SECTION 47 Laws Relating to the Blessings for Torah Study. (1–10)

סימן מז דִּינֵי בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה וּבוֹ י' סְעִיפִים:

1 One must be most vigilant with regard to the blessings1 over Torah study.2 Indeed, the Land [of Israel] was laid waste only because [the people of the time] did not recite the blessings that precede Torah [study].3 They did not hold the Torah in sufficient esteem to warrant the recitation of a blessing, and thus took its blessings lightly. Hence, even though they engaged extensively in the study of the Torah, it did not protect them.4

[The Torah], G‑d’s precious vessel in which He takes delight every day,5 should therefore be valued so highly by every individual that he recites its blessings with a joy that surpasses his joy over all the pleasures in the world.

This shows that he engages in [Torah study] for its own sake, and he will [therefore] merit a chain [of descendants as appropriate] for one who engages in [Torah study] for its own sake, as it is written,6 “[Its words] will not depart from your mouth nor from the mouth of your descendants.” [In this way, he will merit] the fulfillment of the request he makes in its blessings, “that we and our descendants... be [among those who know Your name and study Your Torah for its own sake”].7

Some people make a point of adding “and the descendants of our descendants” [to the wording of this blessing], for “whenever a man, his children, and his grandchildren are Torah scholars, the Torah will never depart from his seed forever.”8 This addition, however, is not necessary, for “our descendants” also includes grandchildren.

א בִּרְכַּת1 הַתּוֹרָה2 צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּהּ מְאֹד,א שֶׁלֹּא חָרְבָה הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא בֵּרְכוּ בַּתּוֹרָה תְּחִלָּה,ב,3 לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה חֲשׁוּבָה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם כָּל כָּךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ, לְכָךְ הָיוּ מְזַלְזְלִים בְּבִרְכָתָהּ,ג לָכֵן לֹא הֵגֵנָּה עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרָתָם4 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָסְקוּ בָּהּ הַרְבֵּה.ד וּלְכָךְ יִרְאֶה כָּל אָדָם שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כְּלִי חֶמְדָּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהָיָה מִשְׁתַּעֲשֵׁעַ בָּהּ בְּכָל יוֹם,ה,5 חֲשׁוּבָה בְּעֵינָיו לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ בְּשִׂמְחָה יוֹתֵר מֵעַל כָּל הֲנָאוֹת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם,ו שֶׁזֶּה מוֹרֶה שֶׁעוֹסֵק בָּהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. וְיִזְכֶּה לְשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת הַנִּמְשָׁךְ לָעוֹסֵק בָּהּ לִשְׁמָהּ,ז שֶׁהוּא6 "לֹא יָמוּשׁוּ מִפִּיךָ וּמִפִּי זַרְעֲךָ וְגו'",ח שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה שְׁאֵלָתוֹ וּבַקָּשָׁתוֹ שֶׁמְּבַקֵּשׁ בְּבִרְכָתָהּ "וְנִהְיֶה אֲנַחְנוּ וְצֶאֱצָאֵינוּ".ט,7 וְיֵשׁ מְדַקְדְּקִים לְהוֹסִיף "וְצֶאֱצָאֵי צֶאֱצָאֵינוּ",י כִּי כָּל שֶׁהוּא וּבְנוֹ וּבֶן בְּנוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם – שׁוּב אֵין תּוֹרָה פּוֹסֶקֶת מִזַּרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם.יא,8 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ, כִּי בִּכְלַל "צֶאֱצָאֵינוּ" הֵם גַּם כֵן בְּנֵי בָּנִים:יב

2 A blessing is required whether one [reads or studies] Scripture alone, Mishnah9 alone, Talmud10 alone, or Midrash11 alone. For it is all Torah and was given to Moshe at Sinai.12

When a person thinks about the words of the Torah,13 he is not required to recite a blessing.14 The same applies to delivering a halachic ruling without explaining one’s rationale, for this is also considered as mere thought. And thought is not equivalent to speech,15 as will be explained in sec. 62[:3].

ב צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בֵּין לְמִקְרָא לְבַד, בֵּין לְמִשְׁנָה9 לְבַדָּהּ, בֵּין לְתַלְמוּד10 לְבַדּוֹ, בֵּין לְמִדְרָשׁיג,11 לְבַדּוֹ,יד שֶׁהַכֹּל תּוֹרָה הִיאטו וְנִתְּנָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי.טז,12 וְהַמְהַרְהֵר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה13 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ.יז,14 וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁיָכוֹל לִפְסֹק דִּין בְּלֹא נְתִינַת טַעַם לִדְבָרָיויח, שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַּם כֵן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא הִרְהוּר,יט וְהִרְהוּר לָאו כְּדִבּוּר הוּא,כ,15 כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ס"ב:כא

3 There is an opinion that a person who writes words of Torah must recite a blessing even though he does not audibly read [what he is writing]. This would apply when a person writes texts for himself while he is studying and understands what he is writing. When, however, a scribe copies [words of Torah] and does not seek to understand [what he is writing], he is not required to recite a blessing. Similarly, when a person quotes a verse in a mundane letter as a stylistic technique, he is not required to recite a blessing, because he is not [quoting it] for purposes of study.

With regard to actual practice, one should not rely on this opinion and recite a blessing for writing alone in any context, for one is merely thinking about the words of the Torah. Instead, it is appropriate for anyone who writes words of the Torah to articulate several words, to save himself [from a question of] reciting a blessing in vain — unless he recites the verses of the Priestly Blessing or other words of Torah after the blessing, as is our custom.16

ג יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרכב שֶׁהַכּוֹתֵב בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ. וְהוּא שֶׁכּוֹתֵב סְפָרִים לְעַצְמוֹ דֶּרֶךְ לִמּוּדוֹ וּמֵבִין מַה שֶּׁהוּא כּוֹתֵב,כג אֲבָל סוֹפֵר הַמַּעְתִּיק וְאֵינוֹ מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהָבִין – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ. וְכֵן אִם כּוֹתֵב אֵיזֶה פָּסוּק בְּאִגֶּרֶת הָרְשׁוּת לִדְבַר צַחוּת – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַוֵּן לְלִמּוּד.

וּלְעִנְיַן מַעֲשֶׂה אֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו לְבָרֵךְ עַל כְּתִיבָה לְבַדָּהּ בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָן,כד שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רַק מְהַרְהֵר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא רָאוּי לְכָל כּוֹתֵב בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁיּוֹצִיא מִפִּיו קְצָת תֵּבוֹת לְהִנָּצֵל מִבְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר פְּסוּקֵי בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין:כה,16

4 The blessings for Torah study comprise:17

[(a)] Asher Kidshanu BeMitzvosav VeTzivanu Al Divrei Torah (“...Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the words of the Torah”); in these countries, the version is ...VeTzivanu Laasok BeDivrei Torah (“...and commanded us to occupy ourselves with the words of the Torah”);18

[(b)] VeHaarev Na (“And make the words of the Torah pleasant...”); and

[(c)] Asher Bachar Banu (“...Who chose us...).19

A convert, too, may recite the blessing Asher Bachar Banu.20

ד בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה:17 "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה",כו וְנֻסַּח מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ "לַעֲסֹק בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה",כז,18 "וְהַעֲרֶב נָא וְכו'"כח וַ"אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ כו'".19 וְגֵר יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְכט גַּם כֵן "אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ":20

5 Some authorities maintain that one should say VeHaarev, prefixing the letter vav [which indicates a connection], for [this blessing] and [the preceding blessing] Asher Kidshanu BeMitzvosav VeTzivanu together constitute one blessing. It employs the long form21 for a blessing, beginning with “Blessed are You...” and concluding with “Blessed are You, G‑d, Who teaches....” If [the first blessing] had employed the short form and VeHaarev was an independent blessing, it would have been appropriate for it to begin “Blessed are You....” Nevertheless, though it follows in direct sequence to the first blessing,22 since that blessing employs a short form this sequence is of no consequence. For we see that the Havdalah blessing begins “Blessed are You...” even though it follows in direct sequence to the blessings over the candle and the spices, because they employ the short form.

There are, however, those who say that Haarev is an independent blessing,23 and different from the Havdalah blessing, because the Havdalah blessing does not always follow in sequence to the blessing over the candle and the spices. For if one so desires, he may recite the blessings over the candle and the spices independently, and recite Havdalah later over a cup of wine without a candle and spices.24 This is why the [following] blessing, Asher Bachar Banu, begins [afresh with the words] “Blessed are You...,” for at the congregational Torah Reading this blessing is recited independently.25 Accordingly, it has become customary to recite Haarev Na without a vav.

It is, however, preferable to recite [the blessing] with a vav, for even if it is an independent blessing and is read with a vav, this is of no consequence. If, on the other hand, [this blessing together with the preceding one constitute] one blessing and it were to be read without the [connective] vav, this would make a break in the middle of a blessing.26 [Indeed,] according to the mystical tradition, [VeHaarev] is an independent blessing and Amen should be recited between the two blessings, and nevertheless VeHaarev should be read with a vav.27

ה יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםל שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר "הַעֲרֶב" בְּוי"ו, שֶׁבְּרָכָה אַחַת הִיא עִם "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ כו'", שֶׁהוּא מַטְבֵּעַ אָרֹךְ21 פּוֹתַחַת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְחוֹתֶמֶת בְּ"בָרוּךְלא אַתָּה ה' הַמְלַמֵּד כו'", שֶׁאִם הָיָה מַטְבֵּעַ קָצָרלב "וְהַעֲרֶב" הִיא בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ – הָיָה לָהּ לִפְתֹּחַ בְּ"בָרוּךְ". וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בְּרָכָה הַסְּמוּכָה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּלג,22 – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַבְּרָכָה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ הִיא מַטְבֵּעַ קָצָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּרְכַּת הַהַבְדָּלָה פּוֹתַחַת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא סְמוּכָה לְבִרְכַּת הַנֵּר וְהַבְּשָׂמִים הוֹאִיל וְהֵן קְצָרוֹת.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלד שֶׁ"הַעֲרֶב" הִיא בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,23 וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לְבִרְכַּת הַהַבְדָּלָה, לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַבְדָּלָה אֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה לְעוֹלָם לְבִרְכַּת הַנֵּר וְהַבְּשָׂמִים,לה שֶׁאִם רוֹצֶה מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַנֵּר וּבְשָׂמִים בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַבְדִּיל עַל הַכּוֹס בְּלֹא נֵר וּבְשָׂמִים.לו,24 וּמִטַּעַם זֶה פּוֹתַחַת בִּרְכַּת "אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ" בְּ"בָרוּךְ", לְפִי שֶׁבִּקְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה בְּצִּבּוּר מְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ.לז,25

וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ לוֹמַר "הַעֲרֶב" בְּלֹא וא"ו. אֲבָל יוֹתֵר טוֹב לוֹמַר בְּוא"ו,לח לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם הִיא בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְאוֹמְרָהּ בְּתוֹסֶפֶת וא"ו – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.לט אֲבָל אִם הִיא בְּרָכָה אַחַת וְאוֹמְרָהּ בְּלֹא וא"ו – הֲרֵי זֶה מַפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה.מ,26 וְכֵן עַל פִּי הַסּוֹדמא הִיא בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, וְיֵשׁ לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן בֵּינְתַיִם, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵשׁ לוֹמַר "וְהַעֲרֶב" בְּוא"ו:מב,27

6 The blessing Ahavah Rabbah or Ahavas Olam28 includes elements that resemble the blessings of the Torah, [e.g.,] “grant our hearts [understanding...] to study and to teach....” Hence its [recitation] absolves one of the obligation to recite the blessings over Torah study if he studies immediately after reciting the Shema and Shemoneh Esreh29 without any interruption.30 If one does so, it appears that the blessing was recited for the sake of Torah study just as it was recited for the recitation of the Shema. If [one did] so, he is not required to recite the blessings [for Torah study] during that entire day, even if he made an interruption, rose [from his studies and became involved in other matters], and then returned to his studies, as will be explained with regard to the blessings over the Torah.31 If, however, one does not study directly after Shemoneh Esreh, he should recite [those] blessings over his [later] studies.

There are others who maintain that one is not required to recite the blessings [for his later Torah study] unless he did not recite the Shema immediately after the blessing Ahavah Rabbah or Ahavas Olam. If, however, he recited [the Shema] immediately afterwards, that is sufficient,32 and [his recitation of Ahavah Rabbah or Ahavas Olam] covers his study for the entire day, just as will be explained with regard to the blessings over Torah study [in subsection 7].

Both these views should be respected: one should make a point of reciting the blessings over Torah study before the prayer service rather than relying on the blessing Ahavah Rabbah or Ahavas Olam if he will not study directly after Shemoneh Esreh as mandated by the first opinion. Also, [if one omitted the blessings over Torah study in the morning, having recited Ahavas Olam followed by the Shema], he should not recite the blessings for Torah study on the subjects he studies afterwards, as mandated by the second opinion.

ו בִּרְכַּת "אַהֲבָה רַבָּה" אוֹ "אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם",מג,28 הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ מֵעֵין בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה "וְתֵן בְּלִבֵּנוּ לִלְמֹד וּלְלַמֵּד כו'" – הֲרֵי זוֹ פּוֹטֶרֶת מִלְּבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָהמד אִם לָמַד אַחַר קְרִיאַת שְׁמַעמה וּתְפִלָּהמו,29 מִיָּד בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק,30 שֶׁאָז נִרְאֵית בְּרָכָה לְשֵׁם עֵסֶק הַתּוֹרָהמז כְּמוֹ לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, וְאָז לֹא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם אֲפִלּוּ הִפְסִיק וְעָמַד וְחָזַר לְלִמּוּדוֹ עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה.מח,31 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ לוֹמֵד מִיָּד אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל מַה שֶׁיִּלְמֹד.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמט שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵן לֹא קָרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע מִיָּד אַחַר "אַהֲבָה רַבָּה" אוֹ "אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם", אֲבָל אִם קָרָא מִיָּד אַחֲרֶיהָ – דַּיָּהּ בְּכָךְ,32 וּפוֹטֶרֶת לִמּוּד שֶׁל כָּל הַיּוֹם עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה.

וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם, וּלִזָּהֵר לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה, וְלֹא לִסְמֹךְ עַל "אַהֲבָה רַבָּה" אוֹ "אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם" אִם לֹא יִלְמֹד מִיָּד אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּהנ כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה עַל מַה שֶׁיִּלְמֹד אַחַר כָּךְ כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה:

7 There are authorities who maintain that there is no need to study immediately after reciting the blessings over Torah study. Instead, even if one made an interruption between the blessing and his studies, the same laws apply as if he made an interruption in the midst of his studies, as will be explained. [These blessings] do not resemble the blessings over the mitzvos or the blessings recited upon receiving a pleasurable benefit. [In those instances,] if one makes an interruption between the blessing and the beginning of the act over which the blessing was recited, one must repeat the blessing. [The rationale there is that] one has license to postpone that activity until later if he so desires.33 Accordingly, when he makes an interruption between the blessing and the activity, it appears that the blessing is not linked to that activity.

Torah study, [it is argued,] is different. Since one is obligated to be occupied with it at all times, making an interruption between the blessing and the study is of no consequence for he is obligated to study at the time he made the interruption.

Some authorities hold otherwise. It is proper to take their words into account and be careful not to make any interruption at all, as is the practice with regard to the other mitzvos. Thus it has become customary to recite the Priestly Blessing directly after the blessings over Torah study. Since [this passage] is being recited as study (and not as a remembrance of the Priestly Blessing) it may be recited even before the morning dawns, even though the Priestly Blessing is not conferred at night.

According to all opinions, [different laws apply] if one began studying after reciting the blessings over Torah study, then stopped studying and became involved in his own matters and later returned to his studies. He is not required to recite a blessing again, if he is a person who is accustomed to studying the Torah continuously. For even when he leaves [his studies] to become involved in earning his livelihood, he hurries as fast as he can to accomplish what he must so that he can return to his studies. Hence this activity is not considered an interruption with regard to the blessing, for at the time he is involved [in earning his livelihood], his mind is on his studies.

Similarly, going to the bathhouse or the lavatory is not considered an interruption, for even there he does not divert his attention from studying afterwards.34 Likewise, if one lies down to sleep but cannot sleep, this is not considered an interruption, for while he is still awake, his mind is on his studies. So, too, if he takes a brief nap, laying his head on his arms, this is not considered an interruption.

If, however, one sleeps on his bed for a substantial time,35 this is considered an interruption.36 Similarly, when a person whose practice is not to study at all times recites the blessing, studies his fixed measure, and departs for his own concerns, diverting his attention from studying any more that day, then changes his mind and decides to study again, he must recite a blessing again.

Some authorities maintain that the blessings for Torah study resemble the Morning Blessings; i.e., it was ordained that they be recited only once a day. Accordingly, even if one slept on his bed for a substantial time or departed for his own concerns and diverted his attention, he is not required to recite a blessing again. This has become the accepted custom.

When one studies at night, all authorities agree that as long as he does not sleep, he is not required to recite the blessings again, for [in this context] the night follows [on from the preceding] day. When one sleeps for a substantial time and rises before dawn,37 all authorities agree that one is required to recite [these] blessings. For even according to the latter opinion which likens them to the Morning Blessings, the time for [the recitation of] the Morning Blessings also [begins] before daylight, as soon as one wakens.38

If one remains awake throughout the entire night, according to the first opinion there is no need39 for him to recite the blessings [over Torah study] at daybreak as long as he has not diverted his attention from his studies. According to the latter opinion one is required to recite [these] blessings at daybreak, like the other Morning Blessings which are customarily recited even though their respective obligations have not been incurred.40 A person who desires to be free of doubt should listen to another person reciting the blessings over Torah study, if possible, and intend to fulfill his obligation in this manner. If that is not possible, he should recite the blessings himself.41

ז וּכְשֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנא שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִלְמֹד מִיָּד אַחֲרֶיהָ, אֶלָּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִפְסִיק בֵּין בְּרָכָה לְלִמּוּדוֹ – דִּינוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הִפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע לִמּוּדוֹ וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר, וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָהנב לְבִרְכַּת הַמִצְווֹתנג וּלְבִרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִיןנד שֶׁאִם הִפְסִיק בֵּין בְּרָכָה לְהַתְחָלַת עֲשִׂיָּה שֶׁעָלֶיהָ מְבָרֵךְ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאִם רָצָה שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ עַד לְאַחַר שָׁעָה הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ,33 וּלְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַעֲשִׂיָּה נִרְאֶה שֶׁאֵין אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה חוֹזֶרֶת עַל אוֹתָהּ עֲשִׂיָּה, אֲבָל תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה שֶׁחַיָּב לַעֲסֹק בָּהּ תָּמִידנה כְּשֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּין בְּרָכָה לַלִּמּוּד – לֹא חָשִׁיב הֶפְסֵק, מֵאַחַר שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ זְמַן שֶׁמַּפְסִיק מְחֻיָּב הוּא לִלְמֹד.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶה.נו וְנָכוֹן לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם וְלִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מִצְווֹת.נז

וְכֵן נָהֲגוּנח לוֹמַר בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים סָמוּךְ לְבִרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאוֹמְרִין אוֹתָהּ לְשֵׁם לִמּוּד (וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם זֵכֶר לִנְשִׂיאַת כַּפַּיִם) – אוֹמְרִין אוֹתָהּ אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר,נט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נְשִׂיאַת כַּפַּיִם בַּלַּיְלָה.ס

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, אִם הִתְחִיל לִלְמֹד אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה וְהִפְסִיק מִלִּלְמֹד וְנִתְעַסֵּק בַּעֲסָקָיו וְחָזַר לְלִמּוּדוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ אִם הוּא אָדָם שֶׁרָגִיל לִלְמֹד תָּמִיד,סא וְאַף כְּשֶׁיּוֹצֵא לְהִתְעַסֵּק בְּפַרְנָסָתוֹ מְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת צְרָכָיו בְּכָל מַה דְּאֶפְשָׁר כְּדֵי לַחֲזֹר וְלִלְמֹד,סב שֶׁעֵסֶק זֶה אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב הֶפְסֵק לְעִנְיַן בְּרָכָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא מִתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ דַּעְתּוֹ עַל לִמּוּדוֹ. וְהוּא הַדִּין לַמֶּרְחָץ וּלְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין הֶפְסֵק,סג לְפִי שֶׁאַף בְּעוֹדוֹ בַּמֶּרְחָץ וּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא – אֵינוֹ מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִלִּלְמֹד אַחַר כָּךְ.סד,34 וְכֵן אִם הִשְׁכִּיב עַצְמוֹ לִישֹׁן וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִישֹׁן – אֵין זֶה הֶפְסֵק, לְפִי שֶׁבְּעוֹדוֹ נֵעוֹר דַּעְתּוֹ עַל לִמּוּדוֹ. וְכֵן אִם יָשַׁן עַל אַצִּילֵי יָדָיו שְׁנַת עֲרַאי – אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק.סה

אֲבָל יָשַׁן שְׁנַת קֶבַע עַל מִטָּתוֹ35 – חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק.סו,36 וְכֵן מִי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לִלְמֹד תָּמִידסז וּבֵרַךְ וְלָמַד שִׁעוּרוֹסח וְיָצָא לַעֲסָקָיו וְהִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִלִּלְמֹד עוֹד בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִלְמֹד – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסט שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה הִיא כְּבִרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ אוֹתָן אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת בַּיּוֹם,ע וּלְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ יָשַׁן שְׁנַת קֶבַע עַל מִטָּתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא לַעֲסָקָיו וְהִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ. וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ.עא

וּכְשֶׁלּוֹמֵד בַּלַּיְלָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא יָשַׁן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,עב שֶׁהַלַּיְלָה הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַיּוֹם. וּכְשֶׁיָּשַׁן שְׁנַת קֶבַע וְהִשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם עֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר37 – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,עג שֶׁאַף לִסְבָרָא אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא כְּבִרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר – הֲרֵי גַּם בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר זְמַנָּן הוּא גַּם כֵן קֹדֶם אוֹר הַיּוֹם,עד מִיָּד שֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ.38

וְאִם הָיָה נֵעוֹר כָּל הַלַּיְלָהעה – לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֵין צָרִיךְ39 לְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִלִּלְמֹד, וְלַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָהעו – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם,עז כְּמוֹ שְׁאָר בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶן.עח,40 וְהָרוֹצֶה לָצֵאת יְדֵי סָפֵק – יִשְׁמַע בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה מֵאַחֵר וְיִתְכַוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹעט אִם אֶפְשָׁר, וְאִם לָאו – יְבָרֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ:41

8 A person who rises before daybreak to study should [first] recite the blessings over Torah study. He need not recite them again in the synagogue, even if he is the sheliach tzibbur and leading the congregational prayers, as stated in sec. 46[:8] and sec. 6[:4].

ח הַמַּשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם אוֹר הַיּוֹם לִלְמֹד – מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה.פ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ39 בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתפא אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא שְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר וְיוֹרֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן מ"ופב וְסִימָן ו':פג

9 If one rises before daybreak, he may recite the entire order of blessings with the exception of the blessing HaNosein LaSechvi Binah.42 As to the passage regarding the daily burnt-offering, see sec. 1,43 [which states that] one should wait until daybreak to recite it. If one heard a rooster crow, he may recite the blessing HaNosein LaSechvi Binah from immediately after midnight.

One should preferably wash his hands before reciting the blessings over study. If water is not available, he may recite the blessings and study without washing his hands, though he must at least clean [them] with a stone, dust, or a beam, as stated in sec. 4.44

ט הַמַּשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם אוֹר הַיּוֹםפד – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ כָּל סֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת,פה חוּץ מִבִּרְכַּת "הַנּוֹתֵן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה"פו,42 וְ"פָרָשַׁת הַתָּמִיד", עַיֵּן סִימָן א'פז,43 שֶׁיַּמְתִּין מִלְּאָמְרָהּ עַד שֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם.פח וְאִם שָׁמַע קוֹל תַּרְנְגוֹלפט – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ "הַנּוֹתֵן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה" מִיָּד אַחַר חֲצוֹת לַיְלָה.צ

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יִטֹּל יָדָיו קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ לִלְמֹד.צא וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַיִם – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ וְלִלְמֹד בְּלֹא נְטִילָה, רַק שֶׁיְּנַקֶּה יָדָיו בִּצְרוֹר אוֹ בְּעָפָר אוֹ בְּקוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ד':צב,44

10 Women should recite the blessings before Torah study, for they are obligated to study [the laws governing] the [positive] mitzvos which relate to them45 so that they will know how to observe them, and [they need to know] how to avoid violating all of the prohibitive commandments, which devolve upon them as upon men.46 They are also obligated to pray as men are, as will be explained in sec. 106[:2]. (Moreover, the blessings over Torah study are recited before the passage describing the daily burnt-offering and their obligation is equal to that of men with regard to the recitation of that passage,47 for the prayers were ordained in place of the daily burnt-offerings.)48

י נָשִׁים מְבָרְכוֹת בִּרְכוֹת הַתּוֹרָה,צג שֶׁהֲרֵי חַיָּבוֹת לִלְמֹד מִצְווֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן,צד,45 לֵידַע הֵיאַךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתָןצה וְהֵיאַךְ לִזָּהֵר מִכָּל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהֵן מֻזְהָרוֹת בָּהֶן כַּאֲנָשִׁים,צו,46 וְהֵן חַיָּבוֹת בִּתְפִלָּה כְּמוֹ אֲנָשִׁיםצז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ק"וצח (וְעוֹדצט שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה מְבָרְכִין קֹדֶם "פָּרָשַׁת הַתָּמִיד"ק וּבִקְרִיאַת "פָּרָשַׁת הַתָּמִיד"47 הֵן שָׁווֹת לָאֲנָשִׁים,קא שֶׁהֲרֵי תְּפִלָּה בִּמְקוֹם תָּמִיד תִּקְּנוּהָ):קב,48