SECTION 38 Who is Obligated to Wear Tefillin and Who is Not. (1–11)

סימן לח מִי הֵם הַחיַיָּבִים בִּתְפִלִּין וְהַפְּטוּרִים, וּבוֹ יא סְעִיפִים:

1 A person suffering from a digestive ailment is exempt from wearing tefillin.1 [This applies] even if he does not have any pain and is able to walk about in the marketplaces and streets, for he cannot vigilantly maintain his state of [bodily] purity2 while wearing them. He should not make a stringent demand upon himself [and wear tefillin] except during the recitation of the Shema and the Shemoneh Esreh, and [even at those times] only when it appears to him that he will be able to maintain his bodily purity. (The proper conduct for one who cannot refrain from venting wind during the Shemoneh Esreh is discussed in sec. 80.)

א חוֹלֵה מֵעַיִם – פָּטוּר מִן הַתְּפִלִּין,א,1 אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ צַעַר,ב וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹלֵךְ בַּשְּׁוָקִים וּבָרְחוֹבוֹת,ג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין יָכוֹל לִזָּהֵר בָּהֶן הֵיטֵבד לִשְׁמֹר אֶת עַצְמוֹ בִּנְקִיּוּת.2 וְאֵין לוֹ לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ בָּזֶה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה,ה וְהוּא שֶׁנִרְאֶה לוֹ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְּגוּף נָקִיו (וְכֵיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִשָּׁמֵר אֶת עַצְמוֹ מֵהָפִיחַ בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּפִלָּה – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן פ):

2 As to other illnesses, if the illness causes aggravation to the point that the person is unable to concentrate, he is exempt [from wearing tefillin], because it is forbidden to divert one’s attention from them. If he will not [be distracted], he is obligated [to wear tefillin], even though he is ill.

ב אֲבָל שְׁאָר חוֹלֶה,ז אִם מִצְטַעֵר בְּחָלְיוֹ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי צַעֲרוֹ – פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהֶן. וְאִם לָאו – חַיָּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חוֹלֶה:ח

3 Women and Canaanite servants3 are exempt from wearing tefillin,4 because it is a positive commandment whose observance is dependent on a specific time, for Shabbos and the festivals are times when tefillin should not be worn.5

If women desire to undertake the stringency of wearing [tefillin], an objection should be expressed,6 because they do not know how to maintain a state of bodily purity.

ג נָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים כְּנַעֲנִים3 – פְּטוּרִים מִתְּפִלִּין,ט,4 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא,י שֶׁהֲרֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אֵינָן זְמַן תְּפִלִּין.יא,5 וְאִם רָצוּ הַנָּשִׁים לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמָן וְלַהֲנִיחָן – מוֹחִין בְּיָדָן,6 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעוֹת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת עַצְמָן בִּנְקִיּוּת:יב

4 A person wearing tefillin must be on guard against erotic thoughts.7 If he cannot bar such thoughts, it is preferable for him not to put on [tefillin]. This applies when he definitely knows that he will not be able to control his thoughts. If, however, he is in doubt about this, he should not refrain from [fulfilling] the mitzvah of tefillin.8

ד הַמֵּנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר מֵהִרְהוּר תַּאֲוַת הָאִשָּׁה,7 וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּלֹא הִרְהוּרִים – טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לַהֲנִיחָם.יג וְהוּא שֶׁיָּדוּעַ לוֹ בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יְהַרְהֵר, אֲבָל מִסָּפֵק לֹא יִמָּנַע מִמִּצְוַת תְּפִלִּין:יד,8

5 On the first day of mourning, i.e., on the day of burial,9 a mourner is forbidden to put on tefillin10 because tefillin are alluded to as “glory,”11 as in the verse,12 “Bind your glory upon yourself.” A mourner’s “standard is sullied with dust,”13 and it is not appropriate to set “glory in the place of dust.”14

But [from] the second day, he is obligated [to wear] tefillin.15 For the bitterest grief is experienced only on the first day, as is implied by the phrase,16 “And its end is like a bitter day.”

Nevertheless, [even on the second day, the mourner] should not put [on tefillin] until after sunrise. For then, part of the time when tefillin can be worn has passed, and we follow the principle that17 “part of the day is considered as the entire day,” as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 388[:1].

Once a mourner has put on tefillin, he should not remove them, even if people who have not visited before18 come to comfort him. The initial and preferred practice, however, is that he should not put on [tefillin] in their presence, but [should wait] until they leave.

