Although produce cannot be used for chalifin, as explained, it can be acquired through chalifin like other movable property. With regard to a coin, by contrast, just as it cannot be used for chalifin, it cannot be acquired through chalifin. Thus, a coin cannot be acquired through a kinyan chalifin, and it cannot be used for a kinyan chalifin to acquire other articles.


הַפֵּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין קוֹנִין בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הֲרֵי נִקְנִין בְּקִנְיָן כִּשְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. אֲבָל הַמַּטְבֵּעַ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין קוֹנִין בּוֹ כָּךְ אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה בְּקִנְיָן. נִמְצָא הַמַּטְבֵּעַ אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה בְּקִנְיָן וְאֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה הוּא עַצְמוֹ קִנְיָן לִקְנוֹת כִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים:


Slabs of gold and silver are regarded in the same way as pieces of raw iron or copper. They are like other movable property and can be acquired through chalifin and exchanged for each other, as has been explained.

Coins of silver, gold and brass are all considered to be money received as payment for other movable property. If one gives one of these as payment for movable property, one does not acquire it until one performs meshichah or lifts it up, as has been explained. None of these coins can be acquired through kinyan chalifin, or used for such a kinyan.


לְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל זָהָב וְשֶׁל כֶּסֶף הֲרֵי הֵן כַּעֲשָׁשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אוֹ שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת. וְהַכּל כִּשְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין הֵן. וְנִקְנִין בְּקִנְיָן וְקוֹנִין זֶה אֶת זֶה בְּהַחְלָפָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל הַמַּטְבְּעוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף אוֹ דִּינָרִין שֶׁל זָהָב. אוֹ הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת. הֲרֵי הֵן כֻּלָּן דָּמִים כְּנֶגֶד שְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. וְהַנּוֹתֵן אֶת אֶחָד מֵהֶן דְּמֵי הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיִּמְשֹׁךְ אוֹ יַגְבִּיהַּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִקְנֶה בְּקִנְיָן וְלֹא נַעֲשֶׂה קִנְיָן:


When does the above apply? When one is acquiring other movable property, servants or landed property with these coins. When, however, gold dinarim are being exchanged for silver coins, the gold coins are considered to be "produce." Similarly, copper coins are considered to be "produce" with regard to silver coins.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁקּוֹנֶה שְׁאָר מִטַּלְטְלִין בְּאֶחָד מִמִּינֵי מַטְבְּעוֹת אֵלּוּ אוֹ עֲבָדִים וְקַרְקָעוֹת. אֲבָל הַדִּינָרִין שֶׁל זָהָב לְגַבֵּי מַטְבְּעוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הֲרֵי הֵן כְּפֵרוֹת. וְכֵן הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת כְּמוֹ פֵּרוֹת לְגַבֵּי מַטְבְּעוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף:


What is implied? If a person gave a colleague a dinar of gold for 25 dinarim of silver, the owner of the gold acquires the silver even though it has not yet been transferred into his domain. The owner of the silver is obligated to give his colleague 25 silver dinarim, as he committed himself. If he committed himself to give new silver coins, he must give new ones; if he committed himself to give old coins, he must give old ones.

If, however, the owner of the silver gave 25 silver dinarim for one gold dinar, the transaction is not concluded until he takes the gold dinar. Both parties have the right to retract.


כֵּיצַד. נָתַן לוֹ דִּינָר שֶׁל זָהָב בְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה דִּינָר שֶׁל כֶּסֶף נִקְנֶה הַכֶּסֶף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא בָּא הַכֶּסֶף לְיָדוֹ. וְחַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה דִּינָר שֶׁל כֶּסֶף כְּמוֹ שֶׁפָּסַק עִמּוֹ. אִם חֲדָשִׁים חֲדָשִׁים אִם יְשָׁנִים יְשָׁנִים. אֲבָל אִם נָתַן לוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה כֶּסֶף בְּדִינַר זָהָב לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיִּקַּח הַדִּינָר שֶׁל זָהָב. וְכָל אֶחָד יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ:


Similarly, if a person gave a colleague 30 isar of copper for a dinar of silver, the owner of the copper acquires the silver even though it has not yet been transferred into his domain. The owner of the silver is obligated to give his colleague a silver dinar, as he committed himself. If he committed himself to give a new silver coin, he must give a new one; if he committed himself to give an old coin, he must give an old one.

If, however, the owner of the silver gave a silver dinar for 30 copper isar, the transaction is not concluded until he takes the copper isarot. Both parties have the right to retract.


נָתַן לוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים אִיסָר שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת בְּדִינָר שֶׁל כֶּסֶף. נִקְנֶה הַדִּינָר שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְחַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁפָּסַק עִמּוֹ. אִם דִּינָר חָדָשׁ חָדָשׁ אִם יָשָׁן יָשָׁן. אֲבָל אִם נָתַן לוֹ דִּינָר שֶׁל כֶּסֶף בִּשְׁלֹשִׁים אִיסָר. לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיִּקַּח הָאִיסָרוֹת שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת. וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


Similarly, bad coins that were disqualified by the ruling kingdom or municipal authorities, or dinarim that are not acceptable as legal tender in that country - i.e., coins that are not used for exchange unless they are changed for others, these are considered to be produce with regard to all matters.

They may be acquired through a kinyan chalifin; when they are transferred, money is acquired; and the transfer of money does not acquire them, as is true with regard to other produce.


וְכֵן מָעוֹת הָרָעוֹת שֶׁפְּסָלָתָן מַלְכוּת אוֹ הַמְּדִינָה אוֹ דִּינָרִין שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין בְּאוֹתָהּ מְדִינָה וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין וְנוֹתְנִין בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁמְּשַׁנִּין אוֹתָן לְמַטְבֵּעַ אַחֵר. הֲרֵי הֵן כְּפֵרוֹת לְכָל דָּבָר וְנִקְנִין בְּקִנְיָן. וְקוֹנִין אֶת הַמָּעוֹת. וְאֵין הַמָּעוֹת קוֹנוֹת אוֹתָן כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת:


There is no way in which a person can acquire a coin that is not in his physical possession, except by virtue of his acquisition of landed property -e.g., a person will purchase land and by virtue of its acquisition also acquire coins, or he will rent the place where the coins are held. In these instances, once the purchaser acquires the land through the transfer of money, a legal document, manifestation of his ownership or a kinyan chalifin, he acquires the money.

The above applies provided that the coins exist and are held for safekeeping in a specific place. If, however, Shimon owed Reuven money, and Reuven transferred land to Levi, and intended that by virtue of Levi's acquisition of the land, he acquire the debt owed to Reuven by Shimon, it appears to me that Levi does not acquire the debt.


הַמַּטְבֵּעַ אֵין לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה בּוֹ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע. כְּגוֹן שֶׁקָּנָה הַקַּרְקַע וְעַל גַּבּוֹ הַמָּעוֹת. אוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׂכֹּר אֶת מְקוֹם הַמָּעוֹת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה בַּקַּרְקַע בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ בִּשְׁטָר אוֹ בַּחֲזָקָה אוֹ בְּקִנְיָן זָכָה בַּמָּעוֹת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ אוֹתָן הַמָּעוֹת קַיָּמִין כְּגוֹן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֻפְקָדִין בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד. אֲבָל רְאוּבֵן שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ חוֹב עַל שִׁמְעוֹן וְהִקְנָה לְלֵוִי קַרְקַע וְעַל גַּבָּהּ חוֹב שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אֵצֶל שִׁמְעוֹן נִרְאֶה לִי שֶׁלֹּא קָנָה הַחוֹב:


If three people the lender, the borrower and a third party (the intended recipient) are standing together and the lender tells the borrower, "Give the maneh that you owe me (whether an entrusted article or a loan) to so and so the third party," that third party acquires the maneh in question. None of the three can retract. Our Sages described this law as a dictate whose reason cannot be explained. Therefore, one cannot derive any other precept from it.


הָיוּ עוֹמְדִים שְׁלָשְׁתָּן וְאָמַר לוֹ מָנֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְּיָדְךָ בֵּין פִּקָּדוֹן בֵּין מִלְוֶה תְּנֵהוּ לָזֶה. קָנָה לֵוִי. וְאֵין אֶחָד מִשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וְדָבָר זֶה אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁהִיא הֲלָכָה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ טַעַם לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְמֵדִין מִמֶּנָּה לְדִין אַחֵר:


If Reuven owed Shimon 100 zuz and told Levi: "Give Shimon the 100 zuz that I owe him, and I will repay you," or "...I will make a reckoning with you"- although both Levi and Shimon agree, all three have the potential to retract.

Even if Levi pays Shimon a portion of Reuven's debt he is not bound to pay the remainder. Therefore, if Levi does not pay Shimon the entire debt, Shimon may demand payment for the remainder of the debt from Reuven.


הָיָה רְאוּבֵן חַיָּב לְשִׁמְעוֹן מֵאָה זוּז. וְאָמַר לְלֵוִי תֵּן לְשִׁמְעוֹן מֵאָה זוּז אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לוֹ עַד שֶׁאֶתֵּן לְךָ אוֹ עַד שֶׁאֶעֱשֶׂה עִמְּךָ חֶשְׁבּוֹן. וְאָמַר לוֹ הֵן וְקִבֵּל שִׁמְעוֹן. כָּל אֶחָד מִשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ פָּרַע לֵוִי לְשִׁמְעוֹן מִקְצָת חוֹבוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם לֹא פָּרַע לֵוִי לְשִׁמְעוֹן חוֹזֵר שִׁמְעוֹן וְתוֹבֵעַ אֶת רְאוּבֵן בִּשְׁאָר חוֹבוֹ:


When a person sells a promissory note to a colleague or gives one to him as a gift, the physical transfer of the note does not bring about a transfer of the obligation it carries. For he transferred only the proof of the debt. And that proof is not something that can be grasped by the hand.


הַמּוֹכֵר שְׁטַר חוֹב לַחֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ נְתָנוֹ לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה. אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה בִּמְסִירַת הַשְּׁטָר לְיָדוֹ. שֶׁלֹּא מָסַר לוֹ אֶלָּא הָרְאָיָה שֶׁבּוֹ וְאֵין הָרְאָיָה נִתְפֶּסֶת בַּיָּד:


How indeed can the promissory note be acquired? The seller must write to the purchaser: "Acquire the promissory note of so and so and all the obligations associated with it," and then give him the promissory note. Thus, the note is acquired through the writing and through being transferred.

There is no need for witnesses with regard to the actual transfer. Witnesses are necessary, however, for the debt to be collected. The debtor can tell the purchaser: "Who is to say that my creditor did in fact write to you that the debt is transferred and give you the promissory note?"


וְכֵיצַד יִקְנֶה הַשְּׁטָר. שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ הַמַּקְנֶה קְנֵה שְׁטָר פְּלוֹנִי וְכָל הַשִּׁעְבּוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ וְיִמְסֹר לוֹ הַשְּׁטָר וְנִמְצָא שֶׁנִּקְנָה בִּכְתִיבָה וּמְסִירָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ עֵדִים לְעִנְיַן קְנִיָּתוֹ אֲבָל צָרִיךְ עֵדִים לְעִנְיַן תְּבִיעָתוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנִּתְבָּע אוֹמֵר לוֹ מִי יֹאמַר שֶׁבַּעַל דְּבָרִים שֶׁלִּי כָּתַב וּמָסַר לְךָ:


The transfer of the ownership of promissory notes is a Rabbinical institution. According to Scriptural law, there is no way to acquire the proof of an obligation; only an actual object can be acquired. Therefore, a person who sells a promissory note to a colleague can still waive the debt. Even his heir has the right to waive the debt.


קִנְיַן הַשְּׁטָרוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֹּאת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. אֲבָל מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין הָרְאָיוֹת נִקְנוֹת אֶלָּא גּוּף הַדָּבָר בִּלְבַד קָנוּי. לְפִיכָךְ הַמּוֹכֵר שְׁטַר חוֹב לַחֲבֵרוֹ עֲדַיִן יָכוֹל לִמְחל. וַאֲפִלּוּ יוֹרְשׁוֹ מוֹחֲלוֹ:


When a woman brings her husband a promissory note as part of her dowry, she cannot waive payment of it without his approval, because her domain has become his.


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה שְׁטַר חוֹב לְבַעֲלָהּ אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לִמְחל אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת בַּעְלָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּדָהּ כְּיָדוֹ:


When a person transfers ownership of even the smallest amount of property to a colleague and by virtue of its transfer also transfers the ownership of a promissory note, the purchaser acquires the note regardless of where it was located, although a written statement was not made and the document was not transferred to the purchaser. It appears to me that in this instance as well, the original creditor has the right to waive payment after selling it.

Similarly, if a person sells land and writes a deed of sale even though the purchaser is not present, when the purchaser manifests his possession over the land he acquires the deed regardless of where it is located.


הַמַּקְנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְהִקְנָה לוֹ עַל גַּבָּהּ שְׁטַר חוֹב הֲרֵי זֶה קָנָה הַשְּׁטָר בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא בְּלֹא כְּתִיבָה וּבְלֹא מְסִירָה. וְנִרְאֶה לִי שֶׁגַּם זֶה יָכוֹל לִמְחל אַחַר שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ. וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע וְכָתַב הַשְּׁטָר וְאֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ עִמּוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחְזִיק הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּקַּרְקַע נִקְנָה הַשְּׁטָר בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא:


The following rules apply if a person tells a colleague: "Take possession of this field on behalf of so and so, and compose a deed of title for him." Although the agent manifests ownership over the land on behalf of the recipient, the giver can retract his statement concerning the legal record of the present unless it has already been given to the recipient, despite the fact that he cannot rescind his gift of the field.


הָאוֹמֵר זְכוּ בְּשָׂדֶה זוֹ לִפְלוֹנִי וְכִתְבוּ לוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁטָר וְהֶחֱזִיק הַזּוֹכֶה לוֹ בַּקַּרְקַע. יֵשׁ לַנּוֹתֵן לַחְזֹר בַּשְּׁטָר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְיַד בַּעַל הַמַּתָּנָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בַּשָּׂדֶה:


If, however, the giver told the agent: "Take possession of the field with the stipulation that you write the deed of title," even though the agent manifests ownership over the land on behalf of the recipient, the original owner can retract both with regard to the deed and with regard to the field until the deed of title reaches the hand of the recipient of the gift.


אָמַר לָהֶם זְכוּ לוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה עַל מְנָת שֶׁתִּכְתְּבוּ לוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁטָר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחְזִיקוּ לוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה חוֹזֵר מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ שְׁטַר הַמַּתָּנָה לִידֵי מְקַבֵּל הַמַּתָּנָה: