SECTION 55 Laws Relating to Kaddish. (1-26)

סימן נה דִּינֵי קַדִּישׁ וּבוֹ כ"ו סְעִיפִים:

1 Kaddish1 is recited whenever there is a break in a prayer service. No fewer than seven Kaddeishim2 should be recited every day, recalling the verse,3 “Seven times a day do I praise You.” [Kaddish is recited] at the following junctures:

[(a)] after Pesukei DeZimrah, for at this point this series of verses comes to an end;

[(b)] after Shemoneh Esreh, for it is a mitzvah in its own right and is not linked to [the prayers] that follow it;4

[(c)] after the recitation of the Order of Kedushah in [the prayer] U’Va LeTziyon, for it, too, is considered a davar shebikedushah;5

[(d)] after Ashrei in the Afternoon Service, for it is a mitzvah in its own right, since “Whoever recites Tehillah LeDavid three times every day is assured of a share in the World to Come”;6

[(e)] after the Shemoneh Esreh of the Afternoon Service, for it is a mitzvah in its own right;

[(f)] after7 the blessings that accompany the recitation of Shema in the Evening Service, for the reason explained in sec. 236;8

[(g)] after the Evening Service, for the prayer service has been completed.

These seven are obligatory for congregational prayer; the remainder are customary.9 It is appropriate that every individual make a point of responding to at least ten Kaddeishim every day.10

א אוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ1 בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְסֵק בְּסֵדֶר הַתְּפִלָּה,א וְהֵם לֹא פָּחוֹת מִז' קַדִּישִׁים2 בְּכָל יוֹם, עַל שֵׁםב,3 "שֶׁבַע בַּיּוֹם הִלַּלְתִּיךָ".ג וְאֵלּוּ הֵם:ד א' אַחַר פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה,ה שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא הֶפְסֵק סֵדֶר הַפְּסוּקִים. ב' אַחַר סִיּוּם תְּפִלַּת י"ח,ו שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְאֵינָהּ דְּבוּקָה לְמַה שֶּׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ.4 ג' אַחַר סֵדֶר קְדֻשַּׁת "וּבָא לְצִיּוֹן",ז שֶׁהוּא גַּם כֵּן דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה.ח,5 ד' אַחַר "אַשְׁרֵי" לְמִנְחָה,ט שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, שֶׁכָּל הָאוֹמֵר "תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד" בְּכָל יוֹם ג' פְּעָמִים – מֻבְטָח לוֹ שֶׁהוּא בֶּן עוֹלָם הַבָּא.י,6 ה' אַחַר סִיּוּם תְּפִלַּת י"ח שֶׁל מִנְחָה,יא שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. ו' אַחַר7 בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל עַרְבִית, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רל"ו.יב,8 ז' אַחַר תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית,יג שֶׁכְּבָר נִשְׁלְמָה הַתְּפִלָּה.

וְז' אֵלּוּ הֵן חוֹבָהיד כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִין בְּצִבּוּר, וְהַשְּׁאָר מִנְהָג.טו,9 וְרָאוּי לְכָל אָדָם לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִפְחֹת מִלַּעֲנוֹת י' קַדִּישִׁים בְּכָל יוֹם:טז,10

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2 Every davar shebikedushah, such as Kaddish, Barchu, or Kedushah, may be recited only in the presence of [a quorum of] ten [adult men], as [implied by the verse],11 ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל — “And I will be sanctified in the midst of the Children of Israel.”

[To explain the derivation of the concept:]12 Elsewhere it is written,13 הבדלו מתוך העדה — “Separate yourselves from amidst the congregation.” Noting that the same word (תוך) appears in both verses, a verbal association transmitted by tradition [i.e., a gezeirah shavah] postulates that just as the latter verse speaks about a congregation (עדה), so, too, does the former verse speak about a congregation. And a congregation comprises no fewer than ten people, as it is written,14 עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת — “How long will this evil congregation persist?” [This verse refers to the Spies, who numbered twelve;] subtract [two for] Yehoshua and Calev, and ten remain.

[The members of] this congregation must be all free adult males who have manifested signs of physical maturity,15 as was the case with regard to the congregation cited above.16 Women, bondmen and minors are not included.17

ב כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה כְּגוֹן קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" וּקְדֻשָּׁהיז – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה,יח שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:יט,11 "וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל", וּלְהַלָּן נֶאֱמַר:כ,13 "הִבָּדְלוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וְגו'", וּלְמֵדִין12 גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה "תּוֹךְ" "תּוֹךְ", מַה "תּוֹךְ" הָאָמוּר לְהַלָּן עֵדָה – אַף "תּוֹךְ" הָאָמוּר כָּאן עֵדָה, וְאֵין עֵדָה פְּחוּתָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה,כא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:כב,14 "עַד מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת", צֵא מֵהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָלֵב – נִשְׁאֲרוּ עֲשָׂרָה.

וְעֵדָה זוֹ צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת כֻּלָּהּ מִזְּכָרִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין גְּדוֹלִיםכג שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ ב' שְׂעָרוֹת,15 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה עֵדָה הָאֲמוּרָה לְהַלָּן.16 אֲבָל נָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים וּקְטַנִּים – אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין:כד,17

3 If a Kaddish or Kedushah was begun with [a quorum of] ten men and some of them leave, the Kaddish or Kedushah that was started may be concluded,18 provided that the majority of the quorum remain.19 Nevertheless, it is sinful to depart, and to such people [our Sages] apply the verse,20 “Those who forsake G‑d will perish.” If ten remain, however, it is permitted to leave.

ג אִם הִתְחִיל לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ אוֹ קְדֻשָּׁה בַּעֲשָׂרָה וְיָצְאוּ מִקְצָתָם – גּוֹמְרִין אוֹתוֹ הַקַּדִּישׁ אוֹ אוֹתָהּ הַקְדֻשָּׁה שֶׁהִתְחִיל,כה,18 וְהוּא שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּיְּרוּ רֻבָּ[ן].כו,19 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם עֲבֵרָה הִיא לָצֵאת,כז וַעֲלֵיהֶם נֶאֱמַר:כח,20 "וְעֹזְבֵי ה' יִכְלוּ". אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁאֲרוּ עֲשָׂרָה – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת:כט

4 [Moreover, even if the sheliach tzibbur] did not begin Kedushah itself, but merely began to recite aloud the Blessing of the Patriarchs [i.e., the first blessing of Shemoneh Esreh], and [then] some of the congregation left, he may complete even Kedushah, the entire Shemoneh Esreh,21 the Order of Kedushah [in the prayer] U’Va LeTziyon, and the Kaddish that follows it,22 without [a quorum of] ten — for all of the above are part of the culmination of Shemoneh Esreh.

For that reason, the sheliach tzibbur does not recite the Complete Kaddish23 until after the Order of Kedushah [in the prayer U’Va LeTziyon]. This Complete Kaddish relates to the preceding Shemoneh Esreh, as is evident from the request [in the Complete Kaddish], “May the prayer... be accepted....”

Nevertheless, if it is [a Monday or Thursday],24 the Torah is not read if some of the congregation left before the public Torah Reading began.25 For the Torah Reading is not “part of the culmination of Shemoneh Esreh,” as indicated by the fact that in the Afternoon Service,26 the Torah is read before Shemoneh Esreh.

Likewise, if some of the congregation left after the beginning of the blessing Yotzer Or,27 the sheliach tzibbur should not begin to repeat Shemoneh Esreh aloud, for Shemoneh Esreh and Kedushah are not associated with the [preceding] Kaddish and Barchu.

Similarly, with regard to the Evening Service, [the sheliach tzibbur] should not recite the Kaddish that follows Shemoneh Esreh unless there was [a quorum of] ten at the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh. It is not sufficient that such a quorum was present during the recitation of the Shema and its blessings. The Kaddish preceding Shemoneh Esreh, by contrast, should be recited if ten men were present at the beginning of the Evening Service even though some of them left afterwards.

The Kaddish that follows Aleinu — whether in the Morning Service or the Evening Service28 — should not be recited unless ten are present at the time Kaddish is recited. Even if there were ten men present when Aleinu was recited, that is of no consequence with regard to the Kaddish that follows it, for to recite [it] is only a custom; it is not an ordinance of our Sages. This ruling also applies with regard to the Kaddish recited after study: ten men must be present at the time the Kaddish is recited.29

The same law applies if ten men were present during the recitation of Pesukei DeZimrah, or during the recitation of Ashrei preceding Shemoneh Esreh of the Afternoon Service, and then some of them left before [the sheliach tzibbur] began Kaddish. He should not begin its recitation with less than [a quorum of] ten. [The rationale is that] though this Kaddish was ordained by the Sages who structured the prayer [service], nevertheless, since [the sheliach tzibbur] may not recite Barchu or [the repetition of] Shemoneh Esreh after this Kaddish as our Sages ordained, [in this situation,] this Kaddish is not [considered] an obligation at all. For our Sages’ ordinance was that Kaddish and Barchu be recited in direct sequence. It is therefore forbidden to make any kind of interruption between them, as explained in sec. 54[:3]. Similarly, in the Afternoon Service, [our Sages’] ordinance was that Kaddish be recited before Shemoneh Esreh, for Shemoneh Esreh is never30 begun in this manner, [i.e.,] without reciting Kaddish before it, as explained in sec. 292[:4].

ד וְלֹא שֶׁהִתְחִיל הַקְדֻשָּׁה עַצְמָהּ, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ הִתְחִיל בִּרְכוֹת "אָבוֹת" בְּקוֹל רָם וְיָצְאוּ מִקְצָתָן – גּוֹמֵרל אֲפִלּוּ קְדֻשָּׁהלא וְכָל תְּפִלַּת י"חלב,21 וְסֵדֶר קְדֻשַּׁת "וּבָא לְצִיּוֹן" וְקַדִּישׁ שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ22 שֶׁלֹּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁכָּל זֶה מִגְּמַר תְּפִלַּת י"ח הוּא, וּלְכָךְ אֵין שְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר אוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ שָׁלֵם23 עַד אַחַר סֵדֶר קְדֻשָּׁה זוֹ, וְאוֹתוֹ קַדִּישׁ שָׁלֵם חוֹזֵר עַל תְּפִלַּת י"ח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמֵר "תִּתְקַבֵּל צְלוֹתְהוֹן וְכו'".לג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הוּא יוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה24 – אֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה אִם הָלְכוּ מִקְצָתָן קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לִקְרוֹת,25 שֶׁהַקְּרִיאָה אֵינָהּ מִגְּמַר הַתְּפִלָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּמִנְחָה26 קוֹרִין קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה.לד

וְכֵן אִם יָצְאוּ מִקְצָתָן לְאַחַר שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ "יוֹצֵר"27 – לֹא יַתְחִיל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל הַתְּפִלָּה בְּקוֹל רָם, שֶׁתְּפִלַּת י"ח וּקְדֻשָּׁה אֵין לָהֶם עִנְיָן עִם קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ".לה וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בְּעַרְבִית לֹא יֹאמַר הַקַּדִּישׁ שֶׁלְּאַחַר תְּפִלַּת י"ח אֶלָּא אִם כֵן הָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בִּתְחִלַּת תְּפִלַּת י"ח, וְלֹא דַּי בְּמַה שֶּׁהָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ.לו אֲבָל קַדִּישׁ שֶׁלִּפְנֵי תְּפִלַּת י"ח יֹאמַר כְּשֶׁהָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בִּתְחִלַּת עַרְבִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִקְצָתָן אַחַר כָּךְ.לז

וְקַדִּישׁ שֶׁלְּאַחַר "עָלֵינוּ" בֵּין בְּשַׁחֲרִית בֵּין בְּעַרְבִיתלח,28 – לֹא יֹאמַר אֶלָּא אִם כֵן יֵשׁ עֲשָׂרָה בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַקַּדִּישׁ. וַאֲפִילּוּ הָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת "עָלֵינוּ" – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל לַקַּדִּישׁ שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ אַחַר "עָלֵינוּ" וְלֹא מִתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הוּא.לט וְהוּא הַדִּין בַּקַּדִּישׁ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אַחַר הַלִּמּוּדמ – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַקַּדִּישׁ.מא,29

וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בַּאֲמִירַת פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה, אוֹ בַּאֲמִירַת "אַשְׁרֵי" שֶׁלִּפְנֵי תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָצְאוּ מִקְצָתָן קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְחִיל הַקַּדִּישׁ – לֹא יַתְחִילֶנּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה,מב שֶׁאַף שֶׁקַּדִּישׁ זֶה הוּא מִתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁסִּדְּרוּ הַתְּפִלָּה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לוֹמַר בָּרְכוּ אוֹ תְּפִלַּת י"ח אַחַר קַדִּישׁ זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁסִּדְּרוּ חֲכָמִים – אֵין קַדִּישׁ זֶה חוֹבָה כְּלָל, שֶׁתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הָיְתָה לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ" סְמוּכִים זֶה לָזֶה, וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"ד,מג וְכֵן בְּמִנְחָה תַּקָּנָתָם הָיְתָה לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ לִפְנֵי תְּפִלַּת י"ח, שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם אֵין מַתְחִילִין תְּפִלַּת י"ח30 כָּךְ בְּלֹא קַדִּישׁ לְפָנֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רצ"ב:מד

5 Some authorities permit a davar shebikedushah to be recited when nine [free adult males] are supplemented by a bondman, a woman, or a minor, for the Divine Presence rests upon every [gathering of] ten members of the Covenant.31 It is only that it is irreverent to recite a davar shebikedushah in the presence of fewer than nine [adult males] who are [fully] obligated by the commandments, for nine appear as ten.

The minor must be more than six years old and must know to Whom the prayers are addressed. [This age is required,] for even if a child younger than six knows [to Whom he is praying], his knowledge is of no consequence, for he has not reached the age at which he may be considered an articulate minor.32 It is as if he is incapable of serious thought.

Other authorities rule that under no circumstances may a woman, a bondman, or a minor be included [in a quorum]. [They hold that] all of its ten members must be males, free men, and adults who have manifested signs of physical maturity; that the Divine Presence does not rest on any lesser [assemblage]; that no davar shebikedushah may [therefore] be recited there; and that even if a Torah scroll is held by a minor, he may not be counted [towards the quorum]. The Halachah follows this view.

Nevertheless, one should not protest against those who are accustomed to rule leniently in a pressing situation and count [a minor] when he is holding a Chumash, or even when he is not holding a Chumash, for they have authorities on whom to rely.33 [In such a case,] however, one should only recite Barchu and any Kaddish which is obligatory, but not the Kaddish that follows Aleinu, because it is only a custom.

ה יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןמה לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה בְּט' וְצֵרוּף עֶבֶד אוֹ אִשָּׁהמו אוֹ קָטָן,מז לְפִי שֶׁעַל כָּל עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי בְּרִית הַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה,מח,31 אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּבוֹד שָׁמַיִם לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה בְּפָחוֹת מִט' בְּנֵי מִצְווֹתמט שֶׁט' נִרְאִים כַּעֲשָׂרָה,נ וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַקָּטָן יוֹתֵר מִבֶּן ו' שָׁנָה וְיוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מִתְפַּלְלִין,נא שֶׁפָּחוֹת מִבֶּן שֵׁשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ – אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִגִּיעַ לְעוֹנַת הַפְּעוּטוּת,נב,32 וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן דַּעַת.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנג שֶׁאֵין אִשָּׁה וְעֶבֶד אוֹ קָטָן מִצְטָרְפִים בְּשׁוּם עִנְיַן, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהוּ כָּל עֲשָׂרָה זְכָרִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ ב' שְׂעָרוֹת,נד וּבְפָחוֹת מִכֵן – אֵין הַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה,נה וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה. וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּיַד הַקָּטָן – אֵין לְצָרְפוֹ.נו וְכֵן עִקָּר.נז

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּאוֹתָן שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהָקֵל בִּשְׁעַת הַדְחָקנח לְצָרְפוֹ עַל יְדֵי חֻמָּשׁ שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא חֻמָּשׁ,נט כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם עַל מִי שֶׁיִּסְמְכוּ.33 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יֹאמְרוּ אֶלָּא "בָּרְכוּ" וְקַדִּישׁ שֶׁהוּא חִיּוּב, אֲבָל לֹא קַדִּישׁ שֶׁאַחַר "עָלֵינוּ" שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג:ס

6 If a man has not manifested signs of physical maturity, even if he is chronologically an adult, he is governed by the laws applying to a minor until the majority of his lifetime passes, i.e., he reaches the age of 36.34 By that age, it is apparent that he is a eunuch and will never manifest signs of physical maturity. If he manifests physical signs of eunuchism at an earlier age,35 he is considered as an adult from the age of 20 onward.

Nevertheless, there is no need to examine a boy for signs of physical maturity so long as he has reached the appropriate age, i.e., 13.36 [The rationale:] Since prayer is a Rabbinic [commandment],37 we rely on the presumption that he has manifested signs of physical maturity, since he has reached the age at which [this] is to be expected.

ו אִם לֹא הֵבִיא ב' שְׂעָרוֹתסא אֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָּדוֹל בְּשָׁנִים – דִּינוֹ כְּקָטָן, עַד שֶׁיֵצְאוּ רֹב שְׁנוֹתָיוסב דְּהַיְנוּ ל"ו שָׁנָה,סג,34 שֶׁאָז נִתְבָּרֵר שֶׁהוּא סָרִיס וְלֹא יָבִיא שְׂעָרוֹת לְעוֹלָם. וְאִם נִרְאָה בּוֹ סִימָנֵי סָרִיס קֹדֵם לָכֵן35 – דִּינוֹ כְּגָדוֹל מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה.סד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק בַּשְּׂעָרוֹת בְּכָל שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לִכְלַל שְׁנוֹתָיו,סה דְּהַיְנוּ בֶּן י"ג שָׁנָה36 וְיוֹם אֶחָד,סו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁתְּפִלָּה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםסז,37 – סוֹמְכִין עַל הַחֲזָקָה שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הֵבִיא ב' שְׂעָרוֹת,סח כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לִכְלַל שְׁנוֹתָיו שֶׁרָאוּי לְהָבִיא בָּהֶן ב' שְׂעָרוֹת:

7 If one of ten congregants began to recite the Shemoneh Esreh prayer alone and thus is unable to respond [to Kaddish, Barchu, and so on] with [the others], he may nevertheless be counted towards [the quorum] with them. This law also applies with regard to two, three, or four [members of the quorum]. As long as there remains a majority that answers Amen, [the ability] of the minority to respond is not an absolute necessity, for the recitation of a davar shebikedushah in a quorum of ten is not dependent on their response, but on their presence. [This is evident from the prooftext:] “And I will be sanctified in the midst of the Children of Israel” [which means that] the Divine Presence rests upon every [gathering of] ten individuals who are inherently holy.38

[In such a gathering] it is possible to recite a davar shebikedushah (such as Kaddish or Barchu, or even Kedushah if the sheliach tzibbur has not yet recited the whispered Shemoneh Esreh himself.39 If, however, the sheliach tzibbur is repeating Shemoneh Esreh [aloud], one must ensure that nine people are listening and responding Amen, lest his blessings be recited in vain, as will be explained in sec. 124[:6].)

ז אִם הִתְחִיל אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח לְבַדּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם.סט וְהוּא הַדִּין לְב' אוֹ ג' אוֹ ד', כָּל שֶׁנִּשְׁאָר הָרֹב שֶׁעוֹנִין אָמֵן – אֵין עֲנִיַּת הַמִּעוּט מְעַכֶּבֶת,ע שֶׁאֵין אֲמִירַת דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה בַּעֲשָׂרָה תָּלוּי בַּעֲנִיָּיתָן רַק שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שָׁם,עא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:עב "וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל", עַל כָּל עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי קְדֻשָּׁה38 – שְׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶם,עג וִיכוֹלִים לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה (כְּגוֹן קַדִּישׁ וּ"בָרְכוּ", אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ קְדֻשָּׁה אִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל עֲדַיִן בְּלַחַשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ.עד,39 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר חוֹזֵר הַתְּפִלָּה פַּעַם ב' – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ ט' שׁוֹמְעִין וְעוֹנִין אָמֵן אַחֲרָיו, שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בִּרְכוֹתָיו לְבַטָּלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן קכ"ד):עה

8 Some authorities hold that this law40 also applies if one of the ten people was asleep; [i.e.,] he may be counted [towards the quorum required] for a davar shebikedushah even though he does not respond with [the others]. However, [these authorities hold that] it is irreverent to count more than one [such] person.

Other authorities hold that a person who is asleep cannot be likened to one who is praying, because when a person is sleeping, his soul has withdrawn from him and holiness does not rest upon him. [Indeed,] it is possible that a spirit of impurity rest upon him even if he is sleeping during the day, as stated in sec. 4.41

In practice, one should not become involved in [this] difference of opinion, for it is possible to [avert such a situation by] waking [the sleeping person].

ח וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעו שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין40 אִם אֶחָד מִי' יָשֵׁן – מִצְטָרֵף לְדָבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹנֶה עִמָּהֶם, אֲבָל יוֹתֵר מֵאֶחָדעז – אֵין כְּבוֹד שָׁמַיִם לְצָרְפָם אִם הֵם יְשֵׁנִים.עח

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעט שֶׁאֵין לְדַמּוֹת יָשֵׁן לְמִתְפַּלֵּל, לְפִי שֶׁהַיָּשֵׁן נִשְׁמָתוֹ מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֵין קְדֻשָּׁה שׁוֹרָה עָלָיו,פ וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁרוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה שׁוֹרָה עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁיָּשֵׁן בַּיּוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ד'.פא,41

וּלְעִנְיַן מַעֲשֶׂה – אֵין לְהַכְנִיס אֶת עַצְמוֹ לְמַחֲלֹקֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַהֲקִיצוֹ:פב

9 If [the sheliach tzibbur is ready to recite Kaddish], but one person is reciting She­moneh Esreh alone, it is proper to delay the recitation of Kaddish until he finishes — even though there are ten congregants apart from him — in order that he, too, share in the merit [of responding to Kaddish with them]. If, however, he is praying with them but is proceeding slowly, it is not necessary to wait for him, as will be explained in sec. 124[:5].42

ט כְּשֶׁאָדָם מִתְפַּלֵּל לְבַדּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲשָׂרָה בִּלְעָדוֹ – נָכוֹן שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ מִלּוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה גַּם הוּא.פג אֲבָל אִם מִתְפַּלֵּל עִמָּהֶם וּמַאֲרִיךְ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין עָלָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן קכ"ד:פד,42

10 If someone is asleep at the time the congregation reaches a davar shebikedushah, it is proper to wait until he is awakened. If, however, he does not wish to rise, it is not necessary to wait for him.43

י וּמִי שֶׁיָּשֵׁן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מַגִּיעִין לְדָבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה – נָכוֹן שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ עַד שֶׁיְּעוֹרְרוּהוּ מִשְּׁנָתוֹ.פה וְאִם לֹא רָצָה לַעֲמֹד – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין:43

11 A person who is deaf, but can speak — or mute, but can hear — is considered a mentally competent individual.44 Such a person may be included [in a quorum] for any davar shebikedushah, even though he does not respond with [the congregation. This applies] even if there are two or more such congregants. As long as the majority are mentally competent individuals who can answer Amen, [the ability] of the minority to respond is not an absolute necessity provided they are obligated to perform mitzvos45 and [thus] the Divine Presence rests upon them. If, however, the sheliach tzibbur has already recited the whispered Shemoneh Esreh, he should not repeat Shemoneh Esreh [aloud] unless there are nine who can hear and respond Amen, as will be explained in sec. 124[:6].

A deaf-mute, by contrast, is considered like a mentally incompetent individual or a minor. This is the meaning of the term cheresh, as employed universally by the Sages.46

יא חֵרֵשׁ הַמְדַבֵּר וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַפו אוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ וְאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּרפז – הֵן כְּפִקְחִים,פח,44 וּמִצְטָרְפִים לְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עוֹנִין עִמָּהֶם. וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם ב' אוֹ יוֹתֵר,פט כָּל שֶׁהָרֹב הֵם פִּקְחִים שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן – אֵין עֲנִיַּת הַמִּעוּט מְעַכֶּבֶתצ כָּל שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי מִצְווֹת45 וְהַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר הִתְפַּלֵּל כְּבַר בְּלַחַשׁ – לֹא יַחֲזִיר הַתְּפִלָּה שֵׁנִיתצא אֶלָּא אִם כֵן יֵשׁ ט' הַשּׁוֹמְעִים וְעוֹנִין אָמֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן קכ"ד.צב אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ וְלֹא מְדַבֵּר – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, וְזֶהוּ חֵרֵשׁ שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם:צג,46

12 A boy continues to be considered a minor until he manifests signs of physical maturity47 after reaching the age of thirteen. Before that, the appearance of hair is considered not as a sign of puberty but like a mole.48

יב לְעוֹלָם הוּא קָטָן עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא ב' שְׂעָרוֹת47 אַחַר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֶּן י"ג שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד,צד אֲבָל קֹדֶם לָכֵן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵבִיא ב' שְׂעָרוֹת – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא שׁוּמָא:צה,48

13 If a boy is born on the first day of Rosh Chodesh Kislev which is the 30th day of the month of MarCheshvan, but in the 13th year of his life MarCheshvan [has only 29 days] and Rosh Chodesh Kislev is only one day,49 he is not considered as having reached bar-mitzvah until Rosh Chodesh Kislev. It is true that when determining months and years we count from the second day of Rosh Chodesh, for it is the main day [of Rosh Chodesh], while the first day [of Rosh Chodesh] is considered part of the previous month. Nevertheless, [this youth will not have reached bar-mitzvah in MarCheshvan, because] he will not yet have lived thirteen full years from day to day until 29 complete days of MarCheshvan have passed, just as he was born after the passage of 29 days [of that month].50

יג מִי שֶׁנּוֹלַד בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כִּסְלֵו שֶׁהוּא יוֹם ל' שֶׁל מַרְחֶשְׁוָן וּבִשְׁנַת י"ג חֹדֶשׁ מַרְחֶשְׁוָן חָסֵר וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כִּסְלֵו אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד49 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה בַּר מִצְוָה עַד רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כִּסְלֵו,צו שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלָּחֳדָשִׁים וְשָׁנִים מוֹנִין מִיּוֹם ב' שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא עִקָּר וְיוֹם א' הוּא מִן חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁלְּפָנָיו,צז מִכָּל מָקוֹם עֲדַיִן לֹא מָלְאוּ י"ג שָׁנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת מִיּוֹם אֶל יוֹם עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ כ"ט יוֹמִין שְׁלֵמִים מִמַּרְחֶשְׁוָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹלַד אַחַר שֶׁעָבְרוּ כְּבָר כ"ט יוֹם:צח,50

14 A transgressor who violated a communal ordinance that was supported by a ban of ostracism, or who committed a transgression for which he was liable to be placed under a ban of ostracism,51 may be counted in a quorum of ten for any davar shebikedushah. This is evident from [G‑d’s statement to Yehoshua after the transgression of] Achan:52 “Israel has sinned,” implying that even after one has sinned, he is [still] Jewish.53 His holiness is intact and he has not left the bounds of the Jewish people.54

If, however, [the congregation actually] placed a person under such a ban, he may not be counted with regard to any davar shebikedushah.55 For if he is counted, of what consequence is their edict which [was intended to] separate him from their congregation? Nevertheless, it is permitted to pray in a synagogue when he is present, since there are ten [people] apart from him, unless they explicitly stated that they would be stringent with him in this regard.

יד עֲבַרְיָן שֶׁעָבַר עַל גְּזֵרַת הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁגָּזְרוּ בְּנִדּוּי וְחֵרֶםצט אוֹ שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב עָלֶיהָ נִדּוּי51 – מִצְטָרֵף לְמִנְיַן עֲשָׂרָה לְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּעָכָןק,52 "חָטָא יִשְׂרָאֵל", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָטָא – יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּאקא,53 וּבִקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ הוּא עוֹמֵדקב וְלֹא יָצָא מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל.54 אֲבָל אִם נִדּוּהוּ מֵאֶצְלָם – אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה,קג,55 שֶׁאִם מִצְטָרֵף מַה הוֹעִילוּ בְּתַקָּנָתָם שֶׁהִבְדִּילוּהוּ מֵאֲגֻדָּתָם. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁהוּא שָׁם,קד כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲשָׂרָה בִּלְעָדוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵן פֵּרְשׁוּ לְהַחְמִיר עָלָיו בְּכָךְ:

15 All ten [members of a minyan] must be in one place and the sheliach tzibbur must be together with them. If, however, some of them are in one room and others in another room, they may not be counted together even though there is an open entrance between them. Even if the majority are standing in the synagogue and the minority in the courtyard that is in front of the synagogue, they are not linked to the majority so that they may be counted together with them. Even those standing on the threshold in the midst of the entrance from the doorframe outward — i.e., on the outer side of the point where, were the door to be closed, the inner surface of the door would be located — are considered as being outside, for the door separates the inside from the outside. [See fig. 51.] Even if it is open, the space it occupies is considered as outside. (Moreover, [this applies] not only to the space occupied by the thickness of the door, but also to the whole of the threshold over which the door swings, until the point at which it touches the doorframe. For example, [if] the door is affixed in the middle of the threshold56 and rotates on its hinge from the inside outward until it is in line with the hinge [and is thus aligned with the doorframe], the entire [area] of the threshold,57 from its inner edge until the point at which it touches [the doorframe], i.e., in line with the hinge, is considered as being on the outside.58)

טו צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הָעֲשָׂרָה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וּשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר עִמָּהֶם,קה אֲבָל אִם מִקְצָתָם בְּחֶדֶר זֶה וּמִקְצָתָם בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר – אֵינָם מִצְטָרְפִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפֶּתַח פָּתוּחַ בֵּינֵיהֶם. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָרֹב עוֹמְדִים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְהַמִּעוּט בָּעֲזָרָה שֶׁלִּפְנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵינָם נִגְרָרִים אַחַר הָרֹב לְהִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם.קו וַאֲפִלּוּ הָעוֹמְדִים עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח מִן הָאֲגַף וְלַחוּץ, דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁסּוֹגֵר הַדֶּלֶת מִמְּקוֹם שָׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁל עֳבִי הַדֶּלֶת וְלַחוּץ – כְּלַחוּץ,קז שֶׁהַדֶּלֶת מַבְדֶּלֶת בֵּין פְּנִים לְחוּץ,קח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא פְּתוּחָה – הֲרֵי מְקוֹמָהּ כְּלַחוּץקט (וְלֹא מְקוֹם עָבְיָהּ בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא כָּל מְקוֹם חֲפִיפָתָהּ שֶׁהִיא חוֹפֶפֶת עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהִיא נוֹקֶשֶׁת בּוֹ,קי כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַדֶּלֶת קְבוּעָה בְּאֶמְצַע עֳבִי הָאַסְקֻפָּה56 וְסוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירָהּ מִצַּד פְּנִים לְצַד חוּץ עַד כְּנֶגֶד הַצִּיר – הֲרֵי כָּל עֳבִי הָאַסְקֻפָּה57 מִשָּׂפָה הַפְּנִימִית עַד מְקוֹם הַנְּקִישָׁה שֶׁהוּא כְּנֶגֶד הַצִּיר – הַכֹּל כְּלַחוּץ):קיא,58

Fig. 51
Fig. 51
Fig. 52
Fig. 52

16 When does the above apply? When those standing outside are not visible to those standing inside. If, however, one’s face can be seen by those standing in the synagogue, then even if he is standing behind the synagogue and his face can be seen through a window that [connects] them, he can be included in [the quorum of] ten together with them.59 [This applies even if the window is] several storeys high and it is less than four [handbreadths] wide.

By contrast, a person whose face cannot be seen by [the other congregants] cannot be included with them, even if he is standing above them on the roof of the synagogue. [This applies] whether he is actually standing on the roof or he is standing on the thickness of the walls of the synagogue. For the [area of the] thickness of the synagogue walls is also60 not subsidiary to61 the interior so that it be considered part of the interior. Hence, [unlike the above-mentioned people standing outside, this individual cannot be counted as part of the minyan if] his face cannot be seen by the other congregants.

טז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהָעוֹמְדִים בַּחוּץ אֵינָם נִרְאִים לְהָעוֹמְדִים בִּפְנִים,קיב אֲבָל מִי שֶׁמַּרְאֶה פָּנָיו לְהָעוֹמְדִים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד אֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּמַרְאֶה לָהֶם פָּנִים דֶּרֶךְ חַלּוֹן שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ גָּבוֹהַּ כַּמָּה קוֹמוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד' – מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם לַעֲשָרָה.קיג,59

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַרְאֶה פָּנִים לָהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן מִלְמַעְלָה עַל גַּג בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם,קיד בֵּין שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל הַגָּג מַמָּשׁ בֵּין שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל עֳבִי הַכְּתָלִים שֶׁל בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, שֶׁגַּם עֳבִי הַכְּתָלִים60 אֵינָם נִגְרָרִים61 אַחַר תּוֹכָם לִהְיוֹת נִדּוֹן כִּלְפָנִים אַף עַל פִּיקטו שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַרְאֶה פָּנָיו לָהֶם:קטז

17 If some of the people are inside [the synagogue] while others are outside and the sheliach tzibbur is standing on the threshold in the entrance, his presence there allows [the two groups] to be counted together [towards a single quorum.62 Since] he sees both those [inside] and those [outside], this is regarded as if some of those standing outside are visible to some of those standing inside, in which instance [as stated above] they are counted together.

יז אִם מִקְצָתָן מִבִּפְנִים וּמִקְצָתָן בַּחוּץ וּשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר עַל גַּבֵּי הָאַסְקֻפָּה תּוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח – הוּא מְצָרְפָן,קיז,62 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רוֹאֶה אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ,קיח וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ מִקְּצָת הָעוֹמְדִים בַּחוּץ נִרְאִים לְמִקְצָת הָעוֹמְדִים בִּפְנִים – שֶׁהֵם מִצְטָרְפִין:

18 [The following principles apply if] a small courtyard was opened up entirely to a large one; i.e., the smaller one was broken open [along their common border] by the collapse of the entire wall that originally separated them, but in the larger courtyard, barriers63 from the remnants of this wall remained on either side [of the opening].

[In such a case,] the larger courtyard is considered as separated from the smaller one by the barriers on each side, for they are effective in separating the [two] domains,64 (provided [the barriers] are not more than ten cubits65 apart).66 For in all [halachic] contexts, even one courtyard is divided into two domains if one sets up somewhat of a barrier on either side in the midst of [the area between] the walls running along its length, as will be described in sec. 363[:38].

The small courtyard[, however,] is not separated from the larger one, because it does not have barriers on either side. Instead, it is considered like a corner of the larger one.67 Therefore if nine [men] are in the larger one and one man is in the smaller one, he can be included [in a quorum] together with them, for the smaller courtyard is subsidiary to the larger one. Thus it is considered as if he is in the larger one, because the majority is in the larger one.

If, however, nine men are in the smaller courtyard and one man is in the larger one, he cannot be included [in a quorum] together with them, for the larger courtyard is not subsidiary to the smaller one. On the other hand, [the nine men] are not subsidiary to that individual, because they are the majority. Even if the people were in two equal groups, five in the smaller [courtyard] and five in the larger one, they cannot be counted together, for it is only a minority that can become subsidiary to a majority.

יח חָצֵר קְטַנָּה שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ לִגְדוֹלָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה קְטַנָּה בִּמְקוֹם חִבּוּרָהּ לִגְדוֹלָה וְנָפַל כָּל אוֹתוֹ כֹּתֶל שֶׁהָיָה מַפְסִיק וּבַגְּדוֹלָה נִשְׁאֲרָה מִשְּׁאֵרִית כֹּתֶל זֶה פַּסִּין63 מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן – הֲרֵי הַגְּדוֹלָה כִּמְפֻלֶגֶת מִן הַקְּטַנָּה עַל יְדֵי הַפַּסִּין שֶׁמִּכָּאן וּמִכָּאן, שֶׁהֵן מוֹעִילִים לְחַלֵּק הָרְשֻׁיּוֹתקיט,64 (אִם אֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹתקכ,65),66 שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ חָצֵר אַחַת שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד בָּהּ פַּס מַשֶּׁהוּ מִכָּאן וּפַס מַשֶּׁהוּ מִכָּאן בְּאֶמְצַע כָּתְלֵי אָרְכָּהּ – נִתְחַלְּקָה לִשְׁתֵּי רְשֻׁיּוֹת לְכָל דָּבָרקכא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שס"ג,קכב וְהַקְּטַנָּה אֵינָהּ מֻפְלֶגֶת מִן הַגְּדוֹלָה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לָהּ פַּסִּין מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן, וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּקֶרֶן זָוִיּוֹת שֶׁל הַגְּדוֹלָה.67 לְפִיכָךְ אִם ט' בַּגְּדוֹלָה וְאֶחָד בַּקְּטַנָּה – מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁהַקְּטַנָּה נִגְרֶרֶת אַחַר הַגְּדוֹלָה, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָרֹב בַּגְּדוֹלָה. אֲבָל אִם ט' בַּקְּטַנָּה וְאֶחָד בַּגְּדוֹלָה – אֵין מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁאֵין הַגְּדוֹלָה נִגְרֶרֶת אַחַר הַקְּטַנָּה,קכג וְהֵם אֵינָם נִגְרָרִים אַחֲרָיו כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵמָּה הָרַבִּים. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה ה' בַּקְּטַנָּה וְה' בַּגְּדוֹלָה – אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין, שֶׁאֵין נִגְרָר אֶלָּא הַמִּעוּט אַחַר הָרֹב:קכד

19 If the sheliach tzibbur was in the small [courtyard] and the congregants were in the larger one, he may fulfill the obligations [of prayer] on their behalf, for he is subsidiary to them. If, however, the sheliach tzibbur was in the larger [courtyard] and the congregants were in the smaller one, he cannot fulfill [these] obligations on their behalf, for a majority is never subsidiary to a minority.

יט הָיָה שְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר בַּקְּטַנָּה וְצִּבּוּר בַּגְּדוֹלָה – מוֹצִיאָן יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן, שֶׁהוּא נִגְרָר אַחֲרֵיהֶם.קכה אֲבָל אִם שְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר בַּגְּדוֹלָה וְצִּבּוּר בַּקְּטַנָּה – אֵין מוֹצִיאָן יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן, שֶׁאֵין הָרֹב נִגְרָר אַחַר הַיָּחִיד:

Fig. 53
Fig. 53
Fig. 54
Fig. 54

20 (All of the above applies when the walls of the length of the smaller courtyard project into the larger courtyard and [continue for at least] three handbreadths* beyond the walls of the length of the larger [courtyard].68 For if not, [i.e., if the walls of the smaller courtyard extend only as far as the remaining “shoulders,”69 then not only will the larger courtyard be set off from the smaller one, but] the smaller courtyard will also be set off from the larger one by the latter’s [remaining] barriers, because [of the halachic principle that walls] visible from the outside, [although they] appear flush on the inside, [are considered as walls for the inside, too], as will be explained in sec. 360[:7].)

כ (וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנִּכְנָסִים כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַקְּטַנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמֻפְלָגִים שָׁם ג' טְפָחִים מִכָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה,קכו,68 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן69 גַּם הַקְּטַנָּה הִיא כְּמֻפְלֶגֶת מִן הַגְּדוֹלָה עַל יְדֵי פַּסֵּי הַגְּדוֹלָה, מִשּׁוּם נִרְאֶה בַּחוּץ וְשָׁוֶה מִבִּפְנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ס):קכז

21 In places where the sheliach tzibbur stands in an enclosed podium or on a platform, he is included [together with the congregation] and fulfills the obligations [of prayer] on their behalf — even if [that place] is ten handbreadths high [or more], its area is four handbreadths by four handbreadths or more, and it has partitions that are ten handbreadths high or more.70 [The rationale is that] its individual importance is subsumed within that of the synagogue [and is considered as a component of it].

It is true that [such a place] is considered a domain in its own right with regard to the requirement that one stand in the presence of a Torah scroll, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 242.71 Nevertheless, with regard to this matter, its individual importance is subsumed in that of the synagogue: [people standing there] can be considered part [of the congregation]. [The rationale is that] it is one of the auxiliary items of the synagogue and the people of the synagogue walk within it. Moreover, since the people [in it and around it] can see each other, they are counted together [in the same congregation], as explained above.72

כא בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר עוֹמֵד בְּתֵבָה אוֹ בְּבִימָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא גְּבוֹהָה י' טְפָחִים וּרְחָבָה ד' עַל ד' אוֹ יוֹתֵר וְיֵשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת גְּבוֹהוֹת י' טְפָחִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר70 – מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם וּמוֹצִיאָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,קכח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בְּטֵלָה לְגַבֵּי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ לְעִנְיַן עֲמִידָה בִּפְנֵי סֵפֶר תּוֹרָהקכט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן (רפ"ב) [רמ"ב],קל,71 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּטֵלָה הִיא לְגַבֵּי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְעִנְיָן זֶה שֶׁמִּצְטָרְפִין, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא תַּשְׁמִישׁ בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְרַגְלֵי בְּנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּתוֹכָהּ, וְעוֹד כֵּיוָן שֶׁרוֹאִין אֵלּוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ – מִצְטָרְפִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל:קלא,72

22 All the above applies with regard to including individuals [in a quorum] or fulfilling obligations on behalf of others. If, however, ten [men] are in one place and are reciting Kaddish or Kedushah, any individual who hears their voice may respond together with them. [This applies] even if he is in an entirely different building, and even if there are several buildings separating them — for even an iron barrier cannot separate the Jews from their Father in Heaven.73

Some authorities maintain that nevertheless, [if a passerby is to be able to respond,] no filth or false deity — which is considered as filth in this context — may intervene [between him and the congregation]. Deference should be paid to this view.

Similarly, with regard to having one’s obligation fulfilled [by the sheliach tzibbur], the Sages ruled only that the sheliach tzibbur must be in the same place as the congregation. When, however, they are in one place, anyone who hears the voice of the sheliach tzibbur may have his obligation fulfilled by him even though he is not together with them, as was discussed above, and as will be discussed in sec. 273[:10] and sec. 690.74

כב וְכָל זֶה לְעִנְיַן צֵרוּף אוֹ לְהוֹצִיא יְדֵי חוֹבָה,קלב אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְאוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ אוֹ קְדֻשָּׁה – יָכוֹל לַעֲנוֹת עִמָּהֶם כָּל הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ קוֹלָם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּבַיִת אַחֵר לְגַמְרֵי, וַאֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה בָּתִּים מַפְסִיקִים בֵּינֵיהֶם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ מְחִצָּה שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אֵינָהּ מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם.קלג,73

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלד שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מַפְסִיק טִנּוּף אוֹ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה כְּצוֹאָה לְעִנְיָן זֶה. וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם.

וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן לְהוֹצִיא יְדֵי חוֹבָה לֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד אֶלָּא הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר עִם הַצִּבּוּר, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהֵם בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – יָכוֹל לָצֵאת כָּל הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ קוֹל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עִמָּהֶםקלה וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"גקלו וְתר"צ:קלז,74

23 If there are only ten [male inhabitants] in a town and one of them desires to go elsewhere for the Days of Awe, he may be compelled to remain or to hire another person in his place. For it is an established custom throughout all the dispersed communities of the Diaspora that even where the townsmen do not have a complete minyan through the year, they hire one or two people during the Days of Awe or travel to a place where there is a minyan. [Hence it is considered to be a communal responsibility], like having a Torah scroll or a synagogue, which townsmen can compel each other [to discharge].

If, however, there are eleven [male inhabitants], one may depart. We do not take into account that perhaps one [of those remaining] will have to relieve himself and thus cause [the congregation] to wait, for if so, there would be no end to the matter.75 If two [of the eleven] wish to depart, they [are obligated to] hire a person in partnership, to complete the quorum in their absence. They must both pay the same amount, even if one is poor and one is rich, because each of them is equally obligated to complete the minyan, the poor man as much as the rich.

However, if there are only eight or nine [men] living in a town and they must hire one or two men to complete the minyan, [the burden of payment is divided]: half is paid on a graduated scale according to [the townsmen’s] wealth and half is paid as a head tax. [The rationale is that] there is reason to argue that the poor person is obligated to complete the minyan to the same degree as the rich man. On the other hand, there is reason to argue that the poor person can go to a neighboring city, whereas the rich man cannot leave his house and his property. Hence [the Sages] instituted this compromise.

[These arrangements] do not apply when a complete minyan [of men] are living in [a given town. In such a case,] no one of them is permitted to nullify the minyan, even if he personally will go to a place where there is a minyan.

כג עִיר שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא עֲשָׂרָה וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת בְּיָמִים נוֹרָאִים כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִשָּׁאֵר אוֹ לִשְׂכֹּר אַחֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹקלח שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּנְהָג הוּא בְּכָל תְּפוּצוֹת הַגּוֹלָה שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָם שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם מִנְיָן שָׁלֵם כָּל הַשָּׁנָה שׂוֹכְרִים לָהֶם אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּיָמִים נוֹרָאִים אוֹ הוֹלְכִים לִמְקוֹם מִנְיָן הֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁבְּנֵי הָעִיר כּוֹפִין זֶה אֶת זֶהקלט אֲבָל אִם הֵם י"א יָכוֹל אֶחָד לָצֵאת וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִצְטָרֵךְ אֶחָד לָצֵאת לִנְקָבָיו וְיִצְטָרְכוּ לְהַמְתִּין שֶׁאִם כֵן אֵין לַדָּבָר סוֹף.75 וְאִם ב' רוֹצִים לָצֵאת שְׁנֵיהֶם שׂוֹכְרִים אֶחָד בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת לְהַשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן בִּמְקוֹמָם וּשְׁנֵיהֶם יִפְרְעוּ בְּשָׁוֶה אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד עָנִי וְאֶחָד עָשִׁיר כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד חַיָּב לְהַשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן עָנִי כְּמוֹ עָשִׁיר.קמ

אֲבָל אִם אֵין דָּרִין בַּיִּשּׁוּב אֶלָּא ח' אוֹ ט' וְשׂוֹכְרִים לָהֶם א' אוֹ ב' לְהַשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן פּוֹרְעִין חֲצִי לְפִי מָמוֹן וַחֲצִי לְפִי נְפָשׁוֹתקמא כִּי יֵשׁ סְבָרָא לוֹמַר שֶׁהֶעָנִי חַיָּב בְּהַשְׁלָמַת הַמִּנְיָן כְּמוֹ הֶעָשִׁיר וְיֵשׁ סְבָרָא לוֹמַר שֶׁהֶעָנִי יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לָעִיר הַסְּמוּכָה וְהֶעָשִׁיר אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲזֹב בֵּיתוֹ וּרְכוּשׁוֹ עַל כֵן עָשׂוּ פְּשָׁרָה זֹאתקמב מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵן כְּשֶׁדָּרִין כָּאן מִנְיָן שָׁלֵם אֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם רַשַּׁאי לְבַטֵּל הַמִּנְיָן אֲפִלּוּ יֵלֵךְ הוּא לָעִיר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִנְיָן:

24 Whoever is required to hire another person in his stead when he leaves town must also pay his portion of the wages of the sheliach tzibbur as if he had not left. Even if someone leaves long before the festivals, he must contribute towards the wages of the sheliach tzibbur and towards the completion of the minyan as if he left close to the festivals, since he will not return home [at that time].

A person who is prevented from returning home by forces beyond his control — [e.g.,] he is not permitted to enter the country — is not liable, even if the time of the festivals arrived. This applies only if he is held back by forces that are truly beyond his control. If, however, he is prevented from coming home because of a financial liability or because of negligence, that is not [sufficient cause for] his fellow townsmen to bear an additional share [of the above expenses].

כד כָּל הַיּוֹצְאִים בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצְּרִיכִים לִשְׂכֹּר אַחֵר בִּמְקוֹמָן צְרִיכִין גַּם כֵן לִתֵּן לִשְׂכַר שְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּרקמג כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצְאוּקמד וַאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁיּוֹצֵא זְמַן אָרֹךְ לִפְנֵי יוֹם טוֹב צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן לִשְׂכַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר וְהַשְׁלָמַת הַמִּנְיָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיּוֹצֵא סָמוּךְ לְיוֹם טוֹבקמה כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזֹר בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְבֵיתו.ֹ וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לָבוֹא בַּמְּדִינָה פָּטוּר אֲפִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הָרֶגֶלקמו וְהוּא שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס מַמָּשׁ אֲבָל אִם מֵחֲמַת חוֹב מָמוֹן אוֹ פְּשִׁיעָה לֹא יָכוֹל לָבוֹא לֹא יַפְסִידוּ חֲבֵרָיו חֶלְקָם:

25 [Townsmen] may be compelled to hire [men] to complete a minyan only for the Days of Awe and only when no more than one or two [men] are lacking, unless it is the established custom in the town to compel [the townsmen] to hire [men] when even three or four are lacking.

If, however, the townsmen themselves constitute a complete minyan, they may compel [each other] to hire a sheliach tzibbur even throughout the year, so that they always pray with [a quorum of] ten.76 Similarly, in a place where there is not always a minyan in the synagogue, [the townsmen] may compel each other by means of penalties to secure the regular attendance of a minyan at the synagogue, so that the daily services77 not lapse.

כה אֵין כּוֹפִין לִשְׂכֹּר לְהַשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן אֶלָּא בְּיָמִים נוֹרָאִיםקמז וּכְגוֹן שֶׁאֵין חֲסֵרִים אֶלָּא א' אוֹ ב' אֶלָּא אִם כֵן מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ בָּעִיר לָכוּף לִשְׂכֹּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֶסְרוֹן ג' אוֹ ד' אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ מִנְיָן שָׁלֵם מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר כּוֹפִין לִשְׂכֹּר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם תָּמִיד בַּעֲשָׂרָהקמח,76 וְכֵן מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִנְיָן תָּמִיד בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת כּוֹפִין זֶה אֶת זֶה בִּקְנָסוֹת שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ תָּמִיד מִנְיָן לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתקמט שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּטֵּל הַתָּמִיד:קנ,77

26 If communities are obliged to hire participants for a minyan and also a sheliach tzibbur, and there are people in outlying districts who are accustomed to go there with their families [to celebrate the holidays, the latter] are not required to contribute anything to the [host] community. For if they so desired, they could go to another town which has a minyan without them and they would not have to pay anything, not even for the wages of the sheliach tzibbur, since even without them that community would require a sheliach tzibbur.

כו יִשּׁוּבִים שֶׁצְּרִיכִים לִשְׂכֹּר מִנְיָן וּשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְיֵשׁ סְבִיבוֹת שֶׁרְגִילִין לָבוֹא גַּם כֵּן שָׁם עִם בְּנֵי בֵּיתָם אֵין צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן כְּלוּם לְהַיִּשּׁוּבקנא שֶׁאִם הָיוּ רוֹצִים הָיוּ הוֹלְכִים לְעִיר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם מִנְיָן בִּלְעֲדָם וְלֹא הָיוּ צְרִיכִים לִתֵּן כְּלוּם אֲפִלּוּ לִשְׂכִירוּת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כֵּיוָן שֶׁגַּם בִּלְעָדָם הֵם צְרִיכִים שָׁם לִשְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר: