SECTION 58 Laws Relating to the Recitation of the Shema and Its Blessings. (1–11)

סימן נח הִלְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 The recitation of the Shema in the morning and the evening is a Scriptural [obligation], as it is written,1 “[And you shall speak of them...] when you lie down and when you rise.”2

Some authorities maintain that [this] Scriptural [obligation] involves only [reciting] the first passage [of the Shema], whereas the phrase3 “when you lie down and when you rise” in the second passage relates [only] to [teaching one’s sons to study] the words of the Torah.4 Others maintain that [the recitation of] the second passage is also a Scriptural [obligation]. [Still] others maintain that only [the recitation of] the first verse, Shema Yisrael... is a Scriptural [obligation], and that the verse, “And you shall speak of them... when you lie down and when you rise” refers to the first verse alone.5

As to the passage concerning tzitzis [whose recitation] was ordained to recall the Exodus from Egypt,6 all authorities agree that it [has the status of] a Rabbinic ordinance if one [has recalled] the Exodus from Egypt independently, as will be explained in sec. 67[:1].

(Nevertheless, [since the recitation of the Shema is] a Scriptural [obligation], a person who is spiritually conscientious should be stringent in his own [conduct] with regard to all the practical consequences of these different views, as will be explained.)

א קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שַׁחֲרִית וְעַרְבִית הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,א שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ב,1 "וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ".2

יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםג שֶׁפָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה בִּלְבַד הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וּמַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּפָרָשָׁה שְׁנִיָּהד,3 "וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ" – בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר.ה,4 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםו שֶׁגַּם פָּרָשָׁה ב' הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםז שֶׁפָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא "שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל" הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וּמַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַרח "וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם כו' וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ" – הוּא מוּסָב עַל פָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד.ט,5 אֲבָל פָּרָשַׁת צִיצִית שֶׁתִּקְּנוּהָ מִשּׁוּם זְכִירַת יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִםי,6 – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל הִיא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּיר יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,יא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"זיב (וּבַעַל נֶפֶשׁ יַחֲמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁנּוֹגֵעַ לְמַעֲשֶׂה בְּחִלּוּקֵי סְבָרוֹת אֵלּוּ,יג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְפָנֵינוּ):

2 According to Scriptural Law, (the statutory time for the recitation of the morning Shema) [begins] at dawn,7 for at that time some people customarily rise from their beds.8 Though they are few in number, the Torah states “when you rise” in the singular, thereby indicating that [the time] is determined in accordance with the minority as well.9 If one recites [the Shema] before [dawn] he does not fulfill his obligation according to Scriptural Law, for though there are also some people who rise before dawn, this is an irregular occurrence and [the time] is not determined according to it.

The Sages ordained a safety margin whereby, as the initially preferred option, [the Shema]10 not be recited until the time at which most people rise from their beds, i.e., when the day is bright enough to enable one to see and recognize an acquaintance at a distance of four cubits.11 [We are speaking of an acquaintance] with whom one is slightly familiar. For if one is very familiar with him, he will recognize him even from afar, and if he is not familiar with him, he will not recognize him even if they are close. [I.e., we are speaking of someone] like an occasional visitor.

ב (זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית) מִן הַתּוֹרָהיד הוּא מִשֶּׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר,7 שֶׁאָז מִקְצָת בְּנֵי אָדָםטו רְגִילִים לָקוּם מִמִּטָּתָם.8 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מוּעָטִים,טז הֲרֵי אָמְרָהּ תּוֹרָה "וּבְקוּמֶךָ"יז לְשׁוֹן יָחִיד,יח לוֹמַר שֶׁהוֹלְכִין אַף אַחַר הַמִּעוּט.9 אֲבָל הַקּוֹרֵא קֹדֶם לָכֵן – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁאַף שֶׁמִּקְצָת בְּנֵי אָדָם קָמִים גַּם כֵּן קֹדֶם עֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר – מִקְרֶה הוּא,יט וְאֵין הוֹלְכִין אַחֲרָיו.

וַחֲכָמִים עָשׂוּ הַרְחָקָה וְגָדֵר, וְתִקְּנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא לְכַתְּחִלָּה10 עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁדַּרְכָּן שֶׁל רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָםכ לָקוּם מִמִּטָּתָם, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּאִיר הַיּוֹם כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיִּרְאֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּרִחוּק ד' אַמּוֹת וְיַכִּירֶנּוּ.כא,11 וְהוּא שֶׁרָגִיל עִמּוֹ קְצָת, שֶׁאִם רָגִיל עִמּוֹ הַרְבֵּה – יַכִּירֶנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ מֵרָחוֹק הַרְבֵּה, וְאִם אֵינוֹ רָגִיל עִמּוֹ כְּלָל – לֹא יַכִּירֶנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּקָרוֹב, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ אַכְסַנְיָא שֶׁרָגִיל לָבוֹא לְקֵץ עִתִּים:כב

3 The time for [the recitation of the Shema] extends until three hours12 after the beginning of its statutory time according to Scriptural Law — dawn.13 [The rationale is that] there are a few people, such as princes, who habitually rise from their beds at the end of the third hour of the day.

These hours are “seasonal”; i.e., the day,14 whether long or short, is divided into twelve hours. Thus one fourth of the day[light hours] is always the time for the recitation of the Shema, whether the day is long or short. One should therefore be careful in the winter to recite the Shema early, for the days are short and a fourth of the day is thus a brief [period].15

ג וְנִמְשָׁךְ זְמַנָּהּכג עַד סוֹףכד ג' שָׁעוֹת12 מֵעֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַרכה שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת זְמַנָּהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,13 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ קְצָת בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁרְגִילִים לָקוּם מִמִּטָּתָם בְּסוֹף ג' שָׁעוֹתכו עַל הַיּוֹם, כְּגוֹן בְּנֵי מְלָכִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם.כז

וְשָׁעוֹת אֵלּוּכח הֵם זְמַנִּיּוֹת, שֶׁכָּל יוֹם14 בֵּין אָרֹךְ בֵּין קָצָר נֶחֱלָק לְי"ב שָׁעוֹת, וְנִמְצָא לְעוֹלָם רְבִיעַ הַיּוֹם הוּא זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בֵּין בְּיוֹם אָרֹךְ בֵּין בְּיוֹם קָצָר. וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵרכט בִּימוֹת הַחֹרֶף לְמַהֵר לִקְרֹא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, מֵאַחַר שֶׁהַיּוֹם קָצָר וּרְבִיעַ הַיּוֹם קָצָר הוּא:15

4 The superior manner of observing the mitzvah is not to recite [the Shema] as soon as the above-defined degree of daylight appears, but to follow in the steps of the vasikin, the pious men who cherished mitzvos.16 They would time17 the recitation of the Shema for slightly before sunrise18 so that they could conclude its recitation and its blessings, i.e., [to the end of the blessing] Gaal Yisrael, at the moment of sunrise — for this is the optimal time for [the recitation of] Shemoneh Esreh, as will be explained in sec. 89[:1]. They would [then] recite Shemoneh Esreh immediately in order to recite [the blessing] Gaal Yisrael in direct proximity to Shemoneh Esreh.19 If one can schedule this [recitation] precisely,17 his reward is very great and he is assured of [a portion in] the World to Come.

(20One who cannot schedule this [recitation] so precisely should not recite the Shema and Shemoneh Esreh early, before sunrise, but after sunrise, for the optimum time for [the recitation of] Shemoneh Esreh is after sunrise, whereas — [even] by initial preference — the time for the recitation of the Shema extends until a fourth of the day has elapsed. Those who cherished the mitzvos would recite it earlier not because of an obligation [associated with] the recitation of the Shema, but rather so that they could synchronize the recitation of Shemoneh Esreh with the first glimmer of sunlight, i.e., with the beginning of sunrise,21 as explained in sec. 89[:1].

(However, some authorities maintain that [those people] recited the Shema early, before sunrise, also because of an obligation [associated with] the recitation of the Shema, whose optimal time is the time at which most people rise, as explained above. Most people rise before sunrise; it is only people like princes who sleep after sunrise. Accordingly, if one cannot schedule [his recitation] so precisely as to follow in the steps of the vasikin, there is no way for him to recite [the blessing] Gaal Yisrael in direct proximity to Shemoneh Esreh in the optimal manner — unless he can see to it that his recitation of at least the first passage of the Shema definitely precede sunrise and his recitation of Shemoneh Esreh definitely follow sunrise, [even though by doing so he will lack the merit of] reciting Shemoneh Esreh at the first glimmer of sunlight.

(If he cannot be precise enough to accomplish even this, he should opt for reciting the Shema and its blessings before sunrise and then recite Shemoneh Esreh after sunrise, without directly linking [the blessing] Gaal Yisrael to Shemoneh Esreh.

(The halachah follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, it is proper to give weight to the second opinion and recite at least the first passage [of the Shema] before sunrise. [This may be done] even though one has not yet put on tzitzis and tefillin.22 Then, after sunrise, he should recite [the Shema] in its entirety with its blessings, reciting [the blessing] Gaal Yisrael in direct proximity to Shemoneh Esreh.23)

ד וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָרל שֶׁלֹּא לִקְרוֹתָהּ מִיָּד שֶׁהֵאִיר הַיּוֹם כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,לא אֶלָּא כְּוָתִיקִיןלב,16 שֶׁהָיוּ מְכַוְּנִים17 לִקְרוֹתָהּ מְעַט קֹדֶם הָנֵּץ הַחַמָּה18 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּסַיְּמוּ קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ דְּהַיְנוּ "גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל"לג עִם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, שֶׁאָז הוּא זְמַן תְּפִלָּה לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן פ"ט,לד וְיִתְפַּלְלוּ מִיָּד כְּדֵי לִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה.לה,19 וּמִי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְכַוֵּן וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן17 – שְׂכָרוֹ מְרֻבֶּה מְאֹד,לו וּמֻבְטָח לוֹ שֶׁהוּא בֶּן עוֹלָם הַבָּא.לז

(וּמִי20 שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן – אֵין לְהַקְדִּים לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל קֹדֶם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה אֶלָּא אַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזְּמַן הַתְּפִלָּה לְכַתְּחִלָּה הוּא אַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, וּזְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע נִמְשָׁךְ עַד רְבִיעַ הַיּוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁהַוָּתִיקִין שֶׁהָיוּ מַקְדִּימִין לִקְרוֹת קֹדֶם נֵץ הַחַמָּה מְעַט – לֹא הָיוּ מַקְדִּימִין מִשּׁוּם חוֹבַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,לח אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְכַוֵּן לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּדִמְדּוּמֵי חַמָּהלט דְּהַיְנוּ בִּתְחִלַּת יְצִיאָתָהּ,21 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן פ"ט.מ

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמא שֶׁגַּם מִשּׁוּם חוֹבַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע הָיוּ מַקְדִּימִין לִקְרוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם נֵץ הַחַמָּה, לְפִי שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִקְרוֹתָהּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא שְׁעַת קִימָה לְרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,מב וְעַד נֵץ הַחַמָּה קָמִים רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם, שֶׁאֵין יְשֵׁנִים אַחַר נֵץ הַחַמָּה אֶלָּא בְּנֵי מְלָכִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם.מג לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְכַוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּוָתִיקִיןמד – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוּכַל לְכַוֵּן שֶׁיִּקְרָא לְפָחוֹת פָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה קֹדֶם נֵץ הַחַמָּה וַדַּאי, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר נֵץ הַחַמָּה וַדַּאי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּלֵּל בְּדִמְדּוּמֵי חַמָּה.מה וְאִם גַּם זֶה לֹא יוּכַל לְכַוֵּן – יִקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ קֹדֶם נֵץ הַחַמָּה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה וְלֹא יִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה.מו

וְהָעִקָּרמז כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נָכוֹן לָחוּשׁמח לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה וְלִקְרֹא לְפָחוֹת פָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה קֹדֶם נֵץ הַחַמָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא לָבַשׁ צִיצִית וּתְפִלִּין,מט,22 וְאַחַר נֵץ הַחַמָּה יִקְרָאֶנָּה כֻּלָּהּ עִם בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָנ וְיִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה):23

5 If one did not recite [the Shema] before sunrise, he should endeavor to recite it as early as possible, provided that he has tzitzis and tefillin24 (and a minyan to pray with,25 and [that he be able] to recite [the blessing] Gaal Yisrael in direct proximity to Shemoneh Esreh).

ה אִם לֹא קָרָא אוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם נֵץ הַחַמָּה – יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַקְדִּים לִקְרוֹתָהּ בִּמְהֵרָה כָּל מַה שֶּׁיּוּכַל,נא אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ צִיצִית וּתְפִלִּיןנב,24 (וְצִבּוּר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עִמָּהֶם25 וְלִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּהנג):

6 [The following rule applies to] one who is prevented [from reciting the Shema at the desired time] because of forces beyond his control, e.g., he rose early to depart on a journey26 immediately after dawn to a place where there are bands of wild animals and robbers and he will have to proceed hurriedly. Thus he will not be able to pause in one place when the time for the recitation of the Shema arrives, nor will he be able to concentrate when reciting it, not even on the first verse alone. Similarly, [the following rule applies if] the members of a caravan are proceeding hurriedly and they will not wait at all on the way to enable him to pause and concentrate when the time for the recitation of the Shema arrives.

[In these and similar situations,] one may recite the Shema at home immediately at dawn27 and [proceed to] recite [the blessing] Gaal Yisrael in direct proximity to Shemoneh Esreh and pray, as stated in sec. 89[:9]. The rationale is that because of the factors beyond his control, [the Sages] relied on the Scriptural mandate that the time [for the recitation of the Shema begins] at dawn.28

Some authorities maintain that this law also applies when there is a funeral in town, or a circumcision,29 or it is Hoshana Rabbah when many supplications are recited after Shemoneh Esreh and people must hurry and pray — at such times the Shema may be recited from the moment of dawn.

In any case, the blessing Yotzer Or may not be recited as early as this30 — not until at least [the time at which] it becomes possible to differentiate between the techeiles and the white [threads in the tzitzis].31

ו מִי שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה מַשְׁכִּים לָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ26 מִיָּד שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַרנד לִמְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיָּה וְלִסְטִים, שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לָלֶכֶת בִּמְהֵרָה וְלֹא יוּכַל לַעֲמֹד עַל מָקוֹם אֶחָד כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְלֹא לְכַוֵּן בִּקְרִיאָתָהּנה אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָסוּק רִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד,נו אוֹ שֶׁבְּנֵי הַשַּׁיָּרָא הוֹלְכִים בִּמְהֵרָה וְלֹא יַמְתִּינוּ כְּלָל בַּדֶּרֶךְנז כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁי[וּכַ]ל לַעֲמֹד וּלְכַוֵּן – יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹתָהּ בְּבֵיתוֹ מִיָּד שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר27 וְיִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה וְיִתְפַּלֵּלנח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסוֹף סִימָן פ"ט,נט לְפִי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם אֹנֶס הֶעֱמִידוּ עַל דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁמִּשֶּׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר זְמַנָּהּ הוּא.ס,28 וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרסא שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ קְבוּרַת מֵת בָּעִיר, אוֹ מִילָה,29 אוֹ יוֹם עֲרָבָה שֶׁמַּרְבִּים בְּתַחֲנוּנִים אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה, וּצְרִיכִים לְמַהֵר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל – יְכוֹלִים לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע מִשֶּׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר.

מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהַקְדִּים לוֹמַר "יוֹצֵר אוֹר" כָּל כָּךְ בַּהַשְׁכָּמָה,30 עַד שֶׁיַּכִּיר עַל כָּל פָּנִים בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְלָבָן:סב,31

7 [Different rules apply,] however, if one rises early to depart on a journey in a place where there are no bands of wild animals and robbers and the members of his caravan are not so rushed on that journey and thus he will be able to pause and concentrate — at least for the first verse32 alone — when the time for the recitation of the Shema arrives. [In such a case] he should not recite the Shema at home even though it is already dawn. Instead, he should recite it in the midst of his journey when the time for the recitation of the Shema arrives. (What he should do with regard to the recitation of Shemoneh Esreh is explained at the end of sec. 89[:9].)

ז אֲבָל מִי שֶׁמַּשְׁכִּים לָצֵאת בַּדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיָּה וְלִסְטִים, וְגַם אֵין בְּנֵי הַשַּׁיָּרָא נֶחְפָּזִים כָּל כָּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לַעֲמֹד וּלְכַוֵּןסג אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָסוּק רִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַדסד,32 כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע – לֹא יִקְרָא בְּבֵיתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר, אֶלָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע (וְהֵיאַךְ יִנְהַג עִם הַתְּפִלָּה – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסוֹף סִימָן פ"טסה):

8 If one recited the Shema immediately at dawn even though he was under no compulsion to do so, he has fulfilled his obligation — for either way,33 after the fact, [the Sages] relied on the Scriptural mandate.

If he recited [the Shema] without its blessings, he should recite it again at the proper time together with its blessings, for though he already fulfilled his obligation to recite it, he does not forfeit its blessings, as will be explained in sec. 60[:2].

ח אִם קְרָאָהּ מִיָּד שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אָנוּס – יָצָא,סו שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד הֶעֱמִידוּהוּ עַל דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה בְּכָל עִנְיָן.סז,33

וְאִם קָרָא בְּלֹא בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ – יַחֲזֹר לִקְרוֹתָהּ בִּזְמַנָּהּ בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ,סח שֶׁאַף שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע – לֹא הִפְסִיד בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס':סט

9 [The following rule applies to] a person who was prevented from reciting the evening Shema during the night because of forces beyond his control and [therefore] should recite it after dawn, as will be stated in sec. 235.34 [This person] also rose early to depart on a journey to a place where there are bands of wild animals and robbers in circumstances that allow for [the leniency of] reciting the morning Shema immediately at dawn. [At that time, however,] he may not recite the Shema twice, once for the night and once for the day.

The rationale is that since he deemed that time night,35 he cannot reverse his stance and deem it day. Instead, he should recite the Shema for the night because the time for its recitation is passing,36 for after sunrise he may not recite it at all, as will be explained there. As to [the Shema of] the morning, he should wait for a possible opportunity to recite it at its proper statutory time.

ט מִי שֶׁהָיָה אָנוּס וְלֹא קָרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע עַרְבִית בַּלַּיְלָה, שֶׁהוּא קוֹרְאָהּ אַחַר שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ה,ע,34 וְהוּא מַשְׁכִּים גַּם כֵּן לָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ לִמְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיָּה וְלִסְטִים בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לִקְרֹא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית מִיָּד שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַרעא – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִקְרֹא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע ב' פְּעָמִים, אַחַת בִּשְׁבִיל לַיְלָה וְאַחַת בִּשְׁבִיל יוֹם, שֶׁמֵּאַחַר שֶׁעָשָׂה לְאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה לַיְלָה35 – אִי אֶפְשָׁר לַחֲזֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ יוֹם,עב (א) אֶלָּא יִקְרָא בִּשְׁבִיל קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל לַיְלָהעג שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ עוֹבֵר,36 שֶׁאַחַר נֵץ הַחַמָּה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִקְרוֹתָהּ כְּלָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, וְשֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית יַמְתִּין אוּלַי יִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ לִקְרוֹתָהּ בִּזְמַנָּהּ כְּהִלְכָתָהּ:עד

10 The time for [the recitation of the Shema] extends until the end of the third hour.37 Nevertheless, if the third hour passed without one’s having recited it, one may recite it with its blessings until the end of the fourth hour, which is a third of the day — as is the law regarding the morning Shemoneh Esreh, which may be recited until a third of the day [has passed].

[One who recites it at this time] is rewarded for reciting it as if he were reading the Torah, but not like one who recites [the Shema] at its proper time. For the latter’s reward surpasses that of a person engaging in Torah study at any time throughout the day, even at times other than the due times for the recitation of the Shema and Shemoneh Esreh.38

If the fourth hour passed without one’s having reciting it, it may no longer be recited with its blessings.39 One may, however, recite it without its blessings [at any time] throughout the day. Indeed, it is desirable that one recite it so that he [thereby] accept the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven.40 (Some authorities maintain that one may recite [the Shema] with its blessings throughout the entire day. The halachah, however, follows the first opinion.)

י אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ נִמְשָׁךְ עַד סוֹף שָׁעָה ג',עה,37 אִם עָבְרָה שָׁעָה ג' וְלֹא קְרָאָהּ – קוֹרְאָהּ בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָעו כָּל שָׁעָה ד'עז שֶׁהוּא שְׁלִישׁ הַיּוֹם, כְּדִין תְּפִלַּת הַשַּׁחַר שֶׁהִיא עַד שְׁלִישׁ הַיּוֹם.עח וְאֵין לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל קְרִיאָתָהּ אֶלָּא כְּקוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה,עט אֲבָל לֹא כְּמִי שֶׁקּוֹרְאָהּ בִּזְמַנָּהּ,פ שֶׁאָז שְׂכָרוֹ גָּדוֹל מֵהָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָהפא כָּל הַיּוֹם אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה.פב,38 וְאִם עָבְרָה שָׁעָה ד' וְלֹא קְרָאָהּ – שׁוּב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹתָהּ עִם בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ.פג,39 אֲבָל בְּלֹא בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹתָהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם.פד וְטוֹב שֶׁיִּקְרָאֶנָּהפה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִםפו,40 (וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפז שֶׁיָכוֹל לִקְרוֹתָהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ.פח וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהפט):

11 If one did not recite it during the day, there are those who maintain that he may compensate [for that lack by reciting it twice] at night. First, he should recite [the Shema] of the evening and then [repeat it as compensation] for the morning. Similarly, [those authorities hold that] if one did not recite the Shema in the evening, he may compensate for it at the morning [recitation] — just as with Shemoneh Esreh:41 if one did not recite Shemoneh Esreh in the evening, he should recite [it] twice in the morning.

Other authorities hold that [the Shema] is not comparable to the prayer of Shemoneh Esreh, which is a request for compassion — and one may make one’s requests at any time or hour.42 In the case of the Shema, by contrast, the Torah linked one recitation to the time people lie down to sleep and the other recitation to the time people rise. How, then, can [the Shema] for [the time one] lies down be recited at the time one rises, or that for rising [be recited] at the time one lies down? Concerning this [may be applied] the verse,43 “A wrong that cannot be righted.” (The halachah follows this view.)

All the above44 applies to the Shema itself. With regard to its blessings, all agree that they may be recited only at their appropriate time. (For how could one say Yotzer Or45 in the evening or Asher BiDevaro Maariv Aravim46 during the morning? As to the blessings that follow [the Shema], they are a continuation of the initial blessings.)47

יא אִם לֹא קְרָאָהּ בַּיּוֹם, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִין בְּעַרְבִית, שֶׁיִּקְרָא תְּחִלָּה שֶׁל עַרְבִית וְאַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית.צא וְכֵן אִם לֹא קָרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל עַרְבִית יֵשׁ לָהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִין בְּשַׁחֲרִית, כְּמוֹ בִּתְפִלָּה41 שֶׁאִם לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית מִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית שְׁתַּיִם.צב וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצג שֶׁאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִתְפִלָּה שֶׁהִיא בַּקָּשַׁת רַחֲמִים וְיָכוֹל לְבַקֵּשׁ בְּכָל עֵת וּבְכָל שָׁעָה,צד,42 אֲבָל קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע תָּלָה הַכָּתוּב זוֹ בִּזְמַן שְׁכִיבָה וְזוֹ בִּזְמַן קִימָה, וְאֵיךְ יִקְרָא שֶׁל שְׁכִיבָה בִּזְמַן קִימָה אוֹ שֶׁל קִימָה בִּזְמַן שְׁכִיבָה,צה וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר:צו,43 "מְעֻוָּת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן" כו' (וְכֵן עִקָּרצז).

וְכָל זֶה44 בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בִּלְבַדָּהּ, אֲבָל בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָמְרָן אֶלָּא בִּזְמַנָּןצח (כִּי הֵיאַךְ יֹאמַר "יוֹצֵר אוֹר"45 בָּעֶרֶב וַ"אֲשֶׁר בִּדְבָרוֹ מַעֲרִיב עֲרָבִים"46 בַּבֹּקֶר,צט וּבְרָכוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת הֵן סְמוּכוֹת לָרִאשׁוֹנוֹתק):47