1

According to Scriptural Law, both livestock and other movable property are acquired by the payment of money. Once the purchaser pays money, neither he nor the seller can retract. Our Sages, however, ordained that movable property should be acquired only through lifting up the article(hagbahah) or pulling (meshichah) an article that is not commonly lifted up.

א

אֶחָד הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֶחָד שְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין נִקְנִין בְּמָעוֹת דִּין תּוֹרָה. וּמִשֶּׁנָּתַן אֶת הַמָּעוֹת קָנָה וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יוּכַל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. אֲבָל חֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִקְנוּ הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין אֶלָּא בְּהַגְבָּהָה אוֹ בִּמְשִׁיכַת דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ:

2

What is implied? When a person gathers together a heavy load of wood, flax or the like that cannot be lifted up, this load cannot be acquired through meshichah, for it can be unbound, and each individual piece of wood can be lifted up. The same principle applies in other similar situations.

In contrast, a large load of nuts, peppers, almonds or the like that no one person could lift up, can be acquired through meshichah. For if one untied the load and separated it, lifting each individual item would involve great difficulty. The same principle applies in other similar situations.

ב

כֵּיצַד. הַמְקַבֵּץ עֵצִים אוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן טָעוּן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַגְבִּיהוֹ. אֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה בִּמְשִׁיכָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּיר הָאֶגֶד וּלְהַגְבִּיהוֹ עֵץ עֵץ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה טָעוּן שֶׁל אֱגוֹזִים אוֹ שֶׁל פִּלְפְּלִין אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁקֵדִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְהָיָה גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵין אֶחָד יוּכַל לְהַגְבִּיהוֹ. הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְנֶה בִּמְשִׁיכָה. שֶׁאִם יַתִּירוֹ יִתְפָּרֵד וְיִהְיֶה לוֹ בּוֹ טֹרַח גָּדוֹל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

3

With regard to a ship: since it is impossible to lift it up, and it is very difficult to pull it - this is possible only when many are involved - our Sages did not require meshichah. Rather, they ruled that it can be acquired through being handed over (mesirah). The same principles apply in all similar situations.

If the seller tells the purchaser, "Go, perform meshichah and acquire the ship," the ship cannot be acquired until one pulls it after oneself, shifting its position entirely, moving it from the place where it had been resting. For the seller had specified that it be acquired solely through meshichah.

ג

הַסְּפִינָה הוֹאִיל וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַגְבִּיהָהּ וְיֵשׁ בִּמְשִׁיכָתָהּ טֹרַח גָּדוֹל וְאֵינָהּ נִמְשֶׁכֶת אֶלָּא לָרַבִּים. לֹא הִצְרִיכוּהָ מְשִׁיכָה אֶלָּא נִקְנֵית בִּמְסִירָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ הַמּוֹכֵר לֵךְ מְשֹׁךְ וּקְנֵה אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה הַסְּפִינָה עַד שֶׁיִּמְשְׁכֶנָּה כֻּלָּהּ וְיוֹצִיאֶנָּהּ מִכָּל הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיְתָה בּוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִקְפִּיד הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִקְנֶה זֶה אֶלָּא בִּמְשִׁיכָה:

4

From the above, one may conclude that a person who purchases movable property may retract, even though he has paid for his purchase. Similarly, the seller can retract until the purchaser lifts up the object of sale or performs meshichah on an article that is not usually lifted up, or the seller gives the purchaser an article that is not usually pulled.

When, however, the purchaser lifts up the object of sale, performs meshichah on an article that is not usually lifted up, or is given an article that is that is not usually pulled, he acquires it. Neither party can retract, and the purchaser is compelled to pay if he has not done so already.

ד

נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ מִטַּלְטְלִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן כָּל הַדָּמִים יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וְכֵן הַמּוֹכֵר יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ אוֹ יִמְשֹׁךְ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ הַגְבָּהָה. אוֹ יִמְסֹר הַמּוֹכֵר לַלּוֹקֵחַ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהַמְשִׁיךְ. וּמִשֶּׁהִגְבִּיהַּ אוֹ מָשַׁךְ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ אוֹ נִמְסַר לוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהַמְשִׁיךְ קָנָה וְאֵין אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ. וְכוֹפִין אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ לִתֵּן אֶת הַדָּמִים:

5

Why did our Sages make such an ordinance with regard to movable property? This is a decree, enacted lest a purchaser pay for an article and before he takes possession of it, it be destroyed by factors beyond his control - e.g., a fire breaks out and burns it, or thieves come and take it. If the article is considered as in the possession of the purchaser, the seller may hesitate and not endeavor to save it.

For this reason, our Sages ordained that the article remain within the possession of the seller, so that he will attempt to save it. For if it is destroyed, he is obligated to pay.

ה

וְלָמָּה תִּקְנוּ חֲכָמִים דָּבָר זֶה בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתֵּן הַלּוֹקֵחַ דְּמֵי הַחֵפֶץ וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקָּחֶנּוּ יֹאבַד בְּאֹנֶס. וּכְגוֹן שֶׁנָּפְלָה דְּלֵקָה וְנִשְׂרַף. אוֹ בָּאוּ לִסְטִים וּנְטָלוּהוּ. אִם יִהְיֶה בִּרְשׁוּת הַלּוֹקֵחַ יִתְמַהְמֵהַּ הַמּוֹכֵר וְלֹא יַצִּילֵהוּ. לְפִיכָךְ הֶעֱמִידוּהוּ חֲכָמִים בִּרְשׁוּת הַמּוֹכֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּדֵּל וַיַּצִּיִל הַחֵפֶץ. שֶׁאִם אָבַד חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם:

6

Thus, if a purchaser paid for an article and it was destroyed by forces beyond his control before he took it, the purchaser may tell the seller: "Give me the article I purchased or return my money." Even though there are witnesses who saw that the article was destroyed by forces beyond control, the seller could not save it, and he was not lazy regarding the matter, the seller must return the money. For our Sages ordained that a kinyan is finalized through meshichah.

For this reason, if the purchaser owned the house in which the article that was sold was held, and he was renting it to the seller, our Sages did not ordain that the article must be acquired through meshichah. For the article that was sold is in the domain of the purchaser. In this instance, once he pays the money, the sale is concluded, and neither can retract.

ו

נִמְצֵאתָ אוֹמֵר שֶׁאִם נָתַן דְּמֵי הַמִּקָּח וְנֶאֱנַס קדֶם שֶׁיִּקָּחֶנּוּ. וְאָמַר לוֹ הַלּוֹקֵחַ תֵּן לִי מִקָּחִי אוֹ הַחְזֵר לִי אֶת מְעוֹתַי. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֵדִים שֶׁאָבַד בְּאֹנֶס וְלֹא הָיָה בַּמּוֹכֵר כֹּחַ לְהַצִּילוֹ וְלֹא נִתְרַשֵּׁל בַּדָּבָר. הֲרֵי זֶה מַחְזִיר אֶת הַדָּמִים. שֶׁהֲרֵי תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים מְשִׁיכָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הַחֵפֶץ שֶׁנִּמְכַּר מֻשְׂכָּר לַמּוֹכֵר לֹא תִּקְּנוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים מְשִׁיכָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמִּקָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַלּוֹקֵחַ. וּמִשֶּׁנָּתַן אֶת הַדָּמִים נִקְנָה הַמִּקָּח וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ:

7

Similarly, if a person rented the place where the movable property that was sold was stored, he acquires the movable property, and neither can retract, even though he did not lift up the object of sale, perform meshichah on it or have it given him. For the object has entered his domain. As we have already explained, the rental of landed property is finalized through the transfer of money, the transfer of a rental contract or through chazakah.

ז

וְכֵן הַשּׂוֹכֵר הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁאוֹתָן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין הַנִּמְכָּרִין מֻנָּחִין בּוֹ קָנָה. וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגְבִּיהַּ וְלֹא מָשַׁךְ וְלֹא נִמְסְרוּ לוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁשְּׂכִירוּת קַרְקַע נִקְנֶה בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ בִּשְׁטָר אוֹ בַּחֲזָקָה:

8

When a person transfers ownership of landed property and movable property simultaneously, once the purchaser or the recipient acquires the landed property through the transfer of money, the transfer of a deed of sale or through a chazakah, he acquires the movable property together with it.

This applies whether he sold both types of property, gave them both as gifts, sold the movable property and gave the landed property as a gift or sold the landed property and gave the movable property as a gift. When the purchaser or the recipient acquires the landed property, he acquires the movable property.

ח

הַמַּקְנֶה קַרְקַע וּמִטַּלְטְלִין כְּאֶחָד כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּנָה קַרְקַע בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ בִּשְׁטָר אוֹ בַּחֲזָקָה נִקְנוּ הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין עִמָּהֶם בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּמֶכֶר אוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה. בֵּין שֶׁמָּכַר מִטַּלְטְלִין וְנָתַן קַרְקַע. בֵּין שֶׁמָּכַר הַקַּרְקַע וְנָתַן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּנָה קַרְקַע קָנָה מִטַּלְטְלִין:

9

When does the above apply? When the movable property was collected within the landed property. If, however, it was in another place, it is necessary for the seller to tell the purchaser: "Acquire the movable property by virtue of your acquisition of the immovable property."

Even when the movable property is in another country, and the seller tells the purchaser: "Acquire the movable property by virtue of your acquisition of this landed property," once the purchaser acquires the landed property, he acquires the movable property together with it, even though the movable property was not collected within the landed property.

If the seller did not tell the purchaser: "Acquire the movable property by virtue of your acquisition of this landed property," the purchaser does not acquire the movable property.

Even the smallest amount of landed property is sufficient to be used to acquire any movable property one desires by virtue of its acquisition.

ט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹתָן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין צְבוּרִין בְּאוֹתָהּ קַרְקַע. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ קְנֵה מִטַּלְטְלִין אַגַּב קַרְקַע. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת וְאָמַר לוֹ קְנֵה אוֹתָם עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע פְּלוֹנִית כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּנָה הַקַּרְקַע נִקְנוּ הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן צְבוּרִין בְּתוֹכָהּ. וְאִם לֹא אָמַר קְנֵה אַגַּב קַרְקַע לֹא קָנָה. וְקַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהִיא קוֹנִין עַל גַּבָּהּ כָּל מִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:

10

Different rules apply when a person transfers ownership of a field to one person and movable property to another person, even though he tells the latter: "Acquire the movable property by virtue of your colleague's acquisition of this landed property."

Although the recipient manifests ownership over the landed property, the other does not acquire the movable property. If, however, this person seizes possession of it after the seller desires to retract, it should not be removed from his possession, for he took possession of it after his colleague acquired the landed property by virtue of whose acquisition this movable property was to be acquired.

י

הִקְנָה הַשָּׂדֶה לְאֶחָד וְהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין לְאַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ קְנֵה הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע וְהֶחֱזִיק הָאֶחָד בַּקַּרְקַע לֹא קָנָה הַשֵּׁנִי הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. וְאִם תְּפָשָׂן אַחַר שֶׁחָזַר בּוֹ הַמַּקְנֶה אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי תְּפָשָׂן אַחַר שֶׁקָּנָה חֲבֵרוֹ הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁנִּקְנוּ אֵלּוּ עַל גַּבּוֹ:

11

When a person desires to transfer ownership over servants and landed property at the same time, although he manifests ownership over the servants, he does not acquire the landed property. Similarly, although he manifests ownership over the landed property, he does not acquire the servants unless they are standing within the landed property. Even though the seller tells the purchaser: "Acquire the servants by virtue of your acquisition of this landed property," the purchaser does not acquire the servants unless the servants are within the landed property. The rationale is that a servant goes from place to place on his own volition.

יא

הַמַּקְנֶה עֲבָדִים וְקַרְקָעוֹת כְּאֶחָד הֶחֱזִיק בַּעֲבָדִים לֹא קָנָה הַקַּרְקָעוֹת. הֶחֱזִיק בְּקַרְקָעוֹת לֹא קָנָה עֲבָדִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עוֹמְדִין בְּתוֹךְ הַקַּרְקַע. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ קְנֵה עֲבָדִים עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בְּתוֹכָהּ. שֶׁהָעֶבֶד מְהַלֵּךְ לְדַעַת עַצְמוֹ:

12

When a person transfers ownership of servants and movable property at the same time, the purchaser does not acquire the servants by performing meshichah on the movable property. If he manifested his ownership over the servants, he did not acquire the movable property, unless the servant was carrying the movable property. Moreover, the servant must be bound, so that he cannot walk.

יב

הַמַּקְנֶה עֲבָדִים וּמִטַּלְטְלִין כְּאֶחָד מָשַׁךְ הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין לֹא קָנָה הָעֲבָדִים הֶחֱזִיק בַּעֲבָדִים לֹא קָנָה הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין עַל גַּב הָעֶבֶד. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כָּפוּת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ:

13

The following laws apply when a person transfers ownership of both an animal and the articles it was bearing at the same time. Although he performs meshichah of the animal and acquires it - he does not acquire the articles it was bearing until he lifts up or performs meshichah on the articles themselves, if it is not customary to lift them up. The rationale is that an animal is like a walking courtyard, and thus, what it bears is not acquired by its owner. Therefore, if the animal was bound, by performing meshichah on it, one also acquires the articles it was bearing.

יג

הַמַּקְנֶה בְּהֵמָה וְכֵלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ כְּאֶחָד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ הַבְּהֵמָה וּקְנָאָהּ לֹא קָנָה הַכֵּלִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ אוֹ יִמְשֹׁךְ הַכֵּלִים עַצְמָן אִם אֵין דַּרְכָּן לְהַגְבִּיהָן. שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה כֶּחָצֵר הַמִּתְהַלֶּכֶת הִיא וְאֵין מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ קָנוּי לְבַעְלָהּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה כְּפוּתָה קָנָה אַף כֵּלִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ:

14

When the seller tells the purchaser, "Perform meshichah over this animal in order to acquire the articles on it," since he does not transfer ownership of the animal itself - even if the purchaser performs meshichah on the animal while it is bound - he does not acquire the articles on it, unless he performs meshichah on those articles themselves.

יד

אָמַר לוֹ הַמַּקְנֶה מְשֹׁךְ בְּהֵמָה וּקְנֵה כֵּלִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ. הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הִקְנָה לוֹ גּוּף הַבְּהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּשָׁכָהּ וְהִיא כְּפוּתָה לֹא קָנָה כֵּלִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיִּמְשֹׁךְ הַכֵּלִים עַצְמָן:

15

The following rules apply when a flowerpot with a hole was owned by one person, and the plants growing in it by another person. If the ownership of the flowerpot was transferred to the owner of the plants, he acquires it when he performs meshichah, If the ownership of the plants was transferred to the owner of the flowerpot, he does not acquire it until he manifests his ownership over the plants themselves.

טו

הָיָה עָצִיץ נָקוּב לְאֶחָד וְהָיוּ הַזְּרָעִים שֶׁבּוֹ לְאַחֵר. הִקְנָה הֶעָצִיץ לְבַעַל הַזְּרָעִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ קָנָה. הִקְנָה הַזְּרָעִים לְבַעַל הֶעָצִיץ לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיַּחְזִיק בַּזְּרָעִים עַצְמָן:

16

The following rules apply when both a flowerpot with a hole and the plants growing in it were owned by one person, and he desired to transfer ownership of the entire entity to another person. If that person manifests his ownership over the flowerpot with the intent of acquiring the plants, he does not even acquire the flowerpot. If he manifests his ownership over the plants with the intent of acquiring both them and the flowerpot, he acquires the flowerpot.

This is implied by the teaching: Property that is not on lien to the seller's obligations can be acquired together with property that is on lien to the seller's obligations. For the plants in the flowerpot with a hole are considered as if they are planted in the earth. And whenever an entity is attached to the ground, it is considered to be landed property, as we have explained.

טז

הָיָה הֶעָצִיץ וְהַזְּרָעִים שֶׁבּוֹ לְאֶחָד וְהִקְנָה הַכּל לְאַחֵר וְהֶחֱזִיק בָּעָצִיץ לִקְנוֹת הַזְּרָעִים אַף הֶעָצִיץ לֹא קָנָה. הֶחֱזִיק בַּזְּרָעִים קָנָה הֶעָצִיץ. וְזֶהוּ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן אַחֲרָיוּת נִקְנִים עִם נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן אַחֲרָיוּת. שֶׁהַזְּרָעִים שֶׁבְּעָצִיץ נָקוּב זְרוּעִים הֵם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל הַמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי הוּא כְּקַרְקַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

17

As we have already explained, produce that is ready to be harvested is considered as though it has already been harvested, and can be acquired only through hagbahah or other procedures by which movable property is acquired.

יז

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹמֵד לִבָּצֵר כְּבָצוּר דָּמִי וְאֵינוֹ נִקְנֶה אֶלָּא בְּהַגְבָּהָה אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁנִּקְנִים בָּהֶן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִים:

18

The following laws apply when flax is attached to the earth, but is dry and no longer needs the nurture of the earth. If the owner tells another person: "Clean the smallest portion of this land for me, and acquire it as a rental property together with all the flax on the entire surrounding field, once he uproots even the slightest amount, the renter acquires the entire quantity, on the basis of this stipulation.

If, however, the original owner transferred ownership over the flax through a sale or a gift, the recipient acquires only what he uproots, for that is what he has lifted up. The same principles apply in other analogous situations.

יח

פִּשְׁתָּן כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע וְיָבֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַקַּרְקַע וְאָמַר לוֹ יַפֶּה לִי קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא וּקְנֵה כָּל מַה שֶּׁעָלֶיהָ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁתָּלַשׁ כָּל שֶׁהוּא קָנָה הַכּל מִפְּנֵי הַתְּנַאי הַזֶּה. אֲבָל אִם (אָמַר לוֹ) הִקְנָה לוֹ הַפִּשְׁתָּן הַזֶּה בְּמֶכֶר אוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה לֹא קָנָה אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁתָּלַשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי הִגְבִּיהוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה: