SECTION 4 Laws Relating to Washing the Hands. (1–21)

סימן ד דִּינֵי נְטִילַת יָדַיִם, וּבוֹ כא סְעִיפִים:

1 When one gets up in the morning,1 whether he relieves himself or not, he must wash his hands with [at least] a quarter of a lug2 of water from a container.3 [This applies] even if he does not desire to pray until several hours later,4 because when the Holy One, blessed be He, restores one’s soul, he becomes like a newly-created being,5 as in the verse,6 “They are new every morning...” [When retiring at night] a person entrusts his weary soul to the Holy One, blessed be He, Who returns it to him [when he rises in the morning] renewed and rested,7 so that he can exert himself on behalf of G‑d with all his potential and serve Him throughout that day — “for this is the entire purpose of man.”8

We should therefore sanctify ourselves in His holiness by washing our hands from a container [to prepare] to carry out His service and minister to Him, like a kohen who would sanctify his hands from the Basin [in the Beis HaMikdash] every day before [beginning] his service.

The blessing to be recited is Al netilas yadayim, not Al rechitzas yadayim,9 for the Sages call the container used for washing10natla.11 By choosing the term netilah for the blessing, they indicate that a container must be used.12

א כָּל אָדָם הַקָּם מִמִּטָּתוֹ שַׁחֲרִית,א, 1 בֵּין עָשָׂה צְרָכָיו בֵּין לֹא עָשָׂה צְרָכָיו – צָרִיךְ לִרְחֹץ יָדָיו בִּרְבִיעִית הַלֹּג מַיִם2 מִן הַכְּלִי,ב, 3 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל ג עַד לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁעוֹת,4 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל אָדָם כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מַחֲזִיר לוֹ נִשְׁמָתוֹ – נַעֲשֶׂה כִּבְרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה,ד, 5 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: ה, 6 "חֲדָשִׁים לַבְּקָרִים כו'", שֶׁהָאָדָם מַפְקִיד נִשְׁמָתוֹ עֲיֵפָה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מַחֲזִיר לוֹ חֲדָשָׁה וּרְגוּעָה,ו, 7 כְּדֵי לַעֲבֹד לְהַשֵּׁם יִתְבָּרֵךְ בְּכָל יְכָלְתּוֹ, וּלְשָׁרְתוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם, כִּי זֶה כָּל הָאָדָם.ז, 8

לְפִיכָךְ, צְרִיכִים אֲנַחְנוּ לְהִתְקַדֵּשׁ בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ, וְלִטֹּל יָדֵינוּ מִן הַכְּלִי, כְּדֵי לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ וּלְשָׁרְתוֹ, כְּמוֹ כֹּהֵן שֶׁהָיָה מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו מִן הַכִּיּוֹר בְּכָל יוֹם קֹדֶם עֲבוֹדָתוֹ.

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִן הַכְּלִי דַּוְקָא, לָכֵן יְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם", וְלֹא "עַל רְחִיצַת יָדָיִם",9 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכְּלִי שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ נוֹטְלִין לַיָּדַיִם ח,10 – נִקְרָא "נַטְלָא"11 בְּלָשׁוֹן חֲזַ"ל,ט לָכֵן תִּקְּנוּ בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן נְטִילָה, לְהוֹרוֹת דְּצָרִיךְ כְּלִי.י,12

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2 With regard to this washing,13 it is not necessary that the water be poured over one’s hands by a person. Even if one swashed his hands inside a container of water, this is considered as washing.14

ב בִּנְטִילָה זוֹ13 אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ הַמַּיִם עַל יָדָיו מִכֹּחַ אָדָם דַּוְקָא,יא אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ שִׁפְשֵׁף יָדָיו בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל מַיִם – עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה.14

3 If one does not have a container at all [available]15 but instead washes his hands without a container with water that has been drawn,16 or if the water he has does not amount to a reviis of a log, he should nevertheless not refrain from reciting the blessing Al netilas yadayim for this reason. Since he did wash his hands with water that is valid for washing, the Sages did not draw a distinction [and bar the recitation of the blessing in this case].17

[Different rules apply,] however, if one does not have any water that meets the required standards,18 as is explained in sec. 160. If he does not intend to pray until much later, his attention will no doubt be diverted from guarding his hands [from impure contact] and then he will have to wash his hands again before praying.19 In such a case he should not recite any blessing at all on this [first] washing.

If one does not have any water at all,20 but wishes to pray immediately, he should clean his hands with pebbles, with dust, on a beam,21 or with any substance that cleans. In such a case he should recite the blessing [praising G‑d] “Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the cleanliness of the hands.”22

If one does not intend to pray immediately, then should he have slept in his clothes he need not clean his hands at all, and he may recite all the Morning Blessings without washing his hands.23 For unless there is positive knowledge that one’s hands came in contact with a source of impurity, they are not assumed to be in a state that precludes the recitation of a blessing.24 It was only for the recitation of Shema and Shemoneh Esreh that [the Sages] instituted [the requirement of] washing one’s hands.25

If, however, one slept unclothed,26 he is forbidden to pronounce any of the seven names of G‑d which cannot be erased or to utter any words of Torah27 until he cleans his hands, using any substance which serves that purpose. For since his hands are presumably active,28 he probably touched29 parts of his body that [are usually] covered,30 such as the thighs and legs, where there is dried perspiration.

ג אִם אֵין לוֹ כְּלִי כְּלָל,יב, 15 אֶלָּא רוֹחֵץ יָדָיו בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִים16 שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַכְּלִי, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַיִם כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר רְבִיעִית הַלֹּג – לֹא יִמָּנַע בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה מִלְּבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם", מִשּׁוּם דְּלֹא פְּלוּג רַבָּנָן,17 כֵּיוָן שֶׁרוֹחֵץ יָדָיו בְּמַיִם הַכְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילָה.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ כְּלָל מַיִם הַכְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילָה,יג,18 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן בְּסִימָן קס, אִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה,יד בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁיַּסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל טו,19 – אֲזַי לֹא יְבָרֵךְ כְּלָל עַל נְטִילָה זו ֹ.טז

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַיִם כְּלָל,יז,20 אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִיָּד – צָרִיךְ לְנַקּוֹת יָדָיו קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה בִּצְרוֹר אוֹ בְּעָפָר אוֹ בְּקוֹרָה יח,21 אוֹ בְּכָל מִידֵי דִּמְנַקֵּי, וִיבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל נְקִיּוּת יָדָיִם".22

וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִיָּד – אֵין צָרִיךְ אֲפִלּוּ לְנַקּוֹת אֶת יָדָיו, אִם שָׁכַב בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו, וְיָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ כֵּן בְּלִי נְטִילַת יָדַיִם יט,23 כָּל בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר, דִּסְתָם יָדַיִם שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לָהֶם שׁוּם טֻמְאָה – אֵינָן פְּסוּלוֹת לִבְרָכָה,כ,24 שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם אֶלָּא לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה בִּלְבַד.כא,25

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה יָשֵׁן עַל מִטָּתוֹ עָרֹם כב,26 – אָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר [שׁוּם] שֵׁם מִשִּׁבְעָה שֵׁמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נִמְחָקִין, אוֹ לְהוֹצִיא דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה מִפִּיו,כג,27 עַד שֶׁיְּנַקֶּה אֶת יָדָיו בְּכָל מִידֵי דִּמְנַקֵּי, מִשּׁוּם דְּמִסְּתָּמָא נָגַע כד בִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַמְכֻסִּים כה,30 שֶׁבָּאָדָם, כְּגוֹן: שׁוֹק וְיָרֵךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מִלְמוּלֵי זֵעָה, שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם עַסְקָנִיּוֹת הֵן.כו,28

4 Our Sages teach31 that when anyone sleeps sixty [consecutive] breaths at night,32 his soul departs from him and a spirit of impurity comes and rests upon his body. As soon as he awakes from sleep, the spirit of impurity departs from his entire body with the exception of his hands, for it does not depart from them until he pours water over each hand separately three times.33 He should not pour water over each hand three times consecutively,34 but should alternate — first right, then left,35 three times.

