i. As stated in Pesachim 96b.

ii. See Zohar, [Vol. I, Parshas] Vayeitzei, p. 157a; [Vol. III,] Raya Mehemna, Parshas Pinchas, p. 251b.

iii. See the maamar entitled Lehavin Inyan Lechem Mishneh, [Torah Or, p. 65d, which explains why man derives vitality from bread].

iv. [The shattering of the vessels did not affect the emotional qualities alone.] According to Etz Chayim, Shaar 8, the attribute of Daas of Tohu also fell in the shattering of the vessels. [Moreover,] also within the seven lower [i.e., emotional,] qualities is included the power of the intellect that exists within emotion. As a result, the animal soul in man which derives from kelipas nogah that stems from the shattering of the vessels also possesses [the capacity to] comprehend and understand. See the maamar entitled Hamagbihi Lasheves, [Torah Or,] Parshas Mikeitz, [p. 38b].

v. Bava Kama 72[a].

vi. See the explanations of these concepts in [Likkutei Torah, Bamidbar, p. 81b,] in the maamar entitled Vayidaber Moshe el Roshei HaMatos.

vii. As is well known with regard to the concept “[the angels called] chayos carry [G‑d’s throne],” as explained in the maamar entitled Zachor Es Yom HaShabbos ([Torah Or,] Parshas Yisro, [p. 71a ff.]).

viii. Zohar, Parshas Vayeitzei, [Vol. I,] p. 157b.

ix. This is reflected [in the verse (Tehillim 73:21)]: “When my heart was in ferment (yischametz).” [This verse] described a heart with a tendency to act wickedly with an analogy of fermentation (chametz). Similarly, when our Sages (Rosh HaShanah 3b) speak of [Cyrus, King of Persia, changing his conduct to wickedness, they use the expression]: “before he became chametz, after he became chametz.” They also describe the yetzer hara (evil inclination) with the analogy of yeast, saying (Berachos 17a): “What prevents [the fulfillment of G‑d’s will]? The yeast in the dough.” The rationale [for the choice of such wording] is that the haughtiness [symbolized by chametz] is the source of all [a person’s spiritual] descents, [material] desires, and all forms of evil. May G‑d protect us from them.

x. See the maamar entitled Veyadaata HaYom, [in Likkutei Torah, Devarim,] Parshas VaEs’chanan, [p. 4a ff.,] which explains the concepts of knowledge and faith.

xi. See the maamar entitled Vayeishev Yaakov [in Torah Or, p. 27a]. See also the maamar entitled Vayigash Eilav Yehudah, [Torah Or, p. 43c,] with regard to the level of earth. For, in thought, the earth has precedence even over the heavens. Therefore bread emerges from the earth.

xii. As stated in the gloss to the Zohar, Eshel Avraham, this refers to the level described as “the beginning of the will of the King,” as mentioned in the Zohar, Bereishis, p. 15.

xiii. For this sublime awe, the light of the sublime Father, [i.e., the Sefirah of Chochmah,] repels all external influences. It is only the lower levels of fear that require protection.

xiv. This resolves one of the questions raised at the outset.

xv. As explained in another source, [Likkutei Torah, Devarim,] Parshas VaEs’chanan, [p. 8a,] the maamar entitled Veyadaata HaYom.

xvi. See the statements in another source, [Torah Or,] the beginning of Parshas Toldos, [p. 17c,] with regard to [the naming of the wells by Yitzchak. There] the term sheimos, “names,” is written twice [in the same verse,] once with a vav and once without. See also the statements [in Likkutei Torah, Bamidbar,] Parshas Naso, [p. 26c ff.,] on the verse (Bamidbar 6:24): “May G‑d bless you and keep you.”

xvii. As stated in the Zohar, Parshas Vayeitzei,cited above (Vol. I, p. 157a), “Originally, [the Torah speaks of] matzah, without a vav (מצה).Afterwards, it states the term using a vav. [The Zohar associates] the latter form with the term mitzvah (מצוה). Consult that source. This is identified with the second level of matzah which is written as matzos, מצות, with a vav.

xviii. The mitzvos are “the mitzvos of the King.” Through their observance, one fulfills the charge (Devarim 17:15): “You shall appoint a King over yourselves,” which refers to the lower level of fear. At the very least, [that level is attainable by anyone,] as stated in Tanya, ch. 41. See [the ex­plana­tions] in the maamar for Shavuos entitled Vayidaber Elokim, [Likkutei Torah, Bamidbar, p. 15d ff.].

xix. How is it possible for the two different types of influence to be alluded to in one mitzvah? [To explain:] It is well known that the difference between chametz (חמץ) and matzah (מצה) is only the letter hei,[i.e. matzah is written with a hei, while the word chametz contains a ches].

Now the milui of the letter hei is also a hei. [I.e., the term milui refers to a pattern in numerology in which the name of each letter of a word is spelled out, and the numerical values of all the letters in these spellings are added together. The name of the letter hei can be spelled ה"ה. Thus its milui is also a hei. For this reason, the letter hei is identified with the Cave of] Machpelah, [lit., “the doubled cave,”] as explained in another source; [see Torah Or, p. 15c-d].

These two heis are alluded to in the one hei of the word matzah, referring to the two levels of matzah mentioned above. For the milui represents the quality that is hidden and concealed within the hei itself. This hidden quality within the hei, which is identified with Malchus, has its source in the level of Kesser, for “the beginning is rooted in the end,” [Sefer Yetzirah 1:7].

Note the explanation on the verse (Bamidbar 14:17): “And now may the power of G‑d be increased,” [in Likkutei Torah, Bamidbar, p. 39b, where it is explained that] power represents the revelation of hidden potential. Consult that source.

xx. See Torah Or, Parshas Beshallach, [p. 62b ff.,] the maamar entitled Az Yashir.

xxi. [The earth serves as an analogy for Malchus,] as explained in several places in the Zohar. See [Zohar, Vol. III,] Parshas Shemini, p. 39b. This [correlates with the Alter Rebbe’s] statements in [Tanya,] Iggeres HaKodesh, [Epistle 20,] that the fundamental dimension of bringing into being entities that feel independent and utterly separate [from Him originates] in Malchus of Atzilus which serves as Atik for Beriah. For “there is no king without a nation” (Rabbeinu Bachaye, commentary to Bereishis 38:30), [i.e., that G‑d’s attribute of kingship creates “a nation,” i.e., entities that feel separate from the king]. This is not true regarding the emotional attributes of Atzilus themselves. Consult that source.

xxii. As stated in [Tanya,] Iggeres HaKodesh, Epistle 15, concerning [Avraham’s] statement: “I am but dust and ashes” (Bereishis 18:27); consult that source.

xxiii. Note the explanation of the phrase (I Melachim 7:25): “And the sea was over them from above,” in [Likkutei Torah, Bamidbar,] Parshas Balak, [p. 68c,] in the maamar entitled Mi Manah Afar Yaakov. [The Biblical phrase is referring to a tub built by King Shlomo in the First Beis HaMikdash to serve as a mikveh that was called “the Sea of Shlomo.” It was positioned on a base of twelve statues of cattle. In that source, the Alter Rebbe explains that “the sea” is an analogy for the sefirah of Malchus of Atzilus and the twelve cattle, for the twelve camps of angels that include the created beings of the world of Beriah. “The sea” is “over them from above,” for unlike the other emotional qualities that involve a direct flow of emotion, Malchus is removed and imparts influence while distant.]

xxiv. Similarly, the Zohar, [Vol. I,] Parshas Bereishis, [p. 18b, explains that] these two aspects [of Mal­chus] reflect the themes of the first two verses of the Shema: Shema Yisrael [which reflects “the sublime unity,” referring to the more elevated dimension of Malchus,] and Baruch shem kevod mal­chuso l’olam vaed [which reflects “the lower unity” and the aspect of Malchus that descends to bring into being the realms of existence below Atzilus]. See Tanya, Shaar HaYichud VehaEmunah, ch. 7.

xxv. Note the explanations in [Likkutei Torah,] Shir HaShirim, [p. 2a-b,] in the maamar entitled Ki Tovim Dodecha Miyayin.

xxvi. This can be understood more thoroughly on the basis of the passage from the Zohar cited above (note iv) that echad [“G‑d is one,” the conclusion of the first verse of Shema Yisrael,] and vaed, [“forever,” the conclusion of Baruch shem kevod malchuso l’olam vaed,] reflect “the sea” and “the dry land.” [In this context, the phrase (Bereishis 1:9):] “Let the waters collect to one place,” refers to [the higher level of] Malchus of Atzilus, the place of “one” (see the Tikkunei Zohar, Tikkun 42).

The concept can be explained on the basis of the statements in the maamar entitled Va’eira, [Torah Or,p. 55b ff.], that in truth, with regard to the Essence and Being of the Holy One, blessed be He, the word echad, “one,” is inappropriate, for He is unique and singular, i.e., “He is alone.” [One, by contrast, reflects an entity’s existence in relation to others. In that vein,] our Sages (Berachos 13:2) state that [the phrase “G‑d is] one” [in the Shema refers to how G‑d’s oneness permeates] the seven heavens and the four directions of the world.

Therefore it is appropriate that this level be referred to as “the sea.” For the created beings in the sea, [i.e., fish,] maintain their existence in the sea. In the analogue, this refers to the hidden realms which unite in oneness, i.e., their existence is all batel within their source. [This is alluded to in the phrase (Shmos 33:21):] “Behold, there is a place with Me.”

Vaed refers to a permutation of the letters of echad (Zohar, Vol. III, p. 134a, as cited in Tanya, Shaar HaYichud VehaEmunah, ch. 7). [It refers to the lower levels of Malchus]that become a source for the revealed worlds which appear to have an independent identity.

G‑d’s Essence and Being is on the level of yachid, singular oneness. [As explained in the maamar entitled Va’eira cited above,] through the Torah, this level is drawn down into revelation. This is the intent of the phrase (Shmos 6:3): “I did not make known My name Havayah.” As explained in another source (see the maamar entitled Chayev Inish Livsumei, [Torah Or, Megillas Esther, p. 98b, also translated in this series]), the Torah is referred to as “the primeval analogy”: (I Shmuel 24:14). [The implication is, as implied by Rashi’s commentary, it is a means to comprehend G‑d as He is] Kadmono shel olam, “the Primary Being of the world.”

With regard to the Splitting of the Reed Sea, it is also written: “And G‑d moved the sea with a fierce east wind (ruach kadim),” i.e., a revelation of Kadmono shel olam, “the Primary Being of the world,” referring to [the dimension of G‑dliness that] is unique and singular; “He is alone.” Therefore, through this revelation, “the sea was transformed into dry land,” i.e., in the analogue, the quality of echad was drawn down into actual revelation within the quality of vaed, i.e., the sublime unity was revealed within the lower unity. (See the explanation in the maamar entitled Ki Tishma Bekol, [Likkutei Torah, Devarim, p. 23d]; consult that source.)

A similar concept is explained regarding the practice of the inhabitants of Jericho who would “bind the Shema” (Pesachin 56a); i.e., they would recite ve’ahavta directly after echad, without interrupting with the verse Baruch shem kevod malchuso l’olam vaed. Their intent was that they desired that their love [for G‑d] be drawn down [directly] from the level of echad, [reflecting] the sublime unity.

The halachah, however, does not follow their perspective, [because according to our ordinary daily level of awareness, this is not possible]. It was only at the Splitting of the Reed Sea that [there was such a revelation,] due to an arousal from Above. [In our prayers,] the recollection of the Splitting of the Reed Sea comes in the blessing Emes Veyatziv which follows “the exodus from Egypt,” i.e., it comes after one concludes the recitation of the Shema, [saying (Bamidbar 15:41)]: “I am G‑d, your L‑rd, Who took you out of the land of Egypt.” [After the transcendence of one’s limitations alluded to by the Exodus,] it is possible to recall the Splitting of the Reed Sea in the blessing Emes Veyatziv.

xxvii. This is brought about by the “east wind,” (ruach kadim) which drew down the level of Kadmono shel olam, [i.e.,G‑d,] as He transcends the worlds entirely, above even the level of sovev kol almin. This represents an arousal from Above that surpasses the arousal from below generated by the observance of the mitzvos. With regard to this level, it is written (Shmos 14:14): “And you shall be silent,” [for there is nothing man can do to draw down this level].

Nevertheless, this influence is drawn down as a result of “for six days you shall eat matzos,” i.e., [despite the fact that G‑d’s influence comes as an arousal from Above, partaking of matzah]is an arousal from below to evoke an arousal from Above from the level of sovev kol almin, the sublime will. This creates the setting for influence that is above the level of sovev kol almin to be drawn down, as explained in another source, [see Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim, p. 35c,] with regard to [our Sages’ statement (Shir HaShirim Rabbah 5),] “Open [your hearts] to Me... and I will open [them] for you....” See also the explanation of the maamar entitled Acharei Havayah Elokeichem Teileichu,[Likkutei Torah, Devarim, p. 20d ff.,] and the conclusion of the maamar entitled Haazinu HaShamayim,[ibid., p. 73b ff.] with regard to the verse [Hoshea 14:6]: “I will be like dew....”

xxviii. This reflects the idea of atzeres, translated as “an assembly,” which literally means “collection.” [In this context, it can be interpreted as meaning that] the water [of the sea] condensed and was congealed, becoming like a wall until it became like dry land. [The Tzemach Tzedek adds:] I found a text [containing the comments in this note]; explanation is required.

xxix. This is the fundamental dimension of the holiday of Pesach, which, as the literal meaning [of its name implies, indicates] a jump, coming as an arousal from Above. In contrast, [the Divine influence] drawn down by the Counting of the Days of the omer becomes [manifest] primarily on the holiday of Shavuos.

xxx. As explained previously in the maamar entitled Matzah Zu (Likkutei Torah, Vayikra, p. 12b). Consult that source.

xxxi. Taanis 28b.

xxxii. Ibid.

xxxiii. Hoshea 11[:1].

xxxiv. See Pri Etz Chayim (Shaar Chag HaMatzos, ch. 8) with regard to the mystic intents relevant to the Seventh Day of Pesach where the idea of a diminutive level is also mentioned. Consult that source.

On the surface, it is difficult to understand why this is a diminutive level. On the contrary, the light and the revelation is drawn down from a level that transcends the Spiritual Cosmos, as implied by the Zohar,[Vol. II, p. 48a]: “The matter is dependent on Atik.

According to the above, a resolution can be offered. In truth, the revelation is from a very high source, but the revelation “to you,” [i.e., that is internalized,] is on a diminutive level, for the reasons mentioned above, i.e., because the Jews had not yet received the Torah and its mitzvos and had not yet reached personal fulfillment, as stated in the Zohar. (See Bava Kama 92b, which states: “When we were small, [we were thought of as men.”] See the commentary on the verse: “For Israel is a youth,” in [Shmos] Rabbah, Parshas Ki Sisa, the end of ch. 43, and Shir HaShirim Rabbah to the verse, [Shir HaShirim 3:9]: “A sedan chair was made.” See also Zohar, Vol. II, the end of Parshas Bo, p. 43a, Parshas Vayakhel, p. 217a, and the gloss of the Mikdash Melech there. See also the explanation to the maamar entitled Simani KiChosem,[Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim, p. 46b,] with regard to the straps of the head tefillin.)

xxxv. The reason Hallel is recited on the first days of Pesach, [even though the Jews were on a low level,] is explained in the Zohar there. According to the simple meaning, this is also correct, because even though they had not reached such a high level of personal fulfillment, their exodus from Egypt was nevertheless [a transition] from darkness to light in a spiritual sense as well. They departed from Egypt, “the nakedness of the land,” (Bereishis 42:9) and the 49 Gates of Impurity to become “servants of G‑d.” Even though they did not reach fulfillment until the Giving of the Torah, there is no greater matter than this. Therefore Hallel is completed on the day of their exodus from Egypt.

xxxvi. Therefore the Gemara, [Pesachim 68b, et al.,] refers to Shavuos as Atzeres and states: “All agree that on Shavuos, [the holiday] must be [celebrated in a manner of] “for yourselves,” [i.e., experiencing material satisfaction]. See the comments of Shir HaShirim Rabbah on the verse (Shir HaShirim 7:2): “How lovely are your footsteps”: “Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: ‘It would have been appropriate for [Shemini] Atzeres to be fifty days removed from Sukkos, like Atzeres (Shavuos) is from Pesach’”; consult that source. Thus [the relationship between] the holiday of Shavuos and the seven days of Pesach parallels that of Shemini Atzeres to the seven days of Sukkos. This [relates to the concept] described above, that on Pesach, the revelation is not drawn down “to you,” [i.e., it is not internalized,] until the holiday of Shavuos on which the Torah was given.

With regard to the recitation of Hallel, Ramaz, [in his gloss to the Zohar, Vol. III,] Parshas Emor, p. 96a, [explains] that “the mystic secret of Hallel is that [light] shines in Malchus. This [is alluded to by] the mystic secret that [G‑d’s name] A-donai (א-דני), [the name that is associated with Malchus,] is numerically equivalent to Hallel (הלל). Therefore, [after the first day(s),] the entire Hallel is not recited until the festival of Shavuos,” [i.e., for at that time, the higher light shines in Malchus].

The concept of shining in the name A-donai can be explained based on the maamar entitled VaAtah Yigdal Na Koach A-donai, [Sefer Maamarei Admor HaZakein, 5563, Vol. II, 576ff.,] as analogous to the concept (Shabbat 119b) of answering Amen. Yehei Shmei Rabbah with all of one’s strength. Consult that source.

Meorei Or, Os 5, sec. 14, writes that Hallel is called Malchus because [Malchus] “always praises G‑d. The entire Hallel refers to Malchus as an entire partzuf of Malchus, and when the entire Hallel is not recited, it refers to half the partzuf of Malchus, from the chest downward.” This distinction parallels the difference between the First Beis HaMikdash and the Second Beis HaMikdash, as explained in the Zohar, Vol. II, p. 9b, and the gloss Mikdash Melech there. See [the explanations there] which clarify that the distinction parallels the difference between the higher Hei and the lower Hei.

Similarly the Pardes, Erchei HaKinuim, erech Hallel, states: “The entire Hallel and the partial Hallel: There are those who explain that the entire Hallel relates to the mystic secret of Binah and the partial Hallel to the mystic secret of Malchus. The correct interpretation is that the complete Hallel refers to the moon in its fullness and the partial Hallel to the mystic secret of the moon in its phases.” According to what is stated in the name of the Mikdash Melech, the two interpretations reflect the same concept. The recitation of the entire Hallel points to Malchus receiving a great ray until it is on the level of Binah. This relates to [the Midrash’s statements (Bamidbar Rabbah 12:8) that a king had a daughter (Malchus)and] “she did not depart from his endearment until he called her ‘his mother’ (Binah).” (Note what is stated in the maamar entitled Shir HaShirim, [Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim, p. 1a ff.,]with regard to the two interpretations of the term כלה, “bride”: a) that it follows [the meaning of the term in the verse (Tehillim 73:26)]: “My flesh yearns”; and b) that it follows [the meaning of the term in the verse (ibid. 84:3): “My soul expires.” See the conclusion of the maamar entitled Yigaleh Lan Taamei (Torah Or, p. 15d) with regard to the verse (Zechariah 14:9): “On that day, [G‑d’s name] will be....”