the custom [by saying that doing so] would impugn [the validity of] a Torah scroll — lest people say that a disqualifying factor was found in the first Torah scroll and that was why a second Torah scroll was taken out. Even if it is the same Torah scroll, the first [congregants] do not [necessarily] recognize it, and they might [assume] that it is a different scroll that was taken out because of a disqualifying factor found in the first.

(However, according to the dictates of the halachah,42 there is no prohibition involved, for impugning [the validity of] the first scroll is a concern only when a person who received an aliyah for the first scroll also read in the second scroll. Even then, there is room for concern only if a person received an aliyah in each of them in direct succession, without any other aliyah intervening, as will be explained in sec. 144.43 How much less [room is there for concern] here, when a significant interruption is made between [the two readings], and besides, different congregations are involved. Certainly there is no need for concern at all [in such a circumstance].)

ח יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרנז שֶׁאִם הִתְפַּלְלוּ צִבּוּר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּבָאוּ צִבּוּר אַחֵר לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל כְּסֵדֶר תְּפִלַּת צִבּוּר שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר אֶחָד מֵהֶם לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁבִּקְּדֻשָּׁה39 – אֵין לִשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַשֵּׁנִי לַעֲמֹד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁעָמַד הָרִאשׁוֹן, אִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עֲדַיִן בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֶלָּא שֶׁהִשְׁלִימוּ סִדְרָם, כִּי זֶה גְּנַאי לָרִאשׁוֹנִים כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וְעוֹמֵד זֶה לְהוֹצִיאָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן. אֲבָל אִם יָצְאוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵין לָחוּשׁ לָזֶה.נח,40

וְאִם אֵין שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לָאַחֲרוֹנִים – יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לֵירֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה שֵׁנִית לְהוֹצִיאָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָןנט (בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה, וְיָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל לָהֶם כָּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח בִּשְׁבִיל הַקְּדֻשָּׁה שֶׁבָּהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,ס,41 אֲבָל לֹא תְּפִלַּת לַחַשׁ, וְלֹא "יִשְׁתַּבַּח" וּבִרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, שֶׁכֻּלָּם בְּקִיאִים וְכָל אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ).

וְאִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הוֹצִיאוּ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְקָרְאוּ בּוֹ – נוֹהֲגִים בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הָאַחֲרוֹנִים מוֹצִיאִים סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֵׁנִית לִקְרוֹת בְּאוֹתוֹ בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת.סא וְיֵשׁ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ טַעַם לְמִנְהָגָםסב שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם פְּגָמוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ שֶׁמָּצְאוּ פְּסוּל בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמִפְּנֵי כָּךְ הוֹצִיאוּ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שְׁנִיָּה. וְאַף אִם הוּא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה הָא' עַצְמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אֵין מַכִּירִין אוֹתָהּ, וְשֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ שֶׁהִיא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ מִשּׁוּם פְּסוּל שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה (אֲבָל מִן הַדִּין42 אֵין שׁוּם אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר, שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לִפְגָמוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹנָה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעוֹלֶה לִקְרוֹת בַּשְּׁנִיָּה מִי שֶׁעָלָה כְּבָר בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְגַם בָּזֶה אֵין לָחוּשׁ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעוֹלֶה וְקוֹרֵא בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם זֶה אַחַר זֶה מִיָּד בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק אִישׁ בֵּינְתַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קמ"ד,סג,43 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן כָּאן שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין בֵּינְתַיִם הַרְבֵּה וְגַם הוּא צִבּוּר אַחֵר, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי אֵין לָחוּשׁ לִכְלוּם):

9 A blind person, even one who was blind, may be poreis al Shema,44 even at times when the one who is poreis recites the blessing Yotzer hameoros45 to enable others to fulfill their obligation. [The rationale is that] he, too, is obligated to recite the blessing Yotzer hameoros like sighted people, for he benefits from the luminaries which they see, and which enable them to see him and show him the way to proceed.46

ט סוּמָא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה מְאוֹרוֹת מִיָּמָיו – יָכוֹל לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע,סד,44 אֲפִלּוּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַפּוֹרֵס הָיָה מְבָרֵךְ גַּם "יוֹצֵר הַמְּאוֹרוֹת"45 לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,סה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגַּם הוּא חַיָּב בְּבִרְכַּת "יוֹצֵר הַמְּאוֹרוֹת" כְּמוֹ אֲחֵרִים הַפִּקְחִים,סו לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה בִּמְאוֹרוֹת שֶׁרוֹאִין הַפִּקְחִין, שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לִרְאוֹתוֹ וּלְהוֹרוֹת אוֹתוֹ הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלֵךְ בָּהּ:סז,46