ד אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: כז, 31 כָּל הַיָּשֵׁן בַּלַּיְלָה שִׁשִּׁים נְשִׁימוֹת כח, 32 [כֵּיוָן] שֶׁנִּסְתַּלְּקָה מִמֶּנּוּ נִשְׁמָתוֹ – בָּאָה רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה וְשׁוֹרָה עַל גּוּפוֹ, וּמִיָּד שֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ – נִסְתַּלְּקָה רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה מִן כָּל גּוּפוֹ חוּץ מִן יָדָיו, שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה מִסְתַּלֵּק מֵעֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ מַיִם עַל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,33 עַל כָּל יָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.כט וְלֹא יִשְׁפֹּךְ עַל יָד אַחַת שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים רְצוּפִים,34 אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת עַל יָמִין וּפַעַם אַחַת עַל שְׂמֹאל,ל, 35 וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים.

5 Before he washes his hands in this manner he should not touch his mouth, lest he become dumb, nor his ears, lest he become deaf, nor his eyes, lest he become blind, nor his nose or mouth, lest he bring about an unpleasant odor.36

ה וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְּלֵם עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר – לֹא יִגַּע בְּיָדָיו לַפֶּה שֶׁלֹּא יִתְאַלֵּם, וְלֹא לָאָזְנַיִם שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחָרֵשׁ, וְלֹא לָעֵינַיִם שֶׁלֹּא יִסְתַּמֵּא, וְלֹא לַחֹטֶם וְלֹא לַפֶּה שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בַּעַל פּוֹלִיפּוּס, דְּהַיְנוּ רֵיחַ הַחֹטֶם וְהַפֶּה.לא, 36

6 Similarly, before washing his hands, a person should not touch a place from which blood has been let, nor should he touch any food37 or drink38 lest he make them impure.

ו וְכֵן לֹא יִגַּע בְּיָדָיו קֹדֶם נְטִילָה בִּמְקוֹם הַקָּזָה.לב וְכֵן לֹא יִגַּע לְשׁוּם מַאֲכָל לג, 37 אוֹ מַשְׁקֶה,לד, 38 שֶׁלֹּא יְטַמְּאֵם.

7 There is no necessity to dry one’s hands after washing in the morning;39 it is permissible to recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim — and similarly, all the other blessings — without having dried one’s hands.40 All that is necessary is to wash the fingers,41 though it is preferable to wash up to the wrist.42

ז אֵין צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב הַיָּדַיִם אַחַר הַנְּטִילָה שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית.לה, 39 וּמֻתָּר לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" בְּלִי נִגּוּב. וְהוּא הַדִּין שְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת.40 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל אֶלָּא הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת.לו, 41 וּמִיהוּ טוֹב שֶׁיִּטְּלֵם עַד פֶּרֶק הַזְּרוֹעַ.לז, 42

8 One should not wash one’s hands in the morning over the ground, but rather into a receptacle, preferably an offensive one.43

ח נְטִילַת יָדַיִם שַׁחֲרִית – אֵין נוֹטְלִין עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,לח אֶלָּא לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי. וְטוֹב שֶׁיְּהֵא כְּלִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן מָאוּס.לט, 43

9 Water that was used for washing the hands in the morning44 may not be used for any other purpose: any benefit from it is forbidden because of the spirit of impurity that rests upon it. It should therefore not be left in the house,45 nor should it be poured out [on the floor] in the house, nor in any place where people pass, lest someone touch it and be harmed.46

ט מַיִם שֶׁל נְטִילַת יָדַיִם שַׁחֲרִית מ, 44 – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם, מִפְּנֵי רוּחַ רָעָה שֶׁשּׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶן. וְלָכֵן לֹא יְלִינֵם בַּבַּיִת.45 וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁפְּכֵם בַּבַּיִת, וְלֹא בְּשׁוּם מָקוֹם שֶׁעוֹבְרִים שָׁם בְּנֵי אָדָם, שֶׁמָּא יִגַּע בָּהֶם אָדָם וְיֻזַּק.46

10 The right hand should be washed first, for the reason explained in sec. 2[:4]. Since it is desirable that the water which purifies one’s hands come from the right hand, as explained in the Zohar,47 the container of water should be picked up with the right hand and then passed on to the left, so that one can pour water on his right hand first.48

י כְּשֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל יָדָיו – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יַד יְמִינוֹ תְּחִלָּה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ב.מא וּלְפִי שֶׁטּוֹב הוּא שֶׁמִּן יַד יָמִין יָבוֹאוּ הַמַּיִם עַל יָדָיו לְטַהֲרָם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בַּזֹּהַר,מב, 47 לְפִיכָךְ יִטֹּל כְּלִי שֶׁל מַיִם בְּיַד יְמִינוֹ וְנוֹתְנוֹ לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁפֹּךְ מַיִם עַל יְמִינוֹ תְּחִלָּה.מג, 48

11 A person who himself has not yet washed his hands that morning should not pour water over another person’s hands,49 as is implied by the verse,50 “And the pure shall sprinkle on the impure.”

יא וְלֹא יִשְׁפֹּךְ לוֹ עַל יָדָיו מִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נָטַל יָדָיו שַׁחֲרִית,מד, 49 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: מה, 50 "וְהִזָּה הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא".

12 If one swashed his hands three times in one container of water,51 this washing is not effective in removing the spirit of impurity from his hands, for as soon as he placed them there the first time, he made all the water impure,52 like drainage water.

If he swashed his hands three times, but each time in a different body of water,53 or if he swashed them in a flowing stream whose water at any given point was being constantly replaced, it is doubtful whether this is sufficient to remove the spirit of impurity that rests on them. It is advisable that he wash them again as the law requires, because it is possible that the spirit of impurity cannot be removed from them unless water is poured [over them] three times from a container.54

יב אִם שִׁכְשֵׁךְ יָדָיו לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל מַיִם מו, 51 שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בִּכְלִי אֶחָד – לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה לְהַעֲבִיר רוּחַ רָעָה מֵעֲלֵיהֶן, שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁשִּׁכְשֵׁךְ יָדָיו פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי – נִטְמְאוּ כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי,מז, 52 וְהַוְיָן כְּמֵי שׁוֹפְכִין. וְאִם שִׁכְשֵׁךְ יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מֵימוֹת מְחֻלָּפִים,מח, 53 אוֹ בַּנָּהָר מט דְּקַמָּאִי קַמָּאִי אַזְלֵי לְהוּ וְהַנֵּי אַחֲרִינֵי נִינְהוּ – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם עָלְתָה לוֹ נְטִילָה לְהַעֲבִיר רוּחַ רָעָה שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן. וְטוֹב שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִטְּלֵם כְּדִינָם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ רָעָה מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת מֵהַיָּדַיִם אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים מֵהַכְּלִי.נ, 54

13 If a person remained awake all night55 he must wash his hands as soon as day breaks, even though throughout the night he guarded them uninterruptedly against impurity — by wearing gloves, for example.56 Even so he should wash his hands from a container, without reciting a blessing, at daybreak.57 The rationale is that perhaps when our Sages ordained that the hands be washed in the morning for the reason stated above in subsection 1, they did not intend to differentiate between an instance in which a person slept, thereby becoming a newly-created being, and an instance in which he did not sleep at all.58

יג אִם הָיָה נֵעוֹר כָּל הַלַּיְלָה נא, 55 – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִיָּד כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם, אַף־עַל־פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל הַלַּיְלָה לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִנִּיחָן בְּבָתֵּי יָדַיִם56 – אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל יָדָיו מִן הַכְּלִי בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם,נב, 57 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר דִּכְשֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים נְטִילַת יָדַיִם בְּכָל שַׁחַר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסָעִיף א – לֹא רָצוּ לְחַלֵּק בֵּין יָשַׁן דְּנַעֲשָׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, לְלֹא יָשַׁן כְּלַל.נג, 58

14 If one wakes up before dawn59 and washes his hands, it is desirable that at sunrise he again wash his hands three times as required.60 For it is possible that it is the night itself that causes the spirit of impurity to rest upon one’s hands, even if he does not sleep.

Nevertheless, even if he went back to sleep and slept for a significant period,61 in which instance the spirit of impurity undoubtedly rests upon his hands and he is required to wash his hands three times again when he rises, he should not recite a blessing over this [second] washing.62 For [our Sages] instituted a blessing over the washing of the hands only when one becomes a newly-created being, as stated above in subsection 1 — and the second sleep does not make him a newly-created being, for this takes place only once [a day], not twice.63

יד הַמַּשְׁכִּים קֹדֶם עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר59 וְנָטַל יָדָיו – טוֹב שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וִיעָרֶה עַל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים כְּדִינָם כְּשֶׁיֵּאוֹר הַיּוֹם,נד, 60 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלַּיְלָה הִיא גּוֹרֶמֶת שֶׁיִּשְׁרֶה רוּחַ רָעָה עַל הַיָּדַיִם אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא שֵׁנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֲפִלּוּ הִשְׁכִּיב עַצְמוֹ אַחַר־כָּךְ לִישֹׁן פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה שְׁנַת קֶבַע,נה, 61 דְּוַדַּאי שׁוֹרָה רוּחַ רָעָה עַל יָדָיו וְצָרִיךְ לְעָרוֹת עֲלֵיהֶן שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים כְּשֶׁיָּקוּם מִמִּטָּתוֹ – אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל נְטִילָה זוֹ,נו, 62 דְּלֹא תִּקְּנוּ בִּרְכַּת "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסָעִיף א, וּבְשֵׁנָה זוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, דְּפַעַם אַחַת נַעֲשֶׂה בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה וְלֹא שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים.63

15 If one slept for a duration of at least sixty [consecutive] breaths during the day,64 it is desirable that he pour water over his hands [alternately] three times, for possibly it is sleep that causes the spirit of impurity to rest upon his hands, even during the day.65

טו אִם יָשַׁן בַּיּוֹם שִׁעוּר שִׁשִּׁים נְשִׁימוֹת נז, 64 – טוֹב שֶׁיְּעָרֶה עַל יָדָיו מַיִם שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהַשֵּׁנָה [הִיא] גּוֹרֶמֶת שֶׁתִּשְׁרֶה רוּחַ רָעָה עַל הַיָּדַיִם אֲפִלּוּ בַּיּוֹם.נח, 65

16 King David, may he rest in peace, made a point of never sleeping as much as sixty consecutive breaths at night,66 so that he would not experience the taste of death. Until midnight67 he would doze briefly, as a horse does, and at midnight he would muster the strength of a lion.

טז דָּוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם הָיָה נִזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא לִישֹׁן כָּל הַלַּיְלָה שִׁשִּׁים נְשִׁימוֹת רְצוּפִין,נט, 66 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעֹם טַעַם מִיתָה, רַק הָיָה מִתְנַמְנֵם כְּסוּס עַד חֲצוֹת לַיְלָה,ס, 67 וּבַחֲצוֹת לַיְלָה הָיָה מִתְגַּבֵּר כָּאֲרִי.

17 There are those who are accustomed to rinse their mouths68 of mucus in the morning, so that they will be able to bless the great name [of G‑d] in holiness and purity.

יז יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לִרְחֹץ פִּיהֶם שַׁחֲרִית,סא, 68 מִפְּנֵי הָרִירִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּה, כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ אֶת שֵׁם הַגָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה.סב

18 Certain situations require that the hands be washed with water specifically69 and not merely be cleaned with other substances,70 though it is not required that the water be poured over them three times.71 This requirement [to wash with water] applies to a person who has gotten up from bed,72 or who has left a lavatory or a bathhouse,73 or who has trimmed his nails,74 removed his shoes with his hands,75 touched his feet, touched his body76 with his hands, washed his hair,77 touched a louse, engaged in marital relations,78 checked his clothes for lice — even if he did not actually touch a louse because he did not find any, walked among graves,79 or touched a corpse. If, however, he merely walked next to a corpse, he does not have to wash his hands. Nevertheless, it has become customary to wash one’s hands even [after leaving a house in which] a corpse [is lying] or after one has accompanied it [on the way to burial].80

If a Torah scholar in one of the above situations neglects to wash his hands, he will forget his studies; if someone who is not a Torah scholar neglects to wash his hands in these situations, his mind will be jeopardized.81

יח אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין נְטִילָה בְּמַיִם דַּוְקָא,סג, 69 וְלֹא בְּכָל מִידֵי דִּמְנַקֵּי,סד, 70 אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְעָרוֹת עַל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,סה, 71 אֵלּוּ הֵן: הַקָּם מֵהַמִּטָּה,סו, 72 וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הַכִּסֵּא וּמִבֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ,73 וְהַנּוֹטֵל צִפָּרְנָיו,74 וְהַחוֹלֵץ מִנְעָלָיו בְּיָדָיו,סז, 75 וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּרַגְלָיו, וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּגוּפוֹ76 בְּיָדוֹ, וְהַחוֹפֵף רֹאשׁוֹ,77 וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּכִנָּה, וְהַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ,סח, 78 וּמִי שֶׁמְּפַלֶּה כֵּלָיו אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָגַע בְּכִנָּה שֶׁלֹּא מָצָא,סט וְהַהוֹלֵךְ בֵּין הַקְּבָרוֹת,ע, 79 וּמִי שֶׁנָּגַע בְּמֵת. אֲבָל אִם הָלַךְ אֵצֶל מֵת עא – אֵין צָרִיךְ נְטִילָה, וּמִיהוּ נָהֲגוּ לִטֹּל אֲפִלּוּ נִכְנַס לְמֵת אֶחָד,עב וְהוּא הַדִּין הַמְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ.80 וּמִי שֶׁעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל אֵלּוּ וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו,עג אִם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם הוּא – תַּלְמוּדוֹ מִשְׁתַּכֵּחַ, וְאִם אֵינוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם – יוֹצֵא מִדַּעְתּוֹ.81

19 If a person lets blood from his shoulders82 and does not wash his hands thereafter, he will be afraid for seven days without knowing the reason for his fear. If he cuts83 his hair without washing his hands, he will be afraid for three days. If he cuts his nails without washing his hands, he will be afraid for one day.

יט הַמַּקִּיז דָּם מֵהַכְּתֵפַיִם עד, 82 וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו אַחַר־כָּךְ – מְפַחֵד שִׁבְעָה יָמִים וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מִמַּה מְּפַחֵד. הַמְגַלֵּחַ שְׂעָרוֹ83 וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו – מְפַחֵד שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים. הַנּוֹטֵל צִפָּרְנָיו וְלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו – מְפַחֵד יוֹם אֶחָד.

20 When one washes his face but does not dry it well,84 his facial skin will crack or develop sores. This may be remedied by frequent washing with the juice of beets.

כ הָרוֹחֵץ פָּנָיו וְלֹא נִגְּבָם יָפֶה עה, 84 – פָּנָיו מִתְבַּקְּעוֹת, אוֹ עוֹלֶה בָּהֶם שְׁחִין, וּרְפוּאָתוֹ לִרְחֹץ הַרְבֵּה בְּמֵי תְּרָדִין.

21 A person should wash his hands, face, and feet85 every day out of reverence for his Creator,86 as it is written,87 “For in the image of G‑d He created man.”

כא רוֹחֵץ אָדָם פָּנָיו וְרַגְלָיו85 בְּכָל יוֹם – בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ,עו, 86 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: עז, 87 "כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם".