At which point does a leather k'li become susceptible to ritual impurity?

A shepherd's satchel - From the time its edges are folded over and sealed closed to make a border, one trims the tiny pieces that project beyond the leather, and makes straps with which it could be closed.

A leather mat - When its borders are trimmed and its ornament is made.

A leather bedsheet - When its borders are sealed and trimmed.

A leather pillow or cushion - When its borders are sealed and the strands that emerge are trimmed. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

Tefillin - When one finishes the cube. Even though one will later add the strap, it is susceptible to impurity at this stage.

A leather base for a cradle for which loops will be made - When those loops are made.

A sandal - When its leather will be bent over.

A shoe - When it is placed on its mold. If, in the future, one will color it yellow and make designs, it is not susceptible to impurity until one colors it and makes designs.


כְּלֵי עוֹר מֵאֵימָתַי מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הַתּוּרְמָל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתָיו וְיִכְרֹת הַקּוֹפִין הַקְּטַנִּים הַיּוֹצְאִין עַל גַּבֵּי הָעוֹר וְיַעֲשֶׂה קִיחוֹתָיו. סְקוּרְטִיָה מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם וְיִכְרֹת וְיַעֲשֶׂה צִיצָתָהּ. קַטַבוּלְיָה מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם וְיִכְרֹת. הַכַּר וְהַכֶּסֶת שֶׁל עוֹר מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן וְיִכְרֹת הַקּוֹפִין הַיּוֹצְאִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. הַתְּפִלִּין מִשֶּׁיִּגְמֹר הַקְּצִיצָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לָתֵת בָּהּ אֶת הָרְצוּעָה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. עוֹר הָעֲרִיסָה שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ טַבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂנּוּ לוֹ. הַסַּנְדָּל מִשֶּׁיַּקְמִיעַ. הַמִּנְעָל מִשֶׁיִּגּוֹב [עַל] הָאִמּוּם. וְאִם עָתִיד לְכָרְכָם וּלְשַׂרְטֵט עַד שֶׁיִּכְרְכֵם וִישַׂרְטֵט:


When a hide does not have the shape of a k'li, it is not susceptible to impurity. Therefore a leather hand-covering which people who gather thorns tie around their hands so that they will not be wounded by a thorn is not susceptible to impurity, for it is a simple hide and it does not have the form of a k'li. Similarly, a hide used to collect cow turds, a hide used to muzzle the mouth of an animal, a hide used to chase away bees when gathering honey, and a hide used as a fan because of the heat are pure and are not susceptible to impurity.


עוֹר שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. לְפִיכָךְ כַּף שֶׁל עוֹר שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין לוֹקְטֵי קוֹצִים עַל כַּפּוֹתֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכֵּם קוֹץ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹר פָּשׁוּט וְאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי. וְכֵן הָעוֹר שֶׁמְּלַקְּטִין בּוֹ גְּלָלֵי הַבָּקָר וְעוֹר שֶׁחוֹסְמִין בּוֹ פִּי הַבְּהֵמָה וְעוֹר שֶׁמּוֹשִׁיבִין בּוֹ הַדְּבוֹרִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁלּוֹקְחִין הַדְּבַשׁ וְעוֹר שֶׁמְּנִיפִין בּוֹ אֶת הָרוּחַ מִפְּנֵי הַחֹם טְהוֹרִין וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה:


All finger-coverings of leather are pure except those of fruit reapers. They are impure, because they are used to collect sumach berries. If they are torn and cannot hold the major portion of a sumach berry, they are pure.


כָּל בֵּית הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת שֶׁל עוֹר טְהוֹרוֹת חוּץ מִשֶּׁל קַיָיצִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת אֶת הָאוֹג טְמֵאָה. נִקְרְעָה אִם אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת אֶת רֹב הָאוֹג טְהוֹרָה:


Leather belts and the pieces of leather amputees place on their stumps so they can walk on them on the ground are susceptible to impurity, because they have the form of a k'li. Similarly, leather rings which craftsmen place on their arms to hold up their garments to prevent them from interfering with them during their work are susceptible to impurity like other simple leather keilim.


הָאַבְנֵט שֶׁל עוֹרוֹת וְעוֹרוֹת שֶׁתּוֹפְרִין הַקִּטְּעִים עַל אַרְכֻּבּוֹתֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְגַּלְגְּלוּ בָּהֶן עַל הַקַּרְקַע מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי צוּרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן הָעוֹרוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת כְּעֵין טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן הָאֻמָּנִין בִּזְרוֹעוֹתֵיהֶן כְּדֵי לְהַגְבִּיהַּ בִּגְדֵיהֶן מֵעֲלֵיהֶן בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה מִתְטַמְּאִין כִּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי עוֹר הַפְּשׁוּטִים:


When a piece of leather is sewn to cover the hands and the arms of those who winnow grainheaps, travelers, or those who make flax, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If it is used by painters or blacksmiths, it is not susceptible to impurity.

This is the general principle: Anything that is made as a receptacle, to protect one from thorns, or so that one will have a good grip is susceptible to impurity. Anything that is made as protection against sweat, i.e., so that the article with which one is working not be ruined because of the sweat of one's hands is not susceptible to impurity.


עוֹר שֶׁתּוֹפְרִין מִמֶּנּוּ כִּסּוּי לְיָד וְלִזְרוֹעַ שֶׁל זוֹרְעֵי גִּנּוֹת וְשֶׁל הוֹלְכֵי דְּרָכִים וְשֶׁל עוֹשֵׂי פִּשְׁתָּן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְאִם הָיָה שֶׁל צַבָּעִים וְשֶׁל נַפָּחִים אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל הֶעָשׂוּי לְקַבָּלָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכֵּהוּ קוֹץ וּכְדֵי שֶׁיֹּאחַז יָפֶה יָפֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְהֶעָשׂוּי מִפְּנֵי הַזֵּעָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּסֵד הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ בְּזֵעַת יָדוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


How large must a hole in a leather k'li be for it to be pure? A carrying case for food - when its hole is large enough for a ball of the warp thread to fall through. If it cannot contain the warp, but it does contain the woof, it is susceptible to impurity unless the hole comprises the majority of the container.


כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁיִּנָּקֵב כְּלִי הָעוֹר וְיִטְהַר. הַחֵמֶת מִשֶּׁתִּנָּקֵב כְּמוֹצִיא פְּקָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל שְׁתִי. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל שֶׁל שְׁתִי הוֹאִיל וּמְקַבֶּלֶת שֶׁל עֵרֶב מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב רֻבָּהּ:


A leather satchel whose inner pocket was ripped is still susceptible to impurity. It is not considered as attached to the pocket.


הַתֻּרְמִיל שֶׁנִּפְחַת הַכִּיס שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ עֲדַיִן הַתֻּרְמִיל מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וְאֵינוֹ חִבּוּר לוֹ:


The following laws apply when a drinking pouch was made from the hide of an animal, the scrotum was often left and was used as part of the container. If it was opened, it is pure, because it cannot contain liquids in the ordinary manner.


הַחֵמֶת שֶׁהַבֵּצִים שֶׁלָּהּ מְקַבְּלוֹת עִמָּהּ וְנִפְחֲתוּ טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלוֹת כְּדַרְכָּן:


When leather keilim have loops and straps - e.g., sandals worn on flat land or a pouch tied close with a strand - even though when they are untied, they do not have the shape of a k'li, they are still susceptible to impurity in that state. The rationale is that even an ordinary person can insert the strands in the loops and return the k'li to its previous shape. Similarly, if they contracted impurity and the straps were removed from them and their shape was undone, they are pure even though it is possible to restore them without a craftsman's activity.


כְּלִי עוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לוּלָאוֹת וּשְׁנָצוֹת כְּגוֹן סַנְדָּל עִמְקִי וְכִיס שֶׁל שְׁנָצוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהֵן מֻתָּרִין אֵין עֲלֵיהֶן צוּרַת כְּלִי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהֵן מֻתָּרִין הוֹאִיל וְהַהֶדְיוֹט יָכוֹל בִּמְהֵרָה לְהַכְנִיס הַשְּׁנָצוֹת בַּלּוּלָאוֹת וְיַחְזֹר כְּלִי קִבּוּל כְּשֶׁהָיָה. וְכֵן אִם נִטְמְאוּ וְהֵסִיר הַשְּׁנָצוֹת מֵהֶן וְנִפְסְדָה צוּרָתָן הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַחְזִירָן שֶׁלֹּא בְּאֻמָּן:


Although the strands from a pouch closed by strands have been removed, it is still susceptible to impurity, because it can still serve as a container. If it was straightened out and returned to the form of a simple piece of leather, it is pure. If one attached a hook from which it could be hung from below, it is susceptible to impurity even when it is straightened out, because it has the form of a k'li.


כִּיס שֶׁל שְׁנָצוֹת שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ שְׁנָצָיו עֲדַיִן הוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מְקַבֵּל. נִפְשַׁט וְחָזַר עוֹר פָּשׁוּט טָהוֹר. טָלָה עָלָיו אֶת הַמַּטְלֵת מִלְּמַטָּה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּשׁוּט שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי:


A piece of leather used to wrap an amulet is susceptible to impurity. If one straightens it out, it is pure. If one uses it again to wrap an amulet, it is susceptible to impurity. It can become impure and pure, even ten times during a day.

The parchment on which one writes an amulet is pure. If one cut off a piece and made a ring to use it as an ornament, it is susceptible to impurity.


עוֹר שֶׁכָּרַךְ בּוֹ אֶת הַקָּמֵעַ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. פְּשָׁטוֹ טָהוֹר. חָזַר וְכָרַךְ בּוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. מִתְטַמֵּא וּמִתְטַהֵר אֲפִלּוּ עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים בְּיוֹם. וְעוֹר שֶׁכָּתַב עָלָיו אֶת הַקָּמֵעַ טָהוֹר. וְאִם כָּרַת מִמֶּנּוּ וְעָשָׂה חֻלְיָא לְתַכְשִׁיט מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:


The head tefillin is considered as four separate containers. Should it contract impurity from a human corpse and one remove the first compartment and then restore it, it is still a primary source of impurity as it was. This ruling also applies if one removes the second compartment and restores it. If one removed the third and restored it and removed also the fourth and restored it, the entire tefillin is considered a primary derivative of impurity. For he removed each one of them and then restored them all, thus it is as if this "second" tefillin touched the original tefillin.

If he then removed the first compartment a second time and then restored it, the tefillin remains a primary derivative as before. This ruling also applies if one also removed the second and the third compartments. If one also removed the fourth compartment and then restored the tefillin, it is entirely pure. For a primary derivative of impurity does not impart impurity to articles, because it is a derivative itself, as we explained.

Similarly, when a sandal was impure because of contact with a zav or the like and one of its pegs was detached and it was repaired, it is still impure as before. If the other one also became detached and he repaired it, the sandal is purified from the impurity, because it has new pegs. It is, however, impure due to contact with an article that is impure because of contact with a zav. If he did not repair the first until the second was detached, the heel or the toe of the sandal was removed, or it was divided in two, it is pure.


הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ אַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים הִיא. הֲרֵי שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת בְּמֵת וְהִתִּיר קְצִיצָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי הִיא אַב טֻמְאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. וְכֵן אִם הִתִּיר הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְתִקְּנָהּ. וְאִם הִתִּיר אַף הַשְּׁלִישִׁית וְתִקְּנָהּ וְהִתִּיר אַף הָרְבִיעִית וְתִקְּנָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית כֻּלָּהּ רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִתִּיר כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת וְחָזַר וְתִקְּנָם כֻּלָּם וּכְאִלּוּ זוֹ תְּפִלִּין אַחֲרוֹנוֹת שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹנוֹת. חָזַר וְהִתִּיר אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי הִיא רִאשׁוֹן כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. וְכֵן אִם הִתִּיר אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְאֶת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית. חָזַר וְהִתִּיר אַף הָרְבִיעִית וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּהּ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹן מְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא וָלָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵן סַנְדָּל שֶׁהוּא טְמֵא מִדְרָס וְנִפְסְקָה אַחַת מֵאָזְנָיו וְתִקְּנָהּ טָמֵא מִדְרָס. נִפְסְקָה שְׁנִיָּה וְתִקְּנָהּ הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר מִן הַמִּדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשׂוּ לוֹ אָזְנַיִם חֲדָשׁוֹת אֲבָל טְמֵא מַגַּע מִדְרָס. לֹא הִסְפִּיק לְתַקֵּן אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עַד שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסַק עֲקֵבוֹ אוֹ נִטַּל חָטְמוֹ אוֹ נֶחְלַק לִשְׁנַיִם טָהוֹר:


When a shoe was damaged, if it does not cover the majority of the foot, it is pure.


מִנְעָל שֶׁנִּפְחַת אִם אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל רֹב הָרֶגֶל טָהוֹר:


When do tefillin that have contracted impurity become pure again? The arm tefillin - when it is released from the base on three sides. The head tefillin - when it is released from the base on three sides and each of the compartments are separated from each other.


תְּפִלָּה שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת מֵאֵימָתַי טָהֳרָתָהּ. שֶׁל יָד מִשֶּׁיַּתִּיר אוֹתָהּ מִשָּׁלֹשׁ רוּחוֹת. וְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ מִשֶּׁיַּתִּיר מִשָּׁלֹשׁ רוּחוֹת וּבֵין קְצִיצָה לַחֲבֵרְתָהּ:


When a ball, a mold, an amulet, or tefillin were torn after they contracted impurity from a human corpse, one who touches them is impure. If he touches their contents, he is pure.

When a saddle that is impure is torn, one who touches its insides is impure, because the sewing attaches it to the saddle itself and it is considered as a single entity.


הַכַּדּוּר וְהָאִמּוּם וְהַקָּמֵע וְהַתְּפִלִּין שֶׁנִּקְרְעוּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן טָמֵא וּבְמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָן טָהוֹר. הָאִכּוּף שֶׁנִּקְרַע הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתֶּפֶר מְחַבְּרוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ כְּגוּף אֶחָד: