SECTION 46 Laws Relating to the Morning Blessings and Other Blessings. (1–11)

סימן מו הִלְכוֹת בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר וּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 Our Sages ordained that the Morning Blessings be recited [in appreciation for the renewal of] the natural order and its functioning, from which the created beings derive benefit every day. For this they should bless the Holy One, blessed be He, the first time they derive such benefit every day.1

[This enables them] to complete the quota of 100 blessings that a person is required to recite every day, [beginning] in the evening and [continuing throughout the day. This obligation] was instituted by King David as a result of the following incident.2 [At that time,] 100 Jews were dying every day for no known reason. King David investigated and through Divine inspiration understood [what was necessary. In response,] he instituted [the requirement to recite] 100 blessings every day.

There is an allusion to this concept [in a verse that refers to King David]. The phrase,3 “the words of the man elevated on high” can be interpreted as meaning “the words of the man by whom 100 [blessings] were instituted,” for the numerical equivalent of על [“on high”] is 100.

There is also support for this concept from [a verse in] the Torah:4 “And now, O Israel, what does G‑d, your L‑rd, ask of you? Only to fear G‑d... [and to love Him].” [Our Sages interpret5 this non-literally:] “Do not read מה [meaning ‘what’], but rather מאה, [meaning ‘100’].” This refers to the 100 blessings whose purpose is [to remind one] “to fear G‑d... and to love Him,”6 and to remember Him at all times through the blessings that are continually recited in the evening, morning, and midday in the three prayer services, through the Morning Blessings, and through the other blessings [whose recitation is] instituted every day, at all times.

There are 100 blessings [that are recited], even on a fast day: 57 for the three Shemoneh Esreh prayers,7 two before the recitation of the Shema in the Evening Service and three afterwards when including [the blessing] Yiru Eineinu,8 bringing the total to 62. At the evening meal, eight blessings are recited: Al Netilas Yadayim, HaMotzi, the four of Grace, one before the cup of wine over which Grace is recited and one afterwards,9 bringing the total to 70. Afterwards, when going to sleep, one recites HaMapil, and in the morning Al Netilas Yadayim, Asher Yatzar, and E-lohai Neshamah, bring the total to 74. The fifteen blessings from HaNosen LaSechvi until HaGomel Chassadim Tovim bring the total to 89. The three blessings for Torah study, the two blessings recited over tefillin, the one over tzitzis, Baruch SheAmar, Yishtabach, the two blessings before the Shema, and the one after it bring the total to 100.

On Shabbos we are missing 36 [blessings] from the three Shemoneh Esreh prayers,10 the two blessings on the tefillin, and the blessing Yiru Eineinu. We do, however, add seven blessings for the Musaf [Shemoneh Esreh], 16 for the two [additional] Shabbos meals, two for the evening Kiddush when it is recited over wine, and one for the daytime Kiddush, making a total of 26. We are thus lacking thirteen [from the total of 100]. These must be compensated for by reciting blessings over fruits and various kinds of [fragrant] spices.

If [fruit or spices] are not available, one should listen attentively to the blessings recited by the people reading the Torah11 and by the maftir and respond Amen, as is stated in sec. 284[:7]. If, however, one does not hear the blessing, then even if he knows which blessing is being recited and responds Amen to it, [this blessing] is not counted towards his total of 100 blessings.

By contrast, when fruits are available [and one can reach the sum of 100 blessings by partaking of them], he cannot fulfill his obligation by listening to the [above] blessings.12

On Yom Kippur,13 one may smell fragrances and fill the quota of 100 blessings [in that manner]. Nevertheless, a blessing cannot be recited every time [one smells a fragrance] unless his attention is diverted in the interim, as stated in sec. 217.14 As to the remainder [of the blessings], one should listen attentively to the blessings in the repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh by the sheliach tzibbur. This practice should also be followed by a person who begins a fast before sunset and thus lacks the eight blessings of the evening meal.

א בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַרא תִּקְּנוּם חֲכָמִים עַל סֵדֶר הָעוֹלָם וְהַנְהָגָתוֹב מַה שֶּׁהַבְּרִיּוֹת נֶהֱנִין בְּכָל יוֹם,ג שֶׁיְּבָרְכוּ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל זֶה בְּפַעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁנֶּהֱנִין הֲנָאָה זוֹ,ד בְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם,1 לְהַשְׁלִים מִנְיַן הַמֵּאָה בְּרָכוֹתה שֶׁחַיָּב כָּל אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹםו מֵעֶרֶב וְעַד בֹּקֶר,ז כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִּקֵּן דָּוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם,ח עַל יְדֵי מַעֲשֶׂה2 שֶׁהָיוּ מֵתִים בְּכָל יוֹם מֵאָה נְפָשׁוֹת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִים עַל מָה הָיוּ מֵתִים, עַד שֶׁחָקַר וְהֵבִין בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְתִקֵּן מֵאָה בְּרָכוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם. וְרֶמֶז לַדָּבָר3 "נְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר הֻקַם עָלט", "עָל" בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא ק'. וְסֶמֶךְ לַדָּבָר מִן הַתּוֹרָהי,4 "וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם לְיִרְאָה אֶת ה'",5 אַל תִּקְרֵי "מָה" אֶלָּא "מֵאָה".יא

