1

When a person sells three trees within his field, even three small newly planted trees, or three growths of one tree, the purchaser also acquires the land necessary to nurture them. Even if the trees dry up or are chopped down, he still owns the land necessary to nurture them. The purchaser also acquires all the other trees between them.

א

הַמּוֹכֵר שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדהוּ וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שָׁלֹשׁ נְטִיעוֹת קְטַנּוֹת אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה בַּדֵּי אִילָן. הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לַלּוֹקֵחַ קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם. וַאֲפִלּוּ יָבְשׁוּ הָאִילָנוֹת אוֹ נִקְצְצוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם וְקָנָה כָּל הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם:

2

How much land is necessary to nurture them? The land beneath them, between them and beyond them, in which a person picking fruit can stand together with his basket.

This place - the place in which a person picking fruit can stand together with his basket - may not be sown by either the buyer or the seller unless the other agrees.

ב

וְכַמָּה הִיא הַקַּרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם. תַּחְתֵּיהֶם וּבֵינֵיהֶם וְחוּצָה לָהֶם כִּמְלֹא הָאוֹרֶה וְסַלּוֹ. וְזֶה הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מְלֹא הָאוֹרֶה וְסַלּוֹ אֵין אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם יָכוֹל לְזַרְעוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ:

3

When does the above apply? When the three trees that he purchases are positioned like the three feet of a range on which a pot is placed - i.e., two parallel to each other and the third equidistant between them, but not on the line connecting them. There must be at least four cubits between each tree, and no more than sixteen cubits.

ג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה הָאִילָנוֹת עוֹמְדִין כְּמוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּטְפּוּטֵי כִּירָה שֶׁשּׁוֹפְתִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן שְׁנַיִם זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי מְכֻוָּן בֵּינֵיהֶן וּמְרֻחָק מֵהֶן. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בֵּין כָּל אִילָן וְאִילָן מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעַד שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה:

4

From where does one measure? From the wide portion of the trunk of the tree.

In the following situations, by contrast, the purchaser does not acquire land: the trees were not standing in such a position, they were closer together than four cubits or more distant than sixteen cubits; he purchased one after the other; he sold him two trees in the midst of his field and the third on the boundary line; the purchaser bought two trees in one person's field and one in a field belonging to a colleague; or a cistern, an irrigation ditch or the public domain was interposed between the purchaser's three trees.

Therefore, the purchaser does not acquire the trees between the trees he purchased. If his trees dry up or are cut down, he has no further rights.

ד

וּמֵהֵיכָן הוּא מוֹדֵד מִן הָעִקָּר הָרָחָב שֶׁל אִילָנוֹת. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיוּ עוֹמְדִין כַּצּוּרָה הַזֹּאת. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מְקֹרָבִים פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אוֹ מְרֻחָקִין יוֹתֵר מִשֵּׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה. אוֹ שֶׁלְּקָחָן זֶה אַחַר זֶה. אוֹ שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְאֶחָד עַל הַמֵּצַר. אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וְאֶחָד בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁהִפְסִיק בּוֹר אוֹ אַמַּת הַמַּיִם אוֹ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּינֵיהֶם. הֲרֵי זֶה אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא קָנָה הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם. וְאִם יָבַשׁ הָאִילָן אוֹ נִקְצַץ יֵלֵךְ לוֹ:

5

The following rules apply whenever a person purchases three trees and therefore acquires land: If the trees grow and a new branch emerges outward from the trunk, it should be cut off, so as not to limit the passage of the owner of the field.

All the twigs and small branches that emerge from the trees - even those that emerge from the roots - belong to the owner of the trees, for he has acquired the land.

ה

כָּל מִי שֶׁקּוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת וְיֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע. אִם הִגְדִּילוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ חֹטֶר יָקֹץ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְמַעֵט הַדֶּרֶךְ עַל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. וְכָל הַשָּׂרִיגִין וְהָאֲמִירִים הַיּוֹצְאִים מֵהֶם וַאֲפִלּוּ מִן הַשָּׁרָשִׁים הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל בַּעַל הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע:

6

When a person purchases two trees in a field belonging to a colleague, the purchaser does not acquire any land. Therefore, if one of his trees dies or is cut down, he has no further right to the land.

If his two trees grow and produce twigs and small branches, they should be cut off, lest they grow into the earth and appear as a third tree. Then the purchaser would tell the seller: "You sold me three trees and I have a right to the land."

ו

הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁנֵי אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע. לְפִיכָךְ אִם מֵת הָאִילָן אוֹ נִקְצַץ אֵין לוֹ כְּלוּם. הִגְדִּילוּ שְׁנֵי הָאִילָנוֹת וְהוֹצִיאוּ שָׂרִיגִים וַאֲמִירִים יָקֹץ שֶׁמָּא יִצְמְחוּ בָּאָרֶץ וְיֹאמַר לַמּוֹכֵר שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת מָכַרְתָּ לִי וְיֵשׁ לִי קַרְקַע:

7

The following laws apply to all the branches that the owner of the trees trims from them. Any branches that grow from the portion of the trunk that sees the sun belong to the owner of the trees. The branches that grow from the roots and do not see the sun belong to the owner of the field. With regard to palm trees, the owner of the tree does not acquire any of the branches, for they do not grow from the trunk.

ז

כָּל הָעֵצִים שֶׁקּוֹצֵץ בַּעַל שְׁנֵי הָאִילָנוֹת מֵהֶן. הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַגְּזָעִים וְהוּא הָרוֹאֶה פְּנֵי הַחַמָּה הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הָאִילָנוֹת. וְהָעוֹלֶה מִן הַשָּׁרָשִׁים וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה פְּנֵי הַחַמָּה הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. וּבִדְקָלִים אֵין לְבַעַל הַדֶּקֶל מִן הָעוֹלֶה כְּלוּם לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ גֶּזַע:

8

When a person sells landed property but retains the rights to the trees, he also retains possession of half of the land. For if he did not retain possession of the land, the purchaser would tell him: "Uproot your trees."

Similarly, if he retains the rights to two trees, he also retains possession of the land appropriate for them. For if he did not retain possession of the land, the purchaser would tell him: "Uproot your trees."

ח

הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע וְשִׁיֵּר אִילָנוֹת הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ חֲצִי הַקַּרְקַע כֻּלָּהּ שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא שִׁיֵּר בַּקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֲקֹר אִילָנְךָ. וְכֵן אִם שִׁיֵּר שְׁנֵי הָאִילָנוֹת בִּלְבַד יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם. שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא שִׁיֵּר הַקַּרְקַע הָיָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר לוֹ עֲקֹר אִילָנְךָ וְלֵךְ:

9

When a person sells trees, but retains possession of the land, the owner of the trees acquires possession of the land necessary for them, as we have explained.

If a person sold the land to one person and the trees to another, and the purchaser of the trees manifested his ownership over the trees, and the purchaser of the land manifested his ownership over the land, the purchaser of the trees acquires the trees and half the land, while the purchaser of the land acquires only half the land.

ט

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הָאִילָנוֹת וְשִׁיֵּר אֶת הַקַּרְקַע. יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הָאִילָנוֹת קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לָהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. מָכַר אֶת הַקַּרְקַע לְאֶחָד וְאֶת הָאִילָנוֹת לְאַחֵר וְהֶחֱזִיק זֶה בָּאִילָנוֹת וְהֶחֱזִיק זֶה בַּקַּרְקַע. זֶה קָנָה הָאִילָנוֹת עִם חֲצִי הַקַּרְקַע וְזֶה שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בַּקַּרְקַע קָנָה חֲצִי הַקַּרְקַע בִּלְבַד:

10

When brothers divide an inheritance, one taking an orchard and one taking a field of grain, the owner of the orchard receives four cubits in the field of grain next to the orchard. He is granted this land because we assume that they divided the land with this stipulation in mind. It need not be stated explicitly, because it is something that is well known.

י

הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ אֶחָד נָטַל פַּרְדֵּס וְאֶחָד נָטַל שְׂדֵה לָבָן. יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַפַּרְדֵּס אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה לָבָן סְמוּכוֹת לְסוֹף הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁל פַּרְדֵּס שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן חָלְקוּ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ דָּבָר זֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר יָדוּעַ:

11

The following rules apply when a person sells a field containing date palms to a colleague and specifies that he is selling him the field with the exception of one specific tree. If it is a valuable and high-quality tree, we assume that he retained ownership of that one date palm alone; the remainder belong to the purchaser. If the date palm that he specified that he was retaining is inferior, we assume that he surely retained ownership over the others, and the purchaser does not acquire any of the date palms at all.

יא

הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהָיוּ בָּהּ דְּקָלִים וְאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מִדֶּקֶל פְּלוֹנִי. אִם דֶּקֶל טוֹב וּמְשֻׁבָּח הוּא אוֹתוֹ הַדֶּקֶל לְבַדּוֹ הוּא שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר וְהַשְּׁאָר לַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם דֶּקֶל רַע הוּא שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר הַשְּׁאָר] לֹא קָנָה מִן הַדְּקָלִים כְּלוּם:

12

The following rules apply when a person sells a field to a colleague and tells him that he is selling it to him with the exception of the trees. If it contains only date palms, the seller retains ownership over the date palms. If it contains only vines, the seller retains ownership over the vines. Similar rules apply if it contains only one other type of tree.

If the field contains vines and date palms, the seller retains ownership over the vines alone. If it contains other trees and vines, the seller retains ownership over the other trees alone. Similarly, if it contains other trees and date palms, he retains the other trees alone. The rationale is that whoever sells, sells generously,

If the seller retains ownership over date palms, he retains ownership over only those date palms that are tall and that one must ascend by means of a rope. The others belong to the purchaser. If he retains ownership over trees, he retains ownership over only those trees that will not be bent over by a yoke. Those that can be bent over by a yoke belong to the purchaser and are considered to be part of the field.

יב

מָכַר לוֹ שָׂדֶה וְאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מִן הָאִילָנוֹת. אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּקָלִים בִּלְבַד שִׁיֵּר הַדְּקָלִים. וְאִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ גְּפָנִים בִּלְבַד שִׁיֵּר הַגְּפָנִים. וְכֵן שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת. הָיוּ בָּהּ גְּפָנִים וּדְקָלִים לֹא שִׁיֵּר אֶלָּא הַגְּפָנִים. אִילָנוֹת וּגְפָנִים לֹא שִׁיֵּר אֶלָּא אִילָנוֹת. וְכֵן אִילָנוֹת וּדְקָלִים שִׁיֵּר אִילָנוֹת שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר בְּעַיִן יָפָה הוּא מוֹכֵר. וְאִם הַדְּקָלִים שִׁיֵּר לֹא שִׁיֵּר אֶלָּא כָּל דֶּקֶל גָּבוֹהַּ שֶׁעוֹלִים לוֹ בַּחֶבֶל וְהַשְּׁאָר הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם שְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת הוּא שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר לֹא שִׁיֵּר בָּהֶם אֶלָּא כָּל שֶׁאֵין הָעל כּוֹבְשׁוֹ. וְכָל שֶׁהָעל כּוֹבְשׁוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ וּבִכְלַל הַשָּׂדֶה נֶחְשָׁב:

13

The following rules apply when a person tells a colleague, "I am selling you land and date palms." Even if there are no date palms on the land that he was intending to sell, if he desires to transfer ownership of two other date palms, the transaction is binding. The purchaser does not have the option of saying: "I am purchasing only land that has date palms growing on it."

If, however, the seller tells him: "I am selling you land with date palms," the sale is binding only when there are at least two date palms on the land. If not, it is considered a transaction entered into under false premises, and it is nullified. If the seller tells the purchaser: "I am selling you land for date palms," it need not have date palms. This expression indicates merely that the land is fit to grow date palms.

יג

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קַרְקַע וּדְקָלִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיוּ לוֹ דְּקָלִים אִם רָצָה לִקְנוֹת לוֹ שְׁנֵי דְּקָלִים הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְנָה הַמִּקָּח. וְאֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ אֵינִי לוֹקֵחַ אֶלָּא קַרְקַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דְּקָלִים. וְאִם אָמַר קַרְקַע בִּדְקָלִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. אִם הָיוּ בּוֹ שְׁנֵי דְּקָלִים קָנָה וְאִם לָאו מֶקַח טָעוּת הוּא וְחוֹזֵר. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ קַרְקַע שֶׁל דְּקָלִים אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ אֵין לוֹ דְּקָלִים. שֶׁאֵין בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה אֶלָּא קַרְקַע הָרָאוּי לִדְקָלִים:

14

When a person sells an orchard to a colleague, he must write: "Acquire the date palms, the dates and the palm branches." Although the purchaser acquires all of these entities even when they are not explicitly mentioned in the deed of sale, mentioning them makes the wording of the document articulate.

Similarly, when a person sells landed property to a colleague, he must write: "I have not retained ownership over anything in this sale," to prevent judgments and claims from arising.

יד

הַמּוֹכֵר פַּרְדֵּס לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ קְנֵה לְךָ דְּקָלִים וּתְמָרִים וְהוּצִין. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנָה כָּל אֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ אוֹתָם נוֹיֵי הַשְּׁטָר הֵם. וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ לִכְתֹּב לוֹ וְלֹא הִנַּחְתִּי לְפָנַי בְּמֶכֶר זֶה כְּלוּם כְּדֵי לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַדִּינִין וְהַטְּעָנוֹת:

15

The following rules apply when a person sells a house to a colleague: Even though he writes in the deed of sale: "I have transferred ownership of its depths and its heights," he must write to him:"Acquire from the ground of the earth's depths to the heights of the sky." For the heights and the depths of the property are not transferred when no specification is made.

If he said that he was transferring ownership of the heights and the depths, the purchaser would acquire the height - i.e., the atmosphere alone- and the depths, what is under the ground. He does not acquire what is in their midst. When, however, he writes: "From the ground of the earth's depths to the heights of the sky," he acquires a water receptacle and a cistern that are in the midst of the earth and the pathways that are in between the ceiling and the top of the building.

טו

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּתַב לוֹ וְהִקְנֵיתִי לְךָ עָמְקוֹ וְרוּמוֹ צָרִיךְ לִכְתֹּב לוֹ קְנֵה לְךָ מֵהַקַּרְקַע הַתְּהוֹם עַד רוּם רָקִיעַ. שֶׁהָעֹמֶק וְהָרוּם אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה בִּסְתָם. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁקָּנָה הָעֹמֶק וְהָרוּם קָנָה הָרוּם שֶׁהוּא הָאֲוִיר בִּלְבַד וְהָעֹמֶק שֶׁהוּא עֳבִי הָאָרֶץ. אֲבָל לֹא קָנָה הַבֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁבַּמַּעֲמַקִּים וְשֶׁבָּאֲוִיר. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁכָּתַב לוֹ מִקַּרְקַע הַתְּהוֹם עַד רוּם הָרָקִיעַ קָנָה הַבּוֹר וְהַדּוּת שֶׁבָּעֳבִי הַקַּרְקַע וְהַמַּעֲזִיבוֹת וְהַמְּחִלּוֹת שֶׁבֵּין הַמַּעֲזִיבוֹת לְמַעְלָה:

16

When a person sells a home on the condition that the upper storeyremains his, he retains possession of that portion of the building. If he desires to extend projections from it, he has the right. If it falls, he may rebuild it. And if there was a third storey built on top of the second and it fell, if he desires to rebuild it, he may build it as it was before it fell.

טז

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ עַל מְנָת שֶׁדְּיוֹטָא עֶלְיוֹנָה שֶׁלִּי הֲרֵי זוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם רָצָה לְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ זִיזִין מוֹצִיא. וְאִם נָפְלָה חוֹזֵר וּבוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ. וְאִם רָצָה לִבְנוֹת עַל גַּבָּהּ בּוֹנֶה כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִקֹּדֶם:

17

Although a person sells his grave, the path to his grave, the place where the funeral procession stands in honor of the departed, or the place where eulogies are recited, the family may come and bury the deceased there or perform any of the other rites against the will of the purchaser.

This privilege was granted lest the failure to do so blemish the honor of the family. They must pay the purchaser for the grave in which the deceased was buried. This provision is granted even though it was not stated explicitly in the original deed of sale.

יז

הַמּוֹכֵר קִבְרוֹ אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ קִבְרוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹם מַעֲמָדוֹ אוֹ בֵּית הֶסְפֵּדוֹ. בָּאִין בְּנֵי מִשְׁפָּחָה וְקוֹבְרִים שָׁם בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ מִשּׁוּם פְּגַם מִשְׁפָּחָה. וְנוֹתְנִין דְּמֵי הַקֶּבֶר שֶׁקָּבְרוּ בּוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ: