When a person sells a town, included in the sale are the homes, the water reservoirs, vaults, cellars, bathhouses, dovecotes, olive presses, aqueducts in the town and near the town, the woods that surround the town, the fields that are known to be part of the town, the pens for wild animals, fowl and fish that face the town, even though they are distant from it. Not included in the sale is the movable property the town contains.

When the seller says that he is selling the town and all its contents, the movable property is also sold. Regardless of what he said, he did not include in the sale fields that are not known to be part of the town, the villages that surround it, the woods that are distant from it, its portion of a sea, its portion of dry land, or the pens for wild animals, fowl and fish that do not face the town.


הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הָעִיר מָכַר בָּתִּים וּבוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת וּמֶרְחֲצָאוֹת וְשׁוֹבָכוֹת וּבֵית הַבַּדִּים וּבֵית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁבָּהּ וְהַסְּמוּכִין לָהּ. וְאֶת הַחוֹרָשִׁין הַמֻּקָּפִין לָהּ וְאֶת הַשָּׂדוֹת הַיְדוּעוֹת לָהּ. וְאֶת הַבֵּיבָרִין שֶׁל חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים שֶׁפְּנֵיהֶם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן רְחוֹקִים מִמֶּנָּה. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין. וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר לֹא אֶת שְׁיָרֶיהָ וְלֹא אֶת בְּנוֹתֶיהָ וְלֹא הַחוֹרָשִׁין הַמֻּקְצִין מִמֶּנָּה. וְלֹא אֶת הַחֵלֶק שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בַּיָּם וְלֹא אֶת הַחֵלֶק שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בַּיַּבָּשָׁה. וְלֹא אֶת בֵּיבָרֵי חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים שֶׁאֵין פְּנֵיהֶם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ:


When a person sells a field, included in the sale are the stones that support the fence and the stones that are placed on the sheaves, for they are necessary elements of the field. Also included in the sale are the planed reeds that are placed under the vines to support them, the grain that is attached to the ground even though the time for its harvest has come, a place where reeds grow that is less than the area necessary to sow a fourth of a se'ah of grain, even though the reeds that grow there are thick and strong, the hut for the watchman which is made with mortar, even though it is not a permanent structure, a carob tree even though other trees have not been grafted upon it, wild fig trees that have not been cut down yet, even though their trunks are thick, and all the date palms it contains.

The following articles, by contrast, are not included in the sale: the stones that are not structured to support the fence, and the stones that are not placed on the sheaves, even though they are prepared for these purposes, the reeds in the vineyard that are not placed under the vines even though they have been planed, made flat and prepared for this purpose, and the grain that has been uprooted from the ground even though it still requires the field. When the seller says that he is selling the field and all its contents, these are also sold.


הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה מָכַר אֶת הָאֲבָנִים הַסְּדוּרוֹת לַגָּדֵר וְאֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁמֻּנָּחוֹת עַל הָעֳמָרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן לְצָרְכָּהּ. וּמָכַר אֶת הַקָּנִים הַחֲלָקִים הַמֻּנָּחִין תַּחַת הַגְּפָנִים כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת הַכֶּרֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן לְצָרְכָּהּ. וּמָכַר אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה הַמְחֻבֶּרֶת לַקַּרְקַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְהִקָּצֵר. וּמָכַר אֶת מְחִצַּת הַקָּנִים שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִבֵּית רֹבַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּנִים שֶׁלָּהּ עָבִים וַחֲזָקִים. וּמָכַר אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵרָה הָעֲשׂוּיָה בְּטִיט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְבוּעָה. וּמָכַר אֶת הֶחָרוּב שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻרְכָּב וְאֶת בְּתוּלַת הַשִּׁקְמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן עָבִים. וּמָכַר כָּל הַדְּקָלִים שֶׁבָּהּ. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר אֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁאֵינָן סְדוּרוֹת לַגָּדֵר. וְלֹא אֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁאֵינָן מֻנָּחוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֳמָרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מוּכָנוֹת לְכָךְ. וְלֹא אֶת הַקָּנִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם שֶׁאֵינָן מֻנָּחִין תַּחַת הַגְּפָנִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְשֻׁפִּין וַחֲלָקִים וּמוּכָנִים לְכָךְ. וְלֹא אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה הָעֲקוּרָה מִן הַקַּרְקַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לַשָּׂדֶה. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן מְכוּרִין:


Regardless of what the seller said, he did not include in the sale a place where reeds grow that is the size of an area necessary to sow a fourth of a se'ah of grain - even though the reeds growing in it are thin and small - a small block of spices that has a name of its own - e.g., it is called so and so's rose garden - the hut for the watchman, which is not made with mortar even though it is affixed to the ground, a carob tree upon which other trees have been grafted, and stumps of wild fig trees that have been cut down even though they are thin.

Nor is a water reservoir, a grape press or a dovecote - whether complete or destroyed - included in the sale.


בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא מָכַר מְחִצַּת הַקָּנִים שֶׁהִיא בֵּית רֹבַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּנִים שֶׁבָּהּ דַּקִּים וּקְטַנִּים. וְלֹא מָכַר עֲרוּגָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁל בְּשָׂמִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שֵׁם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁקּוֹרִין לָהּ בֵּי וַרְדָּא שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי. וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵרָה בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה בְּטִיט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא קְבוּעָה בָּאָרֶץ. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת הֶחָרוּב הַמֻּרְכָּב. וְלֹא סַדָּן שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן דַּקִּים. וְלֹא מָכַר אֶת הַבּוֹר שֶׁבָּהּ וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּת וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ בֵּין חֲרֵבִים בֵּין שְׁלֵמִים:


The seller must purchase from the purchaser a path in order to proceed to the water reservoir, grape press or dovecote that he retained in the field. If the seller explicitly said: "The field is sold with the exception of these items," he does not have to purchase a path.


וְצָרִיךְ הַמּוֹכֵר לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בָּהּ עַד אוֹתוֹ הַבּוֹר אוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַדּוּת אוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַגַּת אוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַשּׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה. וְאִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר חוּץ מֵאֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ [דֶּרֶךְ]:


When do the above restrictions with regard to what is included in a sale apply? With regard to a seller, for the purchaser should have explicitly stated that these entities are being included in the sale. Since he did not make such a statement, he does not receive them.

When, however, a person gives a present, the recipient acquires all the entities mentioned above - whether a field, a house, a courtyard or an olive press - that are being transferred. The general principle is that when a person gives landed property as a present, the recipient acquires everything that is attached to it unless the giver specifies otherwise.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמוֹכֵר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ לְפָרֵשׁ וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ אֵין לוֹ אֶת אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה קָנָה אֶת כֻּלָּן בֵּין בַּשָּׂדֶה בֵּין בַּבַּיִת בֵּין בֶּחָצֵר בֵּין בְּבֵית הַבַּד. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הַנּוֹתֵן קַרְקַע בְּמַתָּנָה קָנָה הַמְקַבֵּל כָּל הַמְחֻבָּר לָהּ עַד שֶׁיְּפָרֵשׁ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


Similarly, when brothers divide an inheritance, and one acquires a field, he acquires all the articles associated with the field. When a person takes possession of the property of a convert who dies, if he takes possession of a field, he acquires all of the above. And when a person consecrates a field, he consecrates all of the above.


וְכֵן הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ וְזָכָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּשָּׂדֶה זָכָה בְּכֻלָּן. וְהַמַּחֲזִיק בְּנִכְסֵי הַגֵּר הֶחֱזִיק בַּשָּׂדֶה זָכָה בְּכֻלָּן. וְהַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה הִקְדִּישׁ כֻּלָּן:


Even with regard to a seller and a purchaser, all the above concepts apply with regard to these matters only when there is not a fixed custom or known terms commonly used with regard to every individual article. In a place where it is customary that a person who sells a particular entity includes in the sale other particular entities, those entities are included in the sale even if they are not mentioned explicitly, for we rely on the custom.

Similarly, in a place where the term "house" refers to the house alone, or the term "house" refers not only to the house but to all of its surroundings and everything that is upon it, we follow the meaning common in that locale.

Similarly, when a person sells a courtyard, a field, a town or movable property, with regard to everything we follow the meaning of the terms that are used by all the local people.


אַף בְּמוֹכֵר וְלוֹקֵחַ אֵין כָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֵעִנְיָנִים אֲמוּרִים אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג וְלֹא שֵׁמוֹת יְדוּעִים לְכָל דָּבָר וְדָבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר כָּךְ מָכַר כָּךְ הֲרֵי זֶה מָכוּר וְסוֹמְכִין עַל הַמִּנְהָג. וְכֵן מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין אֶלָּא בַּיִת לְבַיִת לְבַדּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁקּוֹרִין בַּיִת לְבַיִת וְכָל סְבִיבוֹתָיו וּלְכָל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו הוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְשׁוֹן אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּמוֹכֵר חָצֵר אוֹ שָׂדֶה אוֹ עִיר אוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין בַּכּל הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הַשֵּׁמוֹת הָעֲרוּכוֹת בְּפִי הַכּל:


This is a fundamental principle: With regard to all matters of commerce and trade, we follow the commonly accepted meanings of the terms used by people of that place, and the local business customs. When, however, there are no local business customs or commonly accepted meanings of terms, and instead, one person will have this intent and another, another intent, we follow the guidelines explained by the Sages in these chapters.


וְזֶה עִקָּר גָּדוֹל בְּכָל דִּבְרֵי מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן הוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּאוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם וְאַחַר הַמִּנְהָג. אֲבָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ בּוֹ מִנְהָג וְלֹא שֵׁמוֹת מְיֻחָדִין אֶלָּא יֵשׁ קוֹרִין כָּךְ וְיֵשׁ שֶׁקּוֹרִין כָּךְ עוֹשִׂים כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים בִּפְרָקִים אֵלּוּ: