SECTION 57 Laws Relating to the Recitation of Barchu and the [Congregation’s] Response to It. (1-5)

סימן נז דִּין "בָּרְכוּ" וַעֲנִיָּיתוֹ וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 The sheliach tzibbur must recite Barchu es A-donai HaMevorach in a loud voice1 so that the entire congregation hear and respond Baruch A-donai HaMevorach LeOlam Vaed.

א הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "בָּרְכוּ אֶת ה' הַמְבֹרָךְ"א בְּקוֹל רָם,ב,1 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ כָּל הַקָּהָל וְיַעֲנוּ אַחֲרָיו "בָּרוּךְ ה' הַמְבֹרָךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד":

2 [There is a difference of opinion as to how the congregation should respond] if the sheliach tzibbur recited [Barchu] in a hushed tone. Some authorities maintain that a congregant who did not hear him say Barchu, but [merely] heard the surrounding congregants responding Baruch A-donai..., may not respond [Baruch A-donai] together with them.2 Instead, he should respond Amen after them.

Others maintain that if nine heard him say Barchu and they responded, the entire congregation may answer together with them since there are ten people present who are reciting a davar shebikedushah.3 The halachah follows this position, as will be explained in sec. 124[:11]. (See the gloss of Magen Avraham to that section.)

ב וְאִם אָמַר בְּלַחַשׁ, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםג שֶׁמִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע (א) מִמֶּנּוּ "בָּרְכוּ" אֶלָּא שָׁמַע הַקָּהָל שֶׁסְּבִיבָיו עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו "בָּרוּךְ ה' כו'" – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם,2 אֶלָּא עוֹנֶה אַחֲרֵיהֶם אָמֵן.

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרד שֶׁאִם ט' שָׁמְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ "בָּרְכוּ" וְעוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו – יְכוֹלִים כָּל הַקָּהָל לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה הָאוֹמְרִים דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדוּשָׁה.3 וְכֵן עִקָּר,ה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קכ"דו (עיין במגן אברהם שם):ז

3 The sheliach tzibbur must also repeat Baruch A-donai...[after the congregation] so as not to exclude himself from the collective, [as it would appear] if he were to enjoin them to “bless G‑d” [by saying Barchu], while he himself did not bless [Him]. Even though [in Barchu] he [described G‑d] as HaMevorach (“the blessed”) and thus did not utterly exclude himself from the collective,4 he must include himself fully in the collective [by] saying Baruch A-donai HaMevorach..., as the congregation did.5 (See sec. 192[:1].)6

ג וְצָרִיךְ הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר לַחֲזֹר וְלוֹמַר "בָּרוּךְ ה' וְכו'",ח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא אֶת עַצְמוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל, שֶׁאוֹמֵר לָהֶם "בָּרְכוּ" וְהוּא אֵינוֹ "מְבָרֵךְ". וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר "הַמְבֹרָךְ" וְלֹא הוֹצִיא עַצְמוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל לְגַמְרֵיט,4 – צָרִיךְ הוּא לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת עַצְמוֹ לַכְּלָל לְגַמְרֵי וְלוֹמַר "בָּרוּךְ ה' הַמְבֹרָךְ"י כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ הַצִּבּוּר5 (עַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סִימָן (קצ"ג) [קצ"ב]):יא,6

4 It is customary for the sheliach tzibbur to prolong his recitation of [the first word] Barchu and for the congregation to recite [the refrain beginning] Yisbarech VeYishtabach...7 while he [proceeds to] sing8 at length. However, when he [then] says the words [that follow], it is forbidden to say anything. Instead, one must listen attentively, as [is required] for Kaddish. Therefore, if the sheliach tzibbur does not sing at great length [between words] but rather enunciates the words slowly, [this refrain] should not be recited at all.

ד וְנָהֲגוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר מַאֲרִיךְ בְּ"בָרְכוּ"יב וְהַקָּהָל אוֹמְרִים "יִתְבָּרֵךְ וְיִשְׁתַּבַּח כו'"7 בְּעוֹד שֶׁהוּא מַאֲרִיךְ בַּנִּגּוּן.8 אֲבָל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹמֵר הַתֵּבוֹת – אָסוּר לוֹמַר כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְכַוֵּן וְלִשְׁמֹעַ כְּמוֹ בַּקַּדִּישׁ.יג וְלָכֵן אִם אֵין הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר מַאֲרִיךְ כָּל כָּךְ בְּנִגּוּן אֶלָּא בְּחִתּוּךְ הָאוֹתִיּוֹת – אֵין לְאָמְרוֹ כְּלָל:

5 A community in which it is customary for [an aggrieved congregant] to publicly voice [a demand for justice],9 or to speak of other communal needs, [after] Kaddish and Barchu [and before the blessing] Yotzer Or, is acting in error. For it is forbidden to make an interruption between these [prayers] even for the sake of a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 54[:3].

ה מָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לִצְעֹק9 עַל חַבְרֵיהֶם בֵּין קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" לְ"יוֹצֵר אוֹר", אוֹ לְדַבֵּר בְּצָרְכֵי רַבִּים – טוֹעִים הֵם,יד שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,טו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ד:טז