(The laws regarding tefillin on Tishah BeAv are explained in sec. 555.19)

ה אָבֵל בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אֲבֵלוּת,טו דְּהַיְנוּ בְּיוֹם הַקְּבוּרָהטז,9 – אָסוּר לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין,יז,10 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתְּפִלִּין נִקְרָאִין פְּאֵר,יח,11 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:יט,12 "פְּאֵרְךָ חֲבוֹשׁ עָלֶיךָ", וְאָבֵל מְעוֹלָל בֶּעָפָר קַרְנוֹ13 וְאֵין נָאֶה לָתֵת פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר.כ,14

אֲבָל בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב בִּתְפִלִּין,כא,15 שֶׁעִקַּר הַמְּרִירוּת אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד,כב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:כג,16 "וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר". וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יָנִיחַ עַד אַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, שֶׁאָז כְּבָר עָבַר מִקְצָת זְמַן הָרָאוּי לַהֲנָחַת תְּפִלִּין, וְאָמְרִינָןכד,17 מִקְצָת הַיּוֹם כְּכֻלּוֹ,כה כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן שפח.כו וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵנִיחַ – שׁוּב אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵץ, אֲפִלּוּ בָּאוּ פָּנִים חֲדָשׁוֹת,כז דְּהַיְנוּ מְנַחֲמִים חֲדָשִׁיםכח,18 שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ אֶתְמוֹל. אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יָנִיחַ בִּפְנֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ לָהֶםכט (וְדִין תְּפִלִּין בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקנה):ל,19

6 A bridegroom, his attendants, and all the members of his company at the time they feast [with him], are exempt [from putting on tefillin],20 because commonly they are intoxicated and lightheaded.21

Although they are obligated to recite the Shema, they must recite [it] without tefillin.22 Similarly, they are exempt from reciting the Shemoneh Esreh, because the joy in their hearts will prevent them from concentrating. This [exemption] does not apply to the recitation of the Shema, for after the fact, the requirement to concentrate one’s attention relates only to [its] first verse. It is easy for [the celebrants] to focus their concentration while reciting [that] verse, and they may recite the remainder [of the Shema] without concentrated attention.23

In the present era, when we do not focus our attention so effectively during the Shemoneh Esreh even when we are not attending a wedding celebration, a bridegroom and the members of his company should not exempt themselves from Shemoneh Esreh because of a lack of concentration. Indeed, the custom is to interrupt the celebration when the time for prayer arrives. Similarly, the [present] custom is to put on tefillin, for since the celebration is interrupted and the company rises for prayer, there is no reason to fear that there will be lightheadedness during prayer.

In the earlier generations, by contrast, they would not interrupt the celebration in order to pray, but would recite the Shema in the midst of the celebration. Hence, they were exempt from putting on tefillin, out of fear that while wearing them they would become lightheaded, as is common in the midst of a celebration.

There are those who [differ and] maintain that the bridegroom, his attendants, and all the company involved in the celebration are considered to be engaged in performing a mitzvah and thereby exempt from observing other mitzvos. Thus they are exempt from reciting the Shema, and needless to say they are exempt [from reciting] the Shemoneh Esreh or [wearing] tefillin, even in the present age.

Although the common practice is to follow the former opinion, one who adopts the leniency of the latter opinion is not remiss. Therefore in the summer months, when at times a wedding feast continues into the morning, [the wedding company] are exempt from all [of the above mitzvos] — provided the bridegroom is [still] feasting with them, for [only] then is [the celebration] a mitzvah according to the latter opinion.

ו חָתָן וְשׁוֹשְׁבִינָיו וְכָל בְּנֵי הַחֻפָּה בִּשְׁעַת הַמִּשְׁתֶּה – פְּטוּרִים,לא,20 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמָּצוּי בָּהֶן שִׁכְרוּת וְקַלּוּת רֹאשׁ.לב,21 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחַיָּבִין בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַעלג – קוֹרִין קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּלֹא תְּפִלִּין.לד,22 וְכֵן פְּטוּרִין מִן הַתְּפִלָּה,לה לְפִי שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שִׂמְחַת לִבָּם לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַוֵּן,לו מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁמִּצְוַת כַּוָּנָתָהּ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּפָסוּק רִאשׁוֹן בְּדִיעֲבַד, וּבְקַל יוּכְלוּ לְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתָּם לְכַוֵּן בְּפָסוּק רִאשׁוֹן, וְהַשְּׁאָר יֹאמְרוּ בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה.לז,23

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מְכַוְּנִים כָּל־כָּךְ בַּתְּפִלָּה גַּם בְּלֹא שִׂמְחַת נִשּׂוּאִין – אֵין לֶחָתָן וּלְכָל בְּנֵי הַחֻפָּה לִפְטֹר אֶת עַצְמָן מֵהַתְּפִלָּה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כַּוָּנָה,לח וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין הַמִּשְׁתֶּה כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַן תְּפִלָּה. וְנוֹהֲגִין גַּם כֵּן לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין,לט שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וְעוֹמְדִים וּמִתְפַּלְלִים – שׁוּב אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְקַלּוּת רֹאשׁ בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּפִלָּה. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּדוֹרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ מַפְסִיקִין הַמִּשְׁתֶּה כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל וְהָיוּ קוֹרִין קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּשְׁתֶּה – הָיוּ פְּטוּרִין מִתְּפִלִּין שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹאוּ בָּהֶן לִידֵי קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ, שֶׁהוּא מָצוּי בִּשְׁעַת הַמִּשְׁתֶּה.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמ שֶׁחָתָן וְשׁוֹשְׁבִינָיו וְכָל בְּנֵי הַחֻפָּה הָעוֹסְקִים בַּמִּשְׁתֶּה – נִקְרָאִים עוֹסְקִים בְּמִצְוָה לְעִנְיָן שֶׁפְּטוּרִין מִשְּׁאָר מִצְוֹת, לָכֵן הֵם פְּטוּרִים גַּם כֵּן מִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע,מא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מִן הַתְּפִלָּה וּמִן הַתְּפִלִּין אֲפִלּוּ בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה.

וְהַמֵּקֵל כִּסְבָרָא זוֹ – לֹא הִפְסִיד,מב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְלָכֵן בִּימוֹת הַקַּיִץ שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים סְעוּדַת הַנִּשּׂוּאִין הִיא נִמְשֶׁכֶת עַד הַבֹּקֶר – פְּטוּרִין מִכֻּלָּם, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הֶחָתָן מֵסֵב עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁאָז הִיא מִצְוָה לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה:

7 Scribes writing Torah scrolls, tefillin, and mezuzos while they are engaged in their work, and similarly their salesmen and their salemen’s agents, who do not seek to make a profit24 and buy [these religious articles] in order to distribute them by selling them to those who need them, and similarly all others who engage in religious occupations,25 are exempt from putting on tefillin throughout the entire day26 — except while reciting the Shema and Shemoneh Esreh — in order to fully accept upon themselves the yoke of Heaven,27 and also in order not to bear false testimony regarding themselves.28

When does the above apply? When they are not occupied with their work at the time appropriate for reciting the Shema. If, however, they are occupied with it at that time, they are not required to interrupt [their tasks] in order to recite the Shema and the Shemoneh Esreh,29 even if the statutory time [for these prayers] elapses. At the outset, however, [such individuals] are forbidden to begin [their tasks] from shortly before the time when the recitation of the Shema [becomes incumbent upon them]. (See sec. 72[:2, which discusses similar laws].)

If, however, they began their work before that time, or even if they began at a forbidden time, they are not required to interrupt themselves to recite the Shema. [This applies] even though they have time to engage in their work after reciting the Shema,30 and the Shema is a mitzvah whose observance has a limited time frame.31 [They are exempt,] nonetheless, [because] anyone who is occupied with the performance of a mitzvah is exempt from the observance of another mitzvah,32 even though it is possible for him to fulfill them both.33 For whenever one is involved in a task that serves the Omnipresent, the Torah does not obligate him to take the trouble to observe other mitzvos even though that is within his capacity.34

For this reason, a person who is standing watch over a corpse is exempt from putting on tefillin, reciting the Shema or the Shemoneh Esreh, or observing any other mitzvos,35 even though it is within his capacity to observe all the mitzvos. Similarly, one who digs a grave for a corpse is exempt from them all, even though he rests for a while.36 For even while he is resting, he is considered to be occupied in the performance of a mitzvah, because through resting, his strength will be restored and he will be able to resume his digging. He is therefore exempt [from the obligation to perform mitzvos] even though they are within his capacity.

However, though a person wearing tefillin is performing a mitzvah, he is not deemed to be occupied with [its] performance to the extent that he is exempt from all other mitzvos37 — except when he is actually putting on [the tefillin], but not when he walks about while wearing them throughout the day. The same applies to a person who finds a lost object belonging to a friend and keeps it in his drawer. Though he is fulfilling a mitzvah the entire time he keeps it in his drawer,38 he is not considered to be occupied with the performance of a mitzvah to the extent that he is exempt from other mitzvos [at that time]. This principle governs all analogous situations.

Even if a person is occupied in the observance of one mitzvah and another one presents itself, and he can perform them both without any difficulty, [then, in the spirit of the principle that]39 “by being good [one] should not be called evil,” he should discharge both obligations. The Sages taught that a person occupied with the observance of a mitzvah is exempt from the observance of another mitzvah only when the additional observance requires separate effort. [There is no exemption] when the same degree of effort is needed to observe them both, and while going about the performance of the first mitzvah one can discharge both obligations.

ז כּוֹתְבֵי סְתָ"םמג בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעוֹסְקִין בִּמְלַאכְתָּןמד וְכֵן תַּגָּרֵיהֶם וְתַגָּרֵי תַּגָּרֵיהֶם – שֶׁהֵם לוֹקְחִין כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיאָן לְמָכְרָן לְמִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָהֶם,מה וְאֵין כַּוָּנָתָם כְּדֵי לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר,מו,24 וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹסְקִים בִּמְלֶאכֶת שָׁמַיִם25 – פְּטוּרִין מֵהֲנָחַת תְּפִלִּיןמז כָּל הַיּוֹם,26 זוּלַת בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה,מח כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל [עָלָיו] עֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִםמט שְׁלֵמָה,נ,27 וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא יָעִידוּ עֵדוּת שֶׁקֶר בְּעַצְמָם.נא,28

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִיםנב? כְּשֶׁאֵינָם עוֹסְקִים בִּמְלַאכְתָּם בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, אֲבָל אִם הֵם עוֹסְקִים – אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְהַפְסִיק מִשּׁוּם קְרִיאַת שְׁמַענג וּתְפִלָּהנד,29 אֲפִלּוּ אִם יַעֲבֹר זְמַנָּם, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֲסוּרִים לְהַתְחִילנה מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ סָמוּךְ לִזְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע (עַיֵּן סִימָן עב).נו

אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִילוּ קֹדֶם לָכֵן, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הִתְחִילוּ בְּאִסּוּרנז – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם שְׁהוּתנח לַעֲסֹק בִּמְלַאכְתָּם אַחַר קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,30 וּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע הִיא מִצְוָה עוֹבֶרֶת,נט,31 אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן כָּל הָעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה פָּטוּר מִמִּצְוָה אַחֶרֶת,ס,32 אֲפִלּוּ אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַיֵּם שְׁתֵּיהֶן,סא,33 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל שֶׁעוֹסֵק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם – לֹא חִיַּבְתּוֹ תּוֹרָה לִטְרֹחַ וּלְקַיֵּם מִצְוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ.סב,34

וְלָכֵן הַמְשַׁמֵּר אֶת הַמֵּת – פָּטוּר מִתְּפִלִּין וּמִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּמִתְפִלָּה וּמִכָּל הַמִצְוֹת,סג,35 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְקַיֵּם כָּל הַמִצְוֹת.סד וְכֵן הַחוֹפֵר קֶבֶר לְמֵת – פָּטוּר מִכֻּלָּם,סה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּח מְעַט,סו,36 שֶׁגַּם בִּשְׁעַת נוּחוֹ נִקְרָא עֲדַיִן עוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵּן יִתְחַזֵּק כֹּחוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלַחְפֹּר,סז וְלָכֵן הוּא פָּטוּר אָז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּכוֹל.

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁלָּבוּשׁ בִּתְפִלִּין,סח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַיֵּם מִצְוָהסט – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא עוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה לְהִפָּטֵר מִכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת37 אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁלּוֹבְשָׁן, אֲבָל לֹא אַחַר־כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בָּהֶן כָּל הַיּוֹם.

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁמָּצָא אֲבֵדָתוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹע וּמְשַׁמְּרָהּ בְּתֵבָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַיֵּם מִצְוָהעא,38 – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא עוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה לְהִפָּטֵר מִכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת כָּל זְמַן הֱיוֹתָהּ בְּתוֹךְ תֵּבָתוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה.

וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה אַחַת וְנִזְדַּמְּנָה לוֹ מִצְוָה אַחֶרֶת,עב וְיָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁתֵּיהֶן כְּאַחַת בְּלֹא שׁוּם טֹרַח – "מִהְיוֹת טוֹב אַל תִּקָּרֵא רַע",עג,39 וְיֵצֵא יְדֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה פָּטוּר מִן הַמִּצְוָה, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטְרֹחַ טִרְחָא בָּעֲשִׂיָּה הָאַחֶרֶת טֹרַח אַחֵר, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁטֹּרַח אֶחָד לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן וּכְדַרְכּוֹ בַּמִּצְוָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה יָכוֹל לָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן:

8 One who feels discomfort, even if he is disturbed because of the cold, and similarly anyone who is unsettled and unable to concentrate, is exempt from putting on tefillin, because it is forbidden to divert one’s attention from tefillin [while wearing them].40

If, however, it is possible for him to compose himself [and concentrate his attention], he is obligated to do so and put them on. For a mourner is obligated [to put on tefillin] from the second day of mourning onward — even though he is grieved and discomposed — because he ought to compose himself and not [focus on] his pain [while wearing tefillin].

