SECTION 31 Laws Relating to [Tefillin] on Shabbos and Festivals. (1–2)

סימן לא דִּין תְּפִלִּין בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים, וּבוֹ ב סְעִיפִים:

1 The Shabbosos and festivals are not times when tefillin should be put on. [This concept is derived as follows:]1 It is written,2 “And it [i.e., the tefillin] shall be a sign for you.” This excludes the Shabbosos and festivals, for they themselves are signs [of the covenant] between the Holy One, blessed be He, and the Jewish people, as it is written,3 “For it [i.e., the Shabbos] is a sign between Me and you.”

[Indeed,] if one puts on [tefillin] with the intent of fulfilling the mitzvah on [Shabbos or on a festival], he transgresses4 the prohibition against adding to the Torah’s commandments.5 Moreover, he disparages the sign [provided] by the Shabbosos and festivals by placing another sign on his person at that time — an affront punishable by death.

If, however, one does not put them on for the sake of performing the mitzvah, but for another reason, this is permitted. On Shabbos, for example, as explained in sec. 301[:51], a person who finds tefillin left in a field may wear them as a garment in order to bring them inside a city.

א שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים – אֵינָן זְמַן תְּפִלִּין,א,1 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ב,2 "וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת וגו'", יָצָא שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁהֵן עַצְמָן אוֹתג בֵּין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּאד לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:ה,3 "כִּי אוֹת הִיא בֵּינִי וגו'".

וְאִם מְנִיחָן בָּהֶם לְשֵׁם מִצְוָהו – עוֹבֵר עַל4 "בַּל תּוֹסִיף",ז,5 וְגַם מְזַלְזֵלח לְאוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים בְּמַה שֶּׁמֵּנִיחַ עָלָיו בָּהֶן אוֹת אַחֵר, וְחַיָּב מִיתָה.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין מְנִיחָן לְשֵׁם מִצְוָתָן אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר – מֻתָּר,ט כְּגוֹן הַמּוֹצֵא תְּפִלִּין בְּשַׁבָּת מֻנָּחִים בַּשָּׂדֶה – מֻתָּר לְלָבְשָׁם וּלְהַכְנִיסָן לָעִיר דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שא:י

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (SIE)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

2 Some authorities6 maintain that it is the obligation to perform the mitzvos associated with the Shabbosos and festivals that constitutes the sign of those days. They therefore hold that Chol HaMoed [like the festival days proper] is also a time when tefillin should not be put on, for certain mitzvos apply during those [intermediate] days: on Pesach, the prohibition against eating chametz, and on Sukkos, the obligation to dwell in a sukkah.

There are, however, others7 who maintain that the sign [represented by the festivals] is solely the prohibition against the performance of work. On Chol HaMoed, therefore, when work is permitted according to Scriptural Law,8 one is obligated [to put on] tefillin.

This is the custom in this entire region:9 to put them on and to recite a blessing. Nevertheless, in the synagogue, the blessing should not be recited aloud as is done throughout the year, in order to show that there is a certain measure of sanctity in the sign [of Chol HaMoed]. Moreover, some authorities hold that one should not recite a blessing for the tefillin on Chol HaMoed. Therefore those who do follow the custom of reciting a blessing recite it in an undertone, so as not to arouse controversy.

The above explains our custom.10 Nevertheless, those who put on [tefillin] without reciting a blessing are acting properly, for when there is doubt whether a blessing should be recited, one should not recite it.11 Besides, reciting a blessing is not an indispensable component of a mitzvah.

Even according to the authorities who maintain that tefillin should not be worn on Chol HaMoed, putting on [tefillin at that time] does not raise questions with regard to the prohibition against adding to the Torah’s commandments. For when putting on the tefillin, the individual does not have in mind that he is [fulfilling] a definite mitzvah, but rather that he is putting them on as a doubtful obligation.12 For this reason [likewise], observing the second day of a festival in the Diaspora is not considered a violation of the prohibition against adding to the Torah’s commandments.13 Needless to say, one need not be concerned with regard to the prohibition against disparaging the sign of Chol HaMoed, for this prohibition also applies only when one has in mind to fulfill a [definite] mitzvah.

ב יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיא,6 שֶׁהָאוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים הוּא חִיּוּב הַמִּצְוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בָּהֶן, וּלְפִיכָךְ גַּם חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד אֵינוֹ זְמַן תְּפִלִּין,יב שֶׁהֲרֵי מִצְוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת בּוֹ: בְּפֶסַח – מְנִיעַת אֲכִילַת חָמֵץ, וּבְחַג – מִצְוַת יְשִׁיבָה בַּסֻּכָּה.יג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיד,7 שֶׁהָאוֹת הוּא אִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה בִּלְבַד, לְפִיכָךְ חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד שֶׁמֻּתָּר בִּמְלָאכָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה8 – חַיָּב בִּתְפִלִּין.טו

וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בְּכָל גְּלִילוֹת אֵלּוּטז,9 לַהֲנִיחָן בַּמּוֹעֵד, וּלְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּקוֹל רָם כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, לְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן קְצָת קְדֻשַּׁת הָאוֹת.יז וְעוֹד,יח לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיט שֶׁאֵין לְבָרֵךְ עַל תְּפִלִּין בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, לָכֵן אוֹתָן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְבָרֵךְ – נָהֲגוּ לְבָרֵךְ בַּחֲשַׁאי, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹא הַדָּבָר לְמַחֲלֹקֶת, זֶהוּ טַעַם מִנְהָגֵינוּ.10

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁמְּנִיחָן בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה – יָפֶה הוּא עוֹשֶׂה,כ כִּי סְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל,כא,11 וּבְרָכוֹת אֵינָן מְעַכְּבוֹת.כב

וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ בַּהֲנָחָתָן לְ"בַל תּוֹסִיף"כג אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד אֵינוֹ זְמַן תְּפִלִּין, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן בַּהֲנָחָתוֹ לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה וַדַּאי, אֶלָּא מִסָּפֵק הוּא מְנִיחָן.12 וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אֵין בִּשְׁמִירַת יוֹם־טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת מִשּׁוּם "בַּל תּוֹסִיף".כד,13 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ מִטַּעַם זֶה לְאִסּוּר זִלְזוּל הָאוֹת שֶׁל חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה גַּם כֵּן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה:כה