וְהֵן מֵאָה בְּרָכוֹת, שֶׁהֵן לְיִרְאָה אֶת ה'יב וּלְאַהֲבָה אוֹתוֹ6 וּלְזָכְרוֹ תָּמִיד,יג עַל יְדֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ תָּמִיד עֶרֶב וָבֹקֶר וְצָהֳרַיִם בְּג' תְּפִלּוֹת וּבִרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר וּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת הַקְּבוּעוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם וּבְכָל עֵת. וְהֵן ק' בְּרָכוֹתיד אַף בְּיוֹם הַתַּעֲנִית:טו נ"ז בְּג' תְּפִלּוֹת,טז,7 וּב' לִפְנֵי קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁל עַרְבִית וְג' לְאַחֲרֶיהָיז עִם "יִרְאוּ עֵינֵינוּ"יח,8 – הֲרֵי ס"ב. וּבִסְעוּדַת הַלַּיְלָה מְבָרֵךְ ח' בְּרָכוֹת: "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם"יט וְ"הַמּוֹצִיא"כ וְד' שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,כא וְעַל כּוֹס שֶׁבְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיוכב,9 – הֲרֵי ע'. וְאַחַר כָּךְ "בִּרְכַּת הַמַּפִּיל" כְּשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לִישֹׁן,כג וְ"עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" בַּשַּׁחַר,כד וַ"אֲשֶׁר יָצַר" וֶ"אֱלֹהַי נְשָׁמָה"כה – הֲרֵי ע"ד. וְט"ו בְּרָכוֹת מֵ"הַנּוֹתֵן לַשֶּׂכְוִי" עַד "הַגּוֹמֵל חֲסָדִים טוֹבִים"כו – הֲרֵי פ"ט. וְג' בִּרְכוֹת הַתּוֹרָה,כז וּב' שֶׁל תְּפִלִּין,כח וְאַחַת שֶׁל צִיצִית,כט וּ"בָרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר", וְ"יִשְׁתַּבַּח",ל וּשְׁתַּיִם לִפְנֵי קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְאַחַת לְאַחֲרֶיהָלא – הֲרֵי ק'.

וּבְשַׁבָּת חָסְרוּ מִג' תְּפִלּוֹת10 – ל"ו בְּרָכוֹת,לב וּב' בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל תְּפִלִּין,לג וּבִרְכַּת "יִרְאוּ עֵינֵינוּ".לד וְנִתּוֹסְפוּ ז' שֶׁל מוּסָף,לה וְט"ז שֶׁל ב' סְעוּדוֹת,לו וּב' שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ הַלַּיְלָה כְּשֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס,לז וְאַחַת שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹםלח – הֲרֵי כ"ו. חָסְרוּ י"ג – צָרִיךְ לְמַלֹּאוֹתָן בְּפֵרוֹת וּמִינֵי בְּשָׂמִים.לט וְאִם אֵין לוֹמ – יְכַוֵּן וְיִשְׁמַע בִּרְכוֹת הַקּוֹרְאִין בַּתּוֹרָה11 וְהַמַּפְטִירמא וְיַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֵיהֶן אָמֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רפ"ד.מב אֲבָל אִם לֹא יִשְׁמַע הַבְּרָכָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה בְּרָכָה מְבָרֵךְ וְעוֹנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ אָמֵן – אֵינָהּ עוֹלָה לוֹ לְמִנְיַן ק' בְּרָכוֹת.מג אֲבָל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בִּשְׁמִיעַת הַבְּרָכוֹת.12

וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים13 יָכוֹל לְהָרִיחַ וּלְמַלֹּאות מִנַּיִן ק' בְּרָכוֹת,מד אַךְ אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל פַּעַם אִם לֹא בְּהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת,מה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"ז,מו,14 וְהַשְּׁאָר יְכַוֵּן בִּשְׁמִיעַת הַבְּרָכוֹת בַּחֲזָרַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִּבּוּר.מז וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה מִי שֶׁמִּתְעַנֶּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁחָסְרוּ לוֹ ח' שֶׁל סְעוּדַת הַלַּיְלָה:

2 [Initially, the Sages] ordained that each of the Morning Blessings should be recited at the time its obligation is incurred.15 Thus, when one wakes from sleep16 he should say E-lohai Neshamah.17 When he hears a rooster crow, he should recite the blessing HaNosen LaSechvi Binah.18 When he puts on his shirt, while lying down, he should recite the blessing Malbish Arumim.19 When he touches his eyes, using his shirt as a buffer, he should recite the blessing Pokeiach Ivrim.20 (If, however, he does not use his shirt as a buffer, it is forbidden [for him] to touch his eyes before washing his hands, as sec. 421 states.)22

When he sits up, he should recite the blessing Matir Asurim,23 for he is moving his limbs which were as if fettered the entire night. When he stands up, he should recite the blessing Zokeif Kefufim,24 for his body was bent over throughout the night and is now standing upright. When he places his feet on the ground, he should recite the blessing Roka HaAretz Al HaMayim.25

When he puts on his shoes, he should recite the blessing SheAsah Li Kol Tzorki.26 One should not alter the wording of the blessing and use the plural form — tzrachai, reading the chaf with a kamatz — because this blessing refers only to the wearing of shoes, which is a necessity for man. (As to the fulfillment of one’s other needs, one recites a separate blessing for each of them when he enjoys the relevant benefit.)

When one walks, he should recite the blessing HaMeichin Mitzadei Gaver.27 There are those who choose the wording Asher Heichin [Mitzadei Gaver].28 When he puts on his belt or his gartl which sets apart his private parts, he should recite the blessing Ozer Yisrael BiGevurah.29 When he puts his hat or turban on his head, he should recite the blessing Oter Yisrael BeSifarah.30

Why is the name Yisrael (“Israel”) mentioned in these two blessings and not in the others? For the belt and the hat serve a different purpose for the Jewish people than for the other nations. For other nations they are [worn] only for their bodily benefit, whereas for Jews they also serve the purpose of modesty and holiness. The belt separates the heart from the private parts,31 and by wearing a hat one averts having his head uncovered. Although according to the letter of the law [leaving one’s head uncovered] involves no prohibition, [covering it] is a characteristic of modesty and holiness, for by doing so one causes a reverence for Heaven to abide over one’s head.32

When one washes his hands, he should recite the blessing Al Netilas Yadayim.33 When he washes his face, he should recite the blessing HaMaavir Sheinah MeiEinai34 and continue ViYehi Ratzon... until the conclusion: Baruch Atah A-donai Gomel35 Chassadim Tovim LeAmo Yisrael. [A listener] should not respond Amen36 after the phrase HaMaavir Sheinah MeiEinai... before ViYehi Ratzon, for the entire passage is one long37 blessing, which begins with Baruch and concludes with Baruch. Although the conclusion of a blessing must resemble its beginning,38 it is possible to explain that “the generous kindness” [which G‑d bestows upon Israel] is the kindness that He shows by removing the cords of sleep from one’s eyes.

ב בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר נִתְקְנוּ לְבָרֵךְ כָּל אַחַת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ.מח,15 דְּהַיְנוּ, כְּשֶׁיֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹמט,16 – יֹאמַר "אֱלֹהַי נְשָׁמָה".נ,17 וּכְשֶׁשּׁוֹמֵעַ קוֹל הַתַּרְנְגוֹל – יְבָרֵךְ "הַנּוֹתֵן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה".18 וּכְשֶׁלּוֹבֵשׁ חֲלוּקוֹ וְהוּא מֻשְׁכָּבנא – יְבָרֵךְ "מַלְבִּישׁ עֲרֻמִּים".19 וּכְשֶׁיַּנִּיחַ יָדוֹ עַל עֵינָיו דֶּרֶךְ חָלוּקנב (אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא דֶּרֶךְ הֶחָלוּק אָסוּר לְהוֹשִׁיט יָד לָעַיִן קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ד'נג,21)22 – יְבָרֵךְ "פּוֹקֵחַ עִוְרִים".20 וּכְשֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב – יְבָרֵךְ "מַתִּיר אֲסוּרִים",23 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֵּנִיעַ עַצְמוֹתָיו שֶׁהָיוּ כָּל הַלַּיְלָה כְּמוֹ כְּפוּתִים,נד וּכְשֶׁזּוֹקֵף – יְבָרֵךְ זוֹקֵף כְּפוּפִים,24 שֶׁהָיְתָה קוֹמָתוֹ כְּפוּפָה כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וְעַכְשָׁו עָמְדָה עַל מַעֲמָדָהּ.נה וּכְשֶׁיַּנִּיחַ רַגְלָיו בָּאָרֶץ – יְבָרֵךְ "רוֹקַע הָאָרֶץ עַל הַמָּיִם".25 וּכְשֶׁנּוֹעֵל מִנְעָלָיונו – יְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁעָשָׂה לִי כָּל צָרְכִּי".26 וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַנֻּסָּח וְלוֹמַר "צְרָכָי" – הַכ"ף בְּקָמַץ, שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים,נז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּרָכָה זוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא עַל נְעִילַת מִנְעָלִים שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ הָאָדָם (וְעַל שְׁאָר צְרָכָיו – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כְּשֶׁנֶּהֱנָה מֵהֶם). וּכְשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ – יְבָרֵךְ "הַמֵּכִין מִצְעֲדֵי גָבֶר".נח,27 וְיֵשׁ נּוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "אֲשֶׁר הֵכִין".נט,28 וּכְשֶׁחוֹגֵר חֲגוֹרוֹס אוֹ לוֹבֵשׁ הָאַבְנֵטסא הַמַּפְסִיק בֵּינוֹ לָעֶרְוָהסב – יְבָרֵךְ "אוֹזֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְבוּרָה".29 וּכְשֶׁמֵּשִׂים כּוֹבַעסג אוֹ מִצְנֶפֶת בְּרֹאשׁוֹ – יְבָרֵךְ "עוֹטֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתִפְאָרָה".סד,30

וְלָמָּה הֻזְכְּרוּ שֵׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּב' בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ וְלֹא בָּאֲחֵרוֹת? לְפִי שֶׁהַחֲגוֹרָהסה וְהַכּוֹבַע בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֵינָם כְּמוֹ בָּאֻמּוֹת, שֶׁבָּאֻמּוֹת אֵינָן אֶלָּא לַהֲנָאַת הַגּוּף בִּלְבַד, אֲבָל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם גַּם כֵן מִשּׁוּם צְנִיעוּת וּקְדֻשָׁה, הַחֲגוֹרָה – לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין לִבּוֹ לָעֶרְוָה,סו,31 וְהַכּוֹבַע – שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בְּגִלּוּי הָרֹאשׁ, וְאַף שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בָּזֶה מִן הַדִּין, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדַּת צְנִיעוּת וּקְדֻשָׁה הוּא,סז שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָּךְ מַמְשִׁיךְ מוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם עַל רֹאשׁוֹ.סח,32

וּכְשֶׁנּוֹטֵל יָדָיו – יְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם".סט,33 וּכְשֶׁנּוֹטֵל פָּנָיו – יְבָרֵךְ "הַמַּעֲבִיר שֵׁנָה מֵעֵינַי34 וְכו' וִיהִי רָצוֹן כו' עַד בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' גּוֹמֵלע,35 חֲסָדִים טוֹבִים לְעַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל". וְאֵין לַעֲנוֹת אָמֵן36 אַחַר "הַמַּעֲבִיר שֵׁנָה מֵעֵינַי" קֹדֶם "וִיהִי רָצוֹן",עא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכֹּל בְּרָכָה אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה37 – פּוֹתַחַת בְּ"בָרוּךְ" וְחוֹתֶמֶת בְּ"בָרוּךְ".עב וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַחֲתִימָה מֵעֵין הַפְּתִיחָה,עג,38 יֵשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁ"גּוֹמֵל חֲסָדִים טוֹבִים" הוּא הַחֶסֶד שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁמַּעֲבִיר חֶבְלֵי שֵׁנָה מֵעֵינָיו:

3 At present, [however,39] because our hands are not clean40 [immediately upon rising] and because there are unlettered people who do not know [how to recite the blessings], it has become customary to [recite] them in order in the synagogue.41 [The common people] respond Amen and fulfill their obligation [in this manner].42 [This delay is acceptable] because these blessings do not resemble the blessings over the mitzvos, whose recital must precede the performance of [the mitzvos],43 for the latter blessings bless Him “Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to perform....” By contrast, since the [Morning] Blessings express praise and grateful acknowledgment, they can be recited afterwards.44 Even if one hears the crow of a rooster at midnight, it is possible to recite the [appropriate] blessing in the morning. [The rationale is that] since [in any case] the blessing is being recited after the fact, the Sages did not specify a measure of proximity.

ג עַכְשָׁו39 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הַיָּדַיִם נְקִיּוֹתעד,40 וְגַם מִפְּנֵי עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת שֶׁאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים אוֹתָן – נָהֲגוּ לְסַדְּרָן בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת41 וְהֵם עוֹנִין אַחֲרֵיהֶן אָמֵן וְיוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן,עה,42 שֶׁבְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵינָן דּוֹמִין לְבִרְכוֹת הַמִצְווֹת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן,עו,43 לְפִי שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת", אֲבָל בְּרָכוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁהֵן שֶׁבַח וְהוֹדָאָה – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָן גַּם אַחַר כָּךְ.עז,44 וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁמַע קוֹל תַּרְנְגוֹל בַּחֲצוֹת – יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בַּשַּׁחַר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּאַחַר מִכֵן מְבָרֵךְ – לֹא נָתְנוּ בָּהֶם חֲכָמִים שִׁעוּר תְּכִיפָה:עח

4 There are three other blessings which a person is required to recite every day: Shelo Asani Goy [which praises G‑d “Who has not made me a non-Jew”]; Shelo Asani Aved [which praises G‑d “Who has not made me a bondman”]; and Shelo Asani Ishah [which praises G‑d “Who has not made me a woman”].45

Even a person held captive should recite the blessing Shelo Asani Aved. [Though he may now be physically enslaved,] this blessing was not instituted [to give thanks] for freedom from slavery, but rather [in thanks for our obligation to perform mitzvos,] for a bondman is obligated to fulfill only the commandments that devolve upon a woman.46

Some authorities hold that a convert47 should say, “...Who made me a convert,” for when he converted he became like a newborn infant;48 i.e., he became a newly created entity.49 He should not say, “...Who did not make me a non-Jew,” because at the outset he was indeed made as a non-Jew.

He should nevertheless recite the blessing [praising G‑d] “Who has not made me a bondman,” although he was originally a non-Jew and thus of lower status than a bondman, because he had the potential to convert and become obligated by all the mitzvos. If he were a bondman, by contrast, he would not be able to win his freedom unless his master freed him.

Other authorities hold that [a convert] should not use wording [that praises G‑d] for making [him] a convert, for he converted according to his own choice; he chose the Jewish faith. [However,] the Kabbalists teach that these blessings relate to [the return of one’s soul after] it departed at night; [they thank G‑d] that the soul of a non-Jew, servant, or woman did not attach itself to it. Accordingly, a convert, too, may recite this blessing [and use the phrase, “Who did not make me a non-Jew”].50

Women customarily recite the blessing SheAsani Kirtzono.51 This is as if one is accepting G‑d’s judgment for something undesirable.52

ד וְעוֹד ג' בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁחַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל יוֹם: "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי גּוֹי" וְ"שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי עָבֶד" וְ"שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי אִשָּׁה".עט,45 וַאֲפִלּוּ הַשָּׁבוּי יֹאמַר "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי עָבֶד",פ שֶׁאֵין הַבְּרָכָה עַל הַחֵרוּת מֵהָעַבְדוּת, אֶלָּא עַל שֶׁאֵין הָעֶבֶד חַיָּב אֶלָּא בְּמִצְווֹת שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה חַיֶּבֶת בָּהֶם.פא,46

וְגֵר47 – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁיֹּאמַר "שֶׁעָשַׂנִי גֵּר",פב כִּי כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה גֵּר הוּא כְּקָטָן שֶׁנּוֹלַדפג,48 וְנַעֲשָׂה בְּרִיָּה וַעֲשִׂיָּה חֲדָשָׁה.49 אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי גּוֹי",פד שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה גּוֹי בִּתְחִלַּת עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֹאמַר "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי עָבֶד".פה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה נָכְרִי וְגָרוּעַ מֵעֶבֶד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הָיָה יָכוֹל לְהִתְגַּיֵּר וּלְהִתְחַיֵּב בְּכָל הַמִצְווֹת.פו אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עֶבֶד – לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לְהִשְׁתַּחְרֵר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵן שִׁחְרְרוֹ רַבּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפז שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁעָשַׂנִי גֵּר", כִּי נִתְגַּיֵּר עַל יְדֵי בְּחִירָתוֹ שֶׁבָּחַר בְּדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּלְפִי דִּבְרֵי הַמְקֻבָּלִיםפח שֶׁבְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן עַל יְצִיאַת נִשְׁמָתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁלֹּא נִדְבַּק בָּהּ נִשְׁמַת גּוֹי אוֹ עֶבֶד אוֹ אִשָּׁה – גַּם הַגֵּר יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ כֵּן.50

וְהַנָּשִׁים נוֹהֲגוֹת לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁעָשַׂנִי כִּרְצוֹנוֹ",פט,51 וְהוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁמַּצְדִּיק עָלָיו אֶת הַדִּין עַל הָרָעָה:צ,52

5 When these blessings are recited in order in the synagogue, they should be recited in the order in which their respective obligations are incurred, in each place according to its local custom. For example, in places where people do not walk barefoot at all but put on shoes first and then walk, one should recite the blessing HaOseh53 Li Kol Tzorki before the blessing HaMeichin Mitzadei Gaver. In places where people sometimes walk barefoot within their homes and then put on their shoes when they go out of doors, they should recite the blessing HaMeichin Mitzadei Gaver first. (Similar concepts apply with regard to [the order of] the blessings Pokeiach Ivrim and Malbish Arumim.54)

If one erred with regard to the order of these blessings55 it is of no consequence, except with regard to the blessings Matir Asurim and Zokeif Kefufim. If one recites the blessing Zokeif Kefufim before the blessing Matir Asurim, one should one should not repeat the blessing Matir Asurim, because [thanking G‑d for the ability to] stand upright includes [thanking Him for the ability to] release one’s limbs and move them. Why then should a second blessing be recited [in acknowledgment] of this?

By contrast, if one recited the blessing Shelo Asani Aved first, he should nevertheless repeat the blessing Shelo Asani Goy. [The rationale is that] although a non-Jew is of lower status than a bondman,56 in a certain regard he is superior to the bondman. For a bondman has no recognized lineage; i.e., [a bondman’s child] is not considered [his father’s son] but only his mother’s,57 as with an animal, as it is written,58 “You abide here with the donkey,” which is interpreted as meaning, “with people59 who are comparable to a donkey.” This [disability] does not apply to gentiles.60 Moreover, a non-Jew may convert on his own initiative and become a fule-fledged Jew, whereas a bondman cannot.61

Similarly, if one first recited the blessing Shelo Asani Ishah, one should nevertheless go back and recite the blessing for not having been made a non-Jew or a bondman. For a woman does not have the option of becoming obligated by all the mitzvos, as does a non-Jew who may convert or a bondman whose master may free him. One [therefore] ought to give thanks to the Omnipresent Who did not assign him a lot like that of [even] the most elevated of these [categories], and instead [enabled him] to have the merit of serving G‑d and being closer to Him than all of them.

ה כְּשֶׁמְּסַדְּרִין אוֹתָן בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – יֵשׁ לְסַדְּרָן כְּסֵדֶר שֶׁמִּתְחַיְּבִין בָּהֶןצא כָּל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם לְפִי מִנְהָגוֹ.צב כְּגוֹן בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הוֹלְכִין יָחֵף כְּלָל וְנוֹעֲלִים מִנְעָלִים תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוֹלְכִין – מְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה "הָעוֹשֶׂהצג,53 לִי כָּל צָרְכִּי" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "הַמֵּכִין מִצְעֲדֵי גָבֶר".צד וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהוֹלְכִין קְצָת יָחֵף בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹעֲלִין כְּשֶׁיּוֹצְאִין לַשּׁוּקצה – מְבָרְכִין "הַמֵּכִין מִצְעֲדֵי גָבֶר תְּחִלָּה"צו (וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן "פּוֹקֵחַ עִוְרִים" וּ"מַלְבִּישׁ עֲרֻמִּים").צז,54

וְאִם טָעָה בְּסֵדֶר הַבְּרָכוֹת55 – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, חוּץ מִבִּרְכַּת "מַתִּיר אֲסוּרִים" וְ"זוֹקֵף כְּפוּפִים", שֶׁאִם בֵּרַךְ "זוֹקֵף כְּפוּפִים" – לֹא יַחֲזֹר וִיבָרֵךְ "מַתִּיר אֲסוּרִים",צח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּכְלַל זְקִיפַת הַקּוֹמָה הוּא הַתָּרַת הָאֵיבָרִים וּתְנוּעָתָם, וְלָמָּה יַחֲזֹר לְבָרֵךְ עַל זֶה שֵׁנִית.צט

אֲבָל אִם בֵּרַךְ תְּחִלָּה "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי עָבֶד" – יַחֲזֹר לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי גּוֹי"ק אַף שֶׁהַגּוֹי גָּרוּעַ מֵהָעֶבֶד,56 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַעֲלָה בַּגּוֹי שֶׁאֵינָהּ בָּעֶבֶד,קא שֶׁהָעֶבֶד אֵין לוֹ יִחוּס, שֶׁאֵין זַרְעוֹ מְיֻחָס אַחֲרָיו אֶלָּא אַחֲרֵי הָאֵםקב,57 כְּמוֹ בִּבְהֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:קג,58 "שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר – עַם59 הַדּוֹמֶה לַחֲמוֹר",קד מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵן בְּנָכְרִי.קה,60 וְגַם, הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לְהִתְגַּיֵּר מֵעַצְמוֹ וְלִהְיוֹת כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גָּמוּר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵן בָּעֶבֶד.קו,61

וְכֵן אִם בֵּרַךְ תְּחִלָּה "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי אִשָּׁה" – יַחֲזֹר לְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי גּוֹי וְעֶבֶד",קז שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִתְחַיֵּב בְּכָל הַמִצְווֹת כְּמוֹ נָכְרִי שֶׁיִּתְגַּיֵּר וְעֶבֶד שֶׁיְּשַׁחְרְרוֹ רַבּוֹ, וְצָרִיךְ לִתֵּן הוֹדָאָה לַמָּקוֹם בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁלֹּא שָׂם חֶלְקוֹ כַּמְעֻלֶּה שֶׁבָּהֶם,קח אֶלָּא זָכָה לַעֲבֹד ה' וְלִהְיוֹת קָרוֹב אֵלָיו יוֹתֵר מִכֻּלָּם:

6 In these countries,62 it is customary to recite the blessing HaNosen LaYaeif Ko’ach. This was instituted by the Geonim after the completion [of the composition] of the Talmud63 because of the dissipation of vigor that took hold of the world. Every day a person’s strength is renewed, as it is written,64 “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness.” When a mortal entrusts an object to a friend, he returns it worn and damaged. Yet every person entrusts his weary soul to the Holy One, blessed be He, in the evening, and He returns it to him, renewed and composed. Hence the Geonim saw fit to compose a blessing [in acknowledgment] of this great kindness.

There are, however, those who question its recitation, because after the completion of the Talmud no individual has the authority to ordain [the recitation of] a blessing. This argument, [however,] is not sufficient to displace the custom instituted by the Geonim.65 (All authorities agree that a blessing which was not instituted by the Geonim or that was ordained by them but did not become widespread and was not practiced by the majority of the [Jewish] community should not be recited at all. Printers should therefore be admonished not to print “Blessed are You, G‑d...” at the conclusion of various supplications and requests, for all authorities agree that these are blessings recited in vain.) Similarly, there are those who are accustomed to recite other, additional blessings in the morning, e.g., “Blessed... Who supports the fallen,” and “Blessed... Who raises up the lowly.” This is an error; these blessings should not be recited at all.

ו בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ62 נּוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ "הַנּוֹתֵן לַיָּעֵף כֹּחַ".קט וְתִקְּנוּהוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים אַחַר חֲתִימַת הַתַּלְמוּד,63 מִפְּנֵי תַּשׁוּת כֹּחַ שֶׁיָּרְדָה לָעוֹלָם,קי וּבְכָל יוֹם מִתְחַדֵּשׁ כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ:קיא,64 "חֲדָשִׁים לַבְּקָרִים רַבָּה אֱמוּנָתֶךָ",קיב בָּשָׂר וָדָם מַפְקִיד פִּקָּדוֹן אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ וְהוּא מַחֲזִירוֹ בָּלוּי וּמְקֻלְקָל, וְכָל אָדָם מַפְקִיד נִשְׁמָתוֹ אֵצֶל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְעֵת עֶרֶב עֲיֵפָה וְהוּא מַחְזִירָהּ לוֹ חֲדָשָׁה וּרְגוּעָה, וְרָאוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים לְתַקֵּן בְּרָכָה עַל הַחֶסֶד הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה.

וְיֵשׁ מְפַקְפְּקִים לְאָמְרָהּ,קיג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין כֹּחַ בְּיַד שׁוּם אָדָם לְתַקֵּן בְּרָכָה אַחַר חֲתִימַת הַתַּלְמוּד.קיד וְאֵין בָּזֶהקטו כְּדַאי לִדְחוֹת הַמִּנְהָג וְתַקָּנַת הַגְּאוֹנִים65 (אֲבָל בְּרָכָה שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּהָ הַגְּאוֹנִים, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְפַּשְּׁטָה תַּקָּנָתָם וְלֹא נָהֲגוּ בָּהּ רֹב הַצִּבּוּר – אֵין לְאָמְרָהּ כְּלָל לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל. וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הַמַּדְפִּיסִים שֶׁלֹּא לְהַדְפִּיס "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה'" בְּסוֹף כַּמָּה תְּחִנּוֹת וּבַקָּשׁוֹת,קטז כִּי הֵן בְּרָכוֹת לְבַטָּלָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל). וְכֵן מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ נּוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ בַּשַּׁחַר בְּרָכוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת נוֹסָפוֹת, כְּגוֹן "בָּרוּךְ סוֹמֵךְ נוֹפְלִים"קיז בָּרוּךְ מַגְבִּיהַּ שְׁפָלִיםקיח טָעוּת הוּא בְּיָדָםקיט וְאֵין לְאָמְרָם כְּלָל:קכ

7 [There is a difference of opinion regarding the proper course of action when one] did not become obligated to recite one of the Morning Blessings; e.g., he did not hear a rooster crow, did not walk, did not get dressed, did not gird himself, (or remained awake the entire night and hence there was no need to “remove the cords of sleep from [his] eyes”).66 Some hold that one should not recite a blessing for which he has not become obligated.

Others maintain that all the blessings that were instituted [in appreciation of the renewal of] the natural order and its functioning, e.g., [the blessing praising G‑d for] giving the rooster the understanding to crow, or for extending the earth above the waters, should be recited even when one does not become obligated to do so. [The latter authorities hold that] nevertheless, those blessings that involve one’s individual benefit, e.g., [the blessing praising G‑d for] clothing the naked, directing the steps of man, girding Israel with strength, or crowning Israel [with splendor] should not be recited if their obligation is not incurred, as in the case of a person who remains lying in bed unclothed.

Yet other authorities maintain that even if one did not at all become obligated to recite [one of] these blessings, one should recite them all in order, because these blessings were not instituted in appreciation for one’s individual pleasure alone. Rather, we bless the Holy One, blessed be He, Who created whatever the world needs. [Even] if a particular individual does not derive [a certain] benefit, others do. This is the common practice; no one should deviate from it.67

There are those who hold that, nevertheless, a blind person should not recite the blessing [which praises G‑d] “Who opens the eyes of the blind,” because this refers to a factor which he is physically lacking. Yet [even according to this view] a deaf person may recite the blessing [praising G‑d] “Who grants the rooster the understanding [to crow at daybreak],” for the faculty of hearing is not mentioned in the blessing.

As an initial and preferred option, it is desirable that one incur the obligation to recite all the blessings if possible. (If it is impossible [to incur the obligation to recite] all of them, one should at least walk, dress, gird oneself, and put on a hat,68 before reciting the appropriate blessings, in order to show deference to the second opinion.)

ז כָּל בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר אִם לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן,קכא כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע קוֹל תַּרְנְגוֹל, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָלַךְ, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לָבַשׁ, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָגַר (אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה נֵעוֹר כָּל הַלַּיְלָהקכב וְלֹא הֻצְרַךְ לְהַעֲבִיר חֶבְלֵי שֵׁנָה מֵעֵינָיו),66 יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכג שֶׁאוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ – לֹא יֹאמְרֶנָּה.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכד שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁהֵן עַל סִדּוּרוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם וְהַנְהָגָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן "הַנּוֹתֵן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה" וְ"רוֹקַע הָאָרֶץ" – מְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶן, אֲבָל הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁהֵן לַהֲנָאָתוֹ כְּגוֹן "מַלְבִּישׁ עֲרֻמִּים" וְ"הַמֵּכִין מִצְעֲדֵי גָבֶר"קכה וְ"אוֹזֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְבוּרָה" וְ"עוֹטֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל" אִם לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשּׁוֹכֵב עַל מִטָּתוֹ עָרֹם – לֹא יֹאמְרֵן כְּלַל.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכו שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב בָּהֶן כְּלָל – יְבָרֵךְ כֻּלָּן כְּסִדְרָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הַבְּרָכוֹת עַל הֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא מְבָרְכִין שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּרָא צָרְכֵי הָעוֹלָם, וְאִם הוּא אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנָה – אֲחֵרִים נֶהֱנִין.קכז וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.קכח,67

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרקכט שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן סוּמָא לֹא יְבָרֵךְ "פּוֹקֵחַ עִוְרִים", כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר הֶחָסֵר בְּגוּפוֹ. אֲבָל חֵרֵשׁ יְבָרֵךְ "הַנּוֹתֵן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה", כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁמִיעַת הָאֹזֶן אֵינָהּ מֻזְכֶּרֶת בַּבְּרָכָה.

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לְהָבִיא עַצְמוֹ לִידֵי חִיּוּב כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹקל (וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּכֻלָּן, עַל כָּל פָּנִים יֵשׁ לוֹ לֵילֵךְ וְלִלְבֹּשׁ וְלַחְגֹּר וּלְעַטֵּר68 קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּסַדֵּר בִּרְכוֹתֵיהֶן, כְּדֵי לָחוּשׁ לִסְבָרָא שְׁנִיָּה):

8 In some places people customarily recite the blessings over Torah study69 before the passage describing the daily offering. Though they thus recite many Scriptural verses before the blessings over Torah study,70 they need not be concerned about this, because they are reciting them as supplications, not as study nor as readings from the Torah.

Nevertheless, the more correct custom is to recite the blessings [for Torah study] immediately after [the blessings] Asher Yatzar and E-lohai Neshamah (or after Gomel Chassadim Tovim and Yehi Ratzon...)71 before reciting any verse from Scripture.72

During the days of Selichos,73 one should recite the blessing[s] over Torah study before Selichos and omit [them] afterwards.74 This custom should be instituted everywhere. If there is one person who did not yet recite [these blessings], he should later recite [them] from the lectern [of the sheliach tzibbur], in communities where it is customary for [them] to be recited from that lectern in order to enable those who do not know [how to recite them] to fulfill their obligation. This practice should also be followed on Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur.75

ח יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹתקלא שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְסַדֵּר בִּרְכוֹת הַתּוֹרָהקלב,69 קֹדֶם פָּרָשַׁת "תָּמִיד".קלג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹמְרִים פְּסוּקִים הַרְבֵּה קֹדֶם בִּרְכוֹת הַתּוֹרָה70 – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָזֶה,קלד הוֹאִיל וְאוֹמְרִים אוֹתָן דֶּרֶךְ תַּחֲנוּנִים וְלֹא דֶּרֶךְ לִמּוּד וּקְרִיאָה בַּתּוֹרָה.קלה אֲבָל יוֹתֵר נָכוֹן מִנְהַג הַנּוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ מִיָּד אַחַר "אֲשֶׁר יָצַר"קלו וֶ"אֱלֹהַי נְשָׁמָה"קלז (אוֹ אַחַר "גּוֹמֵלקלח חֲסָדִים טוֹבִים"קלט וִ"יהִי רָצוֹן כו'")71 קֹדֶם שֶׁאוֹמְרִים שׁוּם פָּסוּק מִן הַמִּקְרָא.קמ,72

וּבִימֵי הַסְּלִיחוֹת73 יְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה קֹדֶם הַסְּלִיחוֹתקמא וִידַלְּגֶנָּה אַחַר כָּךְ.74 וְכֵן יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג בְּכָל מָקוֹם.קמב וְאִם יֵשׁ אֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא אֲמָרָהּ עֲדַיִן – יֵרֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְיֹאמְרֶנָּה אַחַר כָּךְ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְאָמְרָהּ לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ.קמג וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם כִּפּוּר:75

9 It is desirable that after [reciting the verse] Shema Yisrael... in the morning [before the prayer service], one recite the words, Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso LeOlam Vaed.76

[The rationale for this early reading is that] sometimes the congregation recites hymns77 during the recitation of the blessing Yotzer Or and delays the recitation of the Shema, reading it [after] its appropriate time. [By reciting the verse Shema Yisrael (and its accompanying sentence) earlier,] they fulfill their obligation according to the opinion that Scriptural Law [requires the recitation of] only the first verse [of the Shema].

Nevertheless, though one recites [these two sentences before the prayer service] every day, he should not intend to fulfill his obligation thereby unless he fears that the congregation will delay the recitation of the Shema beyond the required time. When, however, they will not delay to this extent, it is preferable to fulfill [the mitzvah of] reciting the Shema together with the congregation and to recite it as required by law, [framed by] its blessings, and [thereby] linking [the blessing Gaal Yisrael]78 to She­moneh Esreh.

When one fears that the congregation will overstep the time limit for the recitation [of the Shema], he should recite the whole of its first passage, in order to fulfill his obligation according to the authorities who maintain that the Scriptural obligation is to recite the whole of the first passage. (According to the opinion that the Scriptural obligation also includes the passage VeHayah Im Shamoa, that passage should also be recited. One should have in mind that if the congregation will overstep the time limit for the recitation of the Shema, he will have fulfilled his obligation with his present recitation. If not, that [earlier] recitation will be considered [merely] as reading [verses of] the Torah.)

With regard to the remembrance of the Exodus from Egypt:79 The mitzvah is to recall it, too, at the time the Shema is recited.80 Nevertheless, [to fulfill this requirement,] one may rely on the recollection of the Exodus from Egypt in the prayers of Pesukei DeZimrah, for example: “I am G‑d, your L‑rd, Who brought you up from the Land of Egypt.”81

ט טוֹב לוֹמַר בְּשַׁחֲרִית אַחַר "שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגו'" – "בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד",קמד,76 כִּי לִפְעָמִים אוֹמְרִים הַצִּבּוּר פִּיּוּטִים77 בְּ"יוֹצֵר"קמה וְשׁוֹהִין עַד קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע לִקְרוֹתָהּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּזְמַנָּהּ, וְיוֹצֵא בָּזֶה לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםקמו שֶׁפָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹמֵר כֵן בְּכָל יוֹם – לֹא יִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בָּזֶה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיָּרֵא שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר יַעַבְרוּ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,קמז אֲבָל כְּשֶׁלֹּא יַעַבְרוּ – מוּטָב לָצֵאת יְדֵי קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע עִם הַצִּבּוּר וְלִקְרוֹתָהּ כְּדִינָהּ בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָקמח וְלִסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה78 לִתְפִלָּה.קמט וּכְשֶׁיָּרֵא שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר יַעַבְרוּ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַעקנ – יֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹת כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָהקנא כְּדֵי לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, לְהָאוֹמְרִיםקנב שֶׁכָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה (וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁגַּם פָּרָשַׁת "וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ וְגו'" הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה – יֵשׁ לִקְרוֹתָהּ גַּם כֵּן, וִיכַוֵּן שֶׁאִם יַעַבְרוּ הַצִּבּוּר זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע – יִהְיֶה יוֹצֵא בָּזֶה, וְאִם לָאו – יִהְיֶה כְּקוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה).קנג

אֲבָל זְכִירַת יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם79 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּצְוָתָהּ גַּם כֵן בִּזְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,קנד,80 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יוּכַל לִסְמֹךְ עַל זְכִירַת יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם שֶׁבִּפְסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה,קנה כְּגוֹן "אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמַּעַלְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם":קנו,81

10 In these countries, where it is customary to recite the passage Atah Hu Ad SheLo Nivra HaOlam,82 one should not change the wording and say, Atah Hu Ad SheLo Barasa....83

(Some people follow the custom of concluding this passage with the words, “Blessed are You, G‑d, Who sanctifies [His name among the multitude].” It is proper to conclude the passage without mentioning G‑d’s name, since this blessing is not mentioned in our Talmud. (Even with regard to the Talmud Yerushalmi, some versions do not include G‑d’s name in the conclusion. Similarly, we do not find that the Geonim ordained that G‑d’s name be mentioned here, as they did ordain in the blessing HaNosen LaYaeif Ko’ach.) Nevertheless, since this custom was practiced, its practice was continued. A person who [refrains from reciting this blessing, because he] desires to be vigilant over the doubt as to whether he is reciting a blessing in vain, is therefore acting in a desirable manner.)84

י בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "אַתָּה הוּא עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם כו'"קנז,82 – אֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַנֻּסְחָא וְלוֹמַר "אַתָּה הוּא עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּרָאתָ"קנח,83 (אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁנָּהֲגוּ לַחְתֹּם "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' מְקַדֵּשׁ כו'"קנט – מִן הָרָאוּי הָיָה שֶׁלֹּא לַחְתֹּם בְּשֵׁם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הֻזְכְּרָה בְּרָכָה זוֹ בַּתַּלְמוּד שֶׁלָּנוּקס (וְגַם בְּתַלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִיקסא יֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין גּוֹרְסִין בּוֹ הַזְכָּרַת הַשֵּׁם בַּחֲתִימָתָהּ,קסב וְגַם הַגְּאוֹנִים לֹא מָצִינוּ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בָּהּ הַזְכָּרַת הַשֵּׁםקסג כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בְּ"הַנּוֹתֵן לַיָּעֵף כֹּחַ"),קסד אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ – נָהֲגוּ. לְפִיכָךְ, הָרוֹצֶה לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַכְנִיס עַצְמוֹ לִסְפֵק בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה – יָפֶה הוּא עוֹשֶׂה):קסה,84

11 According to the mystical tradition one should recite the verse,85 “And I, through Your abundant kindness, [come into Your house],” before entering the synagogue.86 Upon entering, one should recite the phrase,87 “Let us walk in G‑d’s house with [inspired] feeling.” One should also [verbally] accept [the observance of] the positive commandment to “love your neighbor as yourself” before prayer.88

There is an authority who received the tradition that one should recite the first paragraph of Shema Yisrael when setting out from his home for the synagogue.

יא עַל פִּי הַסּוֹדקסו יֵשׁ לוֹמַר פָּסוּק85 "וַאֲנִי בְּרֹב חַסְדְּךָ"קסז קֹדֶם בּוֹאוֹ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.86 וּבִכְנִיסָתוֹ יֹאמַר87 "בְּבֵית אֱלֹהִים נְהַלֵּךְ בְּרָגֶשׁ".קסח וִיקַבֵּל עָלָיוקסט מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂהקע שֶׁל "וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ"קעא קֹדֶם תְּפִלָּה.88 וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁקַּבָּלָה בְּיָדוֹ לוֹמַר פָּרָשָׁה "שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל" כְּשֶׁיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּיתוֹ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת:קעב