ח הַמִּצְטַעֵר,עד אֲפִלּוּ מִצְטַעֵר מִפְּנֵי הַצִּנָּה,עה וְכֵן כָּל מִי שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת וּנְכוֹנָה עָלָיועו וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹעז – פָּטוּר מִן הַתְּפִלִּין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִן הַתְּפִלִּין.עח,40 אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹעט – חַיָּב לְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹ וְלַהֲנִיחָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָבֵל חַיָּב מִיּוֹם שֵׁנִי וְאֵילָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּצְטַעֵרפ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹ וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהִצְטַעֵר:

9 When one is reading the Torah,41 he is exempt from the obligation to wear tefillin the entire day, i.e., he does not have to interrupt his studies to put them on (except) during the time that the Shema and the Shemoneh Esreh are recited so that he can fully accept the yoke of Heaven.42

One is required to interrupt [his studies] to perform any mitzvah that cannot be performed by others, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 240.43 Tefillin, however, [are an exception to this rule,] for with regard to them it is written,44 “[And it shall be...] as a sign upon your hand and as a reminder between your eyes, so that the Torah of G‑d will be in your mouth.” Since one who is studying already has the Torah of G‑d in his mouth, he does not require the “sign” and the “reminder” [which tefillin provide].

If such a person, nevertheless, desires to interrupt [his studies] and put on tefillin, he may also recite the blessing45 over them, despite the fact that he is exempt from making this interruption. For since he desires to interrupt his studies, he is obligated by [the mitzvah of] tefillin as soon as he ceases [studying].

ט הַקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָהפא,41 – פָּטוּר מֵהֲנָחַת תְּפִלִּין כָּל הַיּוֹם, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק מִלִּמּוּדוֹ לַהֲנִיחָם,פב (זוּלַת)פג בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם שְׁלֵמָה.פד,42 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מִצְוָה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים חַיָּב לְהַפְסִיק כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רמ,פה,43 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּתְפִלִּיןפו נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן:פז,44 "לְאוֹת עַל יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ, לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת ה' בְּפִיךָ", וְזֶה שֶׁכְּבָר יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת ה' בְּפִיהוּ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְאוֹת וּלְזִכָּרוֹן.פח

וְאִם רָצָה לְהַפְסִיק וְלַהֲנִיחָן – יָכוֹל גַּם כֵּן לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם,45 שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפָּטוּר מִלְּהַפְסִיק בִּשְׁבִילָן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַפְסִיק מִלִּמּוּדוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב בַּתְּפִלִּין מִיָּד שֶׁמַּפְסִיק:פט

10 One should not remove his tefillin in the presence of his Torah mentor,46 for he is demeaning his [mentor’s] honor by uncovering his head in his presence.47 Instead, one should turn aside in reverence of him and remove one’s tefillin while not in his presence.48

י לֹא יַחֲלֹץ תְּפִלָּיו בִּפְנֵי רַבּוֹ,צ,46 שֶׁמְּזַלְזֵל הוּא בִּכְבוֹדוֹ שֶׁמְּגַלֶּה רֹאשׁוֹ בְּפָנָיו,צא,47 אֶלָּא יִפְנֶה לְצַד אַחֵר מִפְּנֵי אֵימָתוֹ וְיַחֲלֹץ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו:צב,48

11 When one requires both tefillin and a mezuzah but cannot afford to buy both, tefillin take precedence,49 for they are an obligation incumbent on his body.50

At present, when tefillin are customarily worn only while reciting the Shema and the She­moneh Esreh, if one can borrow tefillin from a friend for [this] recitation, [the purchase of] a mezuzah takes precedence, because a mezuzah cannot be borrowed.

(The question of whether a person placed under a ban of ostracism is permitted to put on tefillin is discussed in Yoreh Deah, sec. 334.51)

יא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִתְפִלִּין וְלִמְזוּזָה וְאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִקְנוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם – תְּפִלִּין קוֹדְמִין,49 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם חוֹבַת הַגּוּף.צג,50 וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין מְנִיחִים תְּפִלִּין אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִשְׁאֹל תְּפִלִּין מֵאֲחֵרִיםצד לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה – מְזוּזָה קוֹדֶמֶת שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בִּשְׁאֵלָה.צה

(מְנֻדֶּה, אִם מֻתָּר בִּתְפִלִּיןצו – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן שלד):צז,51