1

A person can transfer ownership over a property itself with regard to the produce it yields. This applies with regard to a sale, with regard to a present or with regard to an oral will. This is not considered to be transferring ownership of an entity that has not come into existence. For the article itself exists, and the person is transferring ownership over its produce. To what can the matter be compared? To a person who rents a house or a field to a colleague, in which instance he did not transfer ownership over the property in its entirety, but rather merely the right to derive benefit from it.

א

מַקְנֶה אָדָם הַגּוּף לְפֵרוֹתָיו בֵּין בְּמֶכֶר בֵּין בְּמַתָּנָה בֵּין בְּמַתְּנַת שְׁכִיב מֵרַע. וְאֵין זֶה מַקְנֶה דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לְעוֹלָם שֶׁהֲרֵי הַגּוּף מָצוּי וּמַקְנֶה לְפֵרוֹת. הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְשׂוֹכֵר בַּיִת אוֹ שָׂדֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִקְנָה לוֹ הַגּוּף אֶלָּא הֲנָאַת הַגּוּף:

2

What is implied? A person sold or gave away a field with regard to its produce for a limited time, or for the entire lifetime of the seller or of the purchaser.

Similar rules apply to a person who sells or gives away a tree for its fruit, a sheep for its shearings, an animal or a maid-servant for her offspring or a servant for his work. In all such instances, the sale or the present is binding.

ב

כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּכַר אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן שָׂדֶה לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ בֵּין לִזְמַן קָצוּב בֵּין כָּל יְמֵי חַיָּיו שֶׁל מוֹכֵר אוֹ שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְמוֹכֵר וּלְנוֹתֵן אִילָן לְפֵרוֹתָיו. אוֹ רָחֵל לְגִזָּתָהּ. אוֹ בְּהֵמָה וְשִׁפְחָה לְוַלְדוֹתֵיהֶם. אוֹ עֶבֶד לְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו. בַּכּל מִמְכָּרוֹ אוֹ מַתְּנוֹתָיו קַיָּמִין:

3

There is an unresolved question if a sale is binding when a person sells his servant with regard to his fine - i.e., whether the fine which is imposed if the servant is gored by an ox and killed should be given to the purchaser or not. Therefore, the purchaser does not acquire the money; if he seizes it from the servant's owner, it is not expropriated from him.

ג

מָכַר עַבְדּוֹ לִקְנָס שֶׁאִם יֵגֲּח וְיָמוּת יִהְיֶה קְנָס שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ. הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק לְפִיכָךְ לֹא קָנָה. וְאִם תָּפַשׂ הַקְּנָס אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ:

4

When a person sells a tree to one person and its fruit to another, when making the first sale he did not leave over the rights to the fruit. Therefore the second purchaser does not acquire anything.

If, however, a person sells a tree and leaves its fruit to himself, it is considered as if he retained the branches, the place where fruit grows, even if he did not explicitly say so. The rationale is that when a person retains property for himself, he acts generously.

ד

מָכַר אִילָן לָזֶה וּפֵרוֹתָיו לְאַחֵר לֹא שִׁיֵּר מְקוֹם הַפֵּרוֹת וְאֵין לָאַחֵר כְּלוּם. אֲבָל אִם מָכַר אִילָן וְשִׁיֵּר פֵּרוֹתָיו לְעַצְמוֹ הֲרֵי שִׁיֵּר מְקוֹם הַפֵּרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵשׁ לְגַבֵּי עַצְמוֹ בְּעַיִן יָפָה מְשַׁיֵּר:

5

When a person sells landed property for a specific time, the sale is binding. The purchaser may use the body of the land as he desires and derive benefit from it throughout the duration of the sale. At the end of the specified time period, the property returns to its original owner.

ה

הַמּוֹכֵר גּוּף הַקַּרְקַע לִזְמַן קָצוּב הֲרֵי זֶה מְכִירָה. וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּגּוּף כְּחֶפְצוֹ וְאוֹכֵל הַפֵּרוֹת כָּל זְמַן הַמְּכִירָה וּבַסּוֹף תַּחְזֹר לִבְעָלֶיהָ:

6

What is the difference between a person who sells landed property for a specific time and one who transfers ownership of it with regard to its produce? A person who purchases land with regard to its produce may not change the form of the land. He may not build, nor may he destroy. When, by contrast, a person purchases land for a specific time, he may build and destroy. During that specific time, he may act in the same manner as does one who purchases the land forever.

ו

וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ יֵשׁ בֵּין הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לִזְמַן קָצוּב וּבֵין הַמַּקְנֶה אוֹתָהּ לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ. שֶׁהַקּוֹנֶה לְפֵרוֹת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשַׁנּוֹת צוּרַת הַקַּרְקַע וְלֹא יִבְנֶה וְלֹא יַהֲרֹס. אֲבָל הַקּוֹנֶה לִזְמַן קָצוּב הוּא בּוֹנֶה וְהוֹרֵס וְעוֹשֶׂה בְּכָל זְמַנּוֹ הַקָּצוּב כְּמוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַקּוֹנֶה קִנְיַן עוֹלָם לְעוֹלָם:

7

What is the difference between a person who sells a field with regard to the produce it yields, and a person who sells a colleague the produce of a particular field?

When a person sells the produce of a particular field, the purchaser has no right to use this field at all. He is forbidden even to enter, except to take out his produce. The owner of the field, by contrast, may do whatever he desires within.

When, by contrast, a person sells a field with regard to the produce it yields, the owner of the field may not enter the field without the consent of the purchaser, and the purchaser may use the field as he desires.

ז

וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ יֵשׁ בֵּין הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה זוֹ לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ וּבֵין הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת שָׂדֶה זוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ. שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אֵין לַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּשָׂדֶה זוֹ כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ לְהִכָּנֵס אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הוֹצָאַת הַפֵּרוֹת וְיֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַשָּׂדֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּחֶפְצוֹ. אֲבָל הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֵין בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה יָכוֹל לְהִכָּנֵס בָּהּ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְיֵשׁ לַלּוֹקֵחַ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּחֶפְצוֹ:

8

What is the difference between a person who purchases a field with regard to the produce it yields, and a person who rents a field from a colleague?

A person who purchases a field with regard to the produce it yields may plant trees or seeds within it whenever he desires or leave it fallow. A renter does not have this right, as will be explained with regard to rentals.

A renter does not have the right to sublet the property. One who buys the property may, however, sell the rights he purchased to another person.

ח

וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ יֵשׁ בֵּין הַקּוֹנֶה שָׂדֶה זוֹ לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ וּבֵין הַשּׂוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ. שֶׁהַקּוֹנֶה שָׂדֶה לְפֵרוֹתֶיהָ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְנָטְעָהּ אוֹ לְזָרְעָהּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה אוֹ לְהוֹבִירָהּ. וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר אֵינוֹ כֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּעִנְיַן שְׂכִירוּת. וְאֵין הַשּׂוֹכֵר רַשַּׁאי לְהַשְׂכִּיר אֲבָל הַקּוֹנֶה מַקְנֶה לַאֲחֵרִים כָּל מַה שֶּׁקָּנָה:

9

When a person sells the benefit to be obtained from a dovecote or the benefit to be obtained from a beehive to a colleague, the sale is binding. He is not considered to have sold an entity that has not come into existence. For he is not selling the doves that will be born or the honey that will be produced in the beehive. Instead, he is selling the dovecote with regard to the benefit it produces, and the beehive for its honey.

The seller can be compared to a person who rents a stream of water to a colleague, in which instance the renter may derive benefit from everything he catches within. Similarly, when a person sells a dovecote with regard to its benefit, it is as if he sells a tree with regard to its fruit. And the laws applying to both of them are like those applying to a person who rents a house, as we have explained in Halachah 1. Such a person may derive all the possible benefits from the property. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ט

הַמּוֹכֵר פֵּרוֹת שׁוֹבָךְ וּפֵרוֹת כַּוֶּרֶת לַחֲבֵרוֹ קָנָה וְאֵין זֶה מוֹכֵר דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר יוֹנִים שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ אוֹ דְּבַשׁ שֶׁיָּבוֹא לַכַּוֶּרֶת. אֶלָּא הוּא מוֹכֵר שׁוֹבָךְ לְפֵרוֹתָיו אוֹ כַּוֶּרֶת לְדִבְשָׁהּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא כְּשׂוֹכֵר אַמַּת הַמַּיִם לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁיָּצוּד בָּהּ. כָּךְ זֶה הִקְנָה שׁוֹבָךְ זֶה לְפֵרוֹתָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁמּוֹכֵר אִילָן לְפֵרוֹתָיו. וְדִין כֻּלָּם כְּדִין הַשּׂוֹכֵר בַּיִת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ. שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּכָל הֲנָיוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

10

The owner of the dovecote does not acquire the eggs and the fledgling sin the dovecote until they fly. This is a Rabbinic decree, enacted as a safeguard to the prohibition, Deuteronomy 22:6: "Do not take the mother with the young."

Therefore, if a person wants to transfer the ownership of these eggs or these fledglings to a colleague, he should rap on the dovecote so that the mothers will fly away, lifting themselves up from the ground. He should then transfer ownership of the dovecote to his colleague via a kinyan chalifin, by virtue of the transfer of landed property, or via another means of acquiring movable property.

י

הַבֵּיצִים וְהָאֶפְרוֹחִין עַצְמָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּשּׁוֹבָךְ לֹא קָנָה אוֹתָם בַּעַל שׁוֹבָךְ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא פָּרְחוּ. וְדָבָר זֶה גְּזֵרַת חֲכָמִים הִיא וּמִשּׁוּם (דברים כב ו) "לֹא תִקַּח הָאֵם עַל הַבָּנִים" נָגְעוּ בָּהּ. לְפִיכָךְ הָרוֹצֶה לְהַקְנוֹת אֶפְרוֹחִים וּבֵיצִים אֵלּוּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ. מְטַפֵּחַ עַל הַשּׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁיִּפְרְחוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת וְיִגְבְּהוּ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַקְנֶה אוֹתָן לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּקִנְיָן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין נִקְנִין בָּהֶן:

11

When a person purchases the benefit to be derived from a dovecote from a colleague, he is not entitled to take all the fledglings that will be born from the time of the purchase onward. If he did that, the mothers would fly away and he would destroy the dovecote entirely. Instead, he should leave enough of the fledglings so that the dovecote will remain populated.

יא

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת שׁוֹבָךְ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטּל כָּל הַגּוֹזָלוֹת שֶׁיִּוָּלְדוּ בּוֹ מֵעַתָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאִמָּהוֹת בּוֹרְחוֹת נִמְצָא שֶׁהֶחֱרִיב כָּל הַשּׁוֹבָךְ אֶלָּא מַנִּיחַ מֵהֶן כְּדֵי לְיַשֵּׁב הַשּׁוֹבָךְ:

12

How many of the fledglings must he leave? If there were mother doves and female fledglings at the time he sold the benefit from the dovecote, he should leave the first pair of offspring that the mothers will bear, so that the mothers will be able to establish rapport with the first pair and with the female fledglings that were with them from the time of the sale. He should also leave two pairs of fledglings from those that the daughters who were in the dovecote from the time of the sale bear, so that the daughters will be able to establish rapport with these two pair that they bore. Whatever offspring are born after the first two pair from the daughters and the first pair of the mother belong to the purchaser.

יב

וְכַמָּה מַנִּיחַ. אִם הָיוּ בּוֹ אִמָּהוֹת וּבָנוֹת בְּעֵת מְכִירַת הַפֵּרוֹת. מַנִּיחַ בְּרֵכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁיּוֹלִידוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטַוְּתוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת עִם הַבְּרֵכָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְעִם הַבָּנוֹת שֶׁעִמָּהֶם. וּמַנִּיחַ מִמַּה שֶּׁיּוֹלִידוּ הַבָּנוֹת שְׁתֵּי בְּרֵכוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטַוְּתוּ הַבָּנוֹת עִם שְׁתֵּי הַבְּרֵכוֹת שֶׁהוֹלִידוּ. וְכָל הַנּוֹלָד מֵאַחַר שְׁתֵּי בְּרֵכוֹת שֶׁל בָּנוֹת וְהַבְּרֵכָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל אִמָּהוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ:

13

When a person purchases the benefit to be gained from a beehive from a colleague, he may take three swarms of bees - one after the other. After that, he should take a swarm and leave a swarm to populate the beehive.

יג

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת כַּוֶּרֶת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ נוֹטֵל שְׁלֹשָׁה נְחִילִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ נוֹטֵל נְחִיל וּמֵנִיחַ נְחִיל כְּדֵי לְיַשֵּׁב אֶת הַכַּוֶּרֶת:

14

When a person purchases blocks of a beehive from a colleague, he should leave at least two blocks in the beehive, so that the bees do not fly away and abandon the hive.

יד

הַלּוֹקֵחַ חַלּוֹת דְּבַשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ מַנִּיחַ בַּכַּוֶּרֶת שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְרְחוּ הַדְּבוֹרִים וְיֵלְכוּ לָהֶן:

15

When a person purchases olive trees from a colleague to cut down as lumber, he must leave two fistfuls of the tree above the ground before cutting. If he purchases a wild fig tree that was never cut down, he must leave three handbreadths before cutting. If he purchases a wild fig tree that was cut down previously, he must leave two handbreadths. For other trees, one handbreadth must be left before cutting.

For reeds and vines, he must leave the lowest knot above the ground. With regard to palm trees and cedar trees, the purchaser should dig out its roots, for it will not grow again.

טו

הַלּוֹקֵחַ זֵיתִים מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לָקֹץ. מַנִּיחַ הָאִילָן סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ שְׁתֵּי גְּרוֹפִיּוֹת וְקוֹצֵץ. לָקַח בְּתוּלַת שִׁקְמָה מַגְבִּיהַּ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וְקוֹצֵץ. סַדָּן שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה שְׁנֵי טְפָחִים. וּבִשְׁאָר אִילָנוֹת טֶפַח וְקוֹצֵץ. בְּקָנִים וּבִגְפָנִים מִן הַפְּקָק וּלְמַעְלָה. בִּדְקָלִים וַאֲרָזִים חוֹפֵר וּמְשָׁרֵשׁ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין גִּזְעוֹ מַחְלִיף: