When a person gives eggs to a chicken farmer with the intent that the chicken farmer have chickens sit on the eggs until they hatch, and then for the chicken farmer to raise the chicks with the profits to be divided between them, the owner of the eggs must provide the chicken farmer with a wage for his work and sustenance.

Similarly, when a person evaluates calves and ponies and then entrusts them to a caretaker with the intent that he tend to them until they grow into large animals with the profits to be divided between them, the owner of the animals must provide the caretaker with a wage for his work and sustenance for every day, like an unemployed worker. He must raise calves until they are three years old, and a donkey until it is capable of bearing a burden. He cannot sell the animal without the consent of his partner until this time.

Similarly, if one evaluates animals and then entrusts them to a caretaker to fatten them, with the profits to be divided between them, the owner of the animals must provide the caretaker with a wage for his work, like an unemployed worker. If the owner tells the caretaker: "Take the head and the fat tail for yourself in exchange for your work, aside from your share of the profits," it is permitted.

If the caretaker has other animals that he was also working to fatten in addition to this one that was evaluated, and similarly, if one has other calves, ponies or eggs, since he is caring for his own at the same time as he is caring for his colleagues', even if the owner gives him only a small amount as a wage for the entire period of the partnership, it is acceptable, and they may divide the profits equally. If the caretaker was already employed as the owner's sharecropper and he is taking care of animals belonging to both himself and the owner of the field, the owner does not have to pay him anything as a wage.


הַנּוֹתֵן בֵּיצִים לְבַעַל הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים לְהוֹשִׁיב הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים עֲלֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ הָאֶפְרוֹחִים וִיגַדֵּל אוֹתָן בַּעַל הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים וְיִהְיֶה הָרֶוַח בֵּינֵיהֶם צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲלוֹת לוֹ שְׂכַר עֲמָלוֹ וּמְזוֹנוֹ. וְכֵן הַשָּׁם עֲגָלִים וּסְיָחִים עַל הָרוֹעֶה לִהְיוֹת מִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶן שֶׁיַּגְדִּילוּ וְהַשָּׂכָר לָאֶמְצַע חַיָּב לְהַעֲלוֹת לוֹ שְׂכַר עֲמָלוֹ וּמְזוֹנוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם כְּפוֹעֵל בָּטֵל. וּמְגַדֵּל אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הָעֲגָלִים בְּנֵי שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְהַחֲמוֹר עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא טוֹעֶנֶת. וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ זְמַן זֶה. וְכֵן הַשָּׁם בְּהֵמָה עַל הַמְפַטֵּם לִהְיוֹת מְפַטֵּם אוֹתָהּ וְהַשָּׂכָר לָאֶמְצַע צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן עֲמָלוֹ כְּפוֹעֵל בָּטֵל. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי הָרֹאשׁ וְהָאַלְיָה שֶׁלְּךָ בַּעֲמָלְךָ יֶתֶר עַל מַחֲצִית הַשָּׂכָר מֻתָּר. הָיוּ לַמְפַטֵּם בְּהֵמוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁמְּפַטֵּם אוֹתָם עִם זוֹ הַשּׁוּמָא אֶצְלוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ לוֹ עֲגָלִים וּסְיָחִין אֲחֵרִים אוֹ בֵּיצִים אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ. הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מִתְעַסֵּק בְּשֶׁלּוֹ וּבְשֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֶעֱלָה לוֹ אֶלָּא דָּבָר מוּעָט בְּכָל יְמֵי הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת הַזֹּאת דַּיּוֹ וְחוֹלֵק בְּשָׂכָר בְּשָׁוֶה. וְאִם הָיָה אֲרִיסוֹ הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מְטַפֵּל בְּשֶׁלּוֹ וּבְשֶׁל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדוֹת אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲלוֹת לוֹ כְּלוּם:


When a person has calves or ponies evaluated, he has chickens sit on eggs, or he has an animal evaluated to be fattened with the profits to be divided between them and he does not pay a wage to the caretaker, the laws that govern such a relationship are the same as those that govern an investment of money. We see how much the animals or the eggs were evaluated for and how much profit was made, and the caretaker is given two thirds of the profit. If there is a loss, he is required to bear one third of the loss.


הַשָּׁם עֲגָלִים אוֹ סְיָחִין אוֹ הוֹשִׁיב תַּרְנְגוֹלִים אוֹ שָׁם בְּהֵמָה עַל הַפַּטָּם לְמַחֲצִית שָׂכָר וְלֹא הֶעֱלָה לוֹ שָׂכָר הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּדִין הָעֵסֶק שֶׁל מָעוֹת. רוֹאִין בְּכַמָּה שָׁמִין הַבְּהֵמוֹת אוֹ הַבֵּיצִים וְכַמָּה הִרְוִיחוּ וְנוֹטֵל הַמִּתְעַסֵּק שְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי הַשָּׂכָר. וְאִם הִפְסִידוּ מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁלִישׁ הַהֶפְסֵד:


We evaluate a cow, a donkey and any other animal that usually performs work and eats, and the profits are divided between the owner and the caretaker. For although care is required, the caretaker is able to derive other profit for himself because of the work of the animals. For he may hire them or work with them himself and benefit from the fee or their work.

One should not evaluate a calf together with its mother, or a pony with its mother. For the calf or the pony does not perform any work, and yet it requires care.


שָׁמִין פָּרָה וַחֲמוֹר וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת וְלֶאֱכל וְיִהְיֶה הַשָּׂכָר לָאֶמְצַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה מִתְעַסֵּק הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ רֶוַח אַחֵר לְעַצְמוֹ בַּעֲבוֹדַת הַבְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי שׂוֹכֵר אוֹתָהּ אוֹ עוֹבֵד בָּהּ וְנֶהֱנֶה בִּשְׂכָרָהּ וּבַעֲבוֹדָתָהּ. וְאֵין שָׁמִין עֵגֶל עִם אִמּוֹ וְלֹא סְיָח עִם אִמּוֹ שֶׁהָעֵגֶל וְהַסְּיָח אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ עֵסֶק:


When a person has an animal evaluated and entrusts it to a colleague, until when is the colleague obligated to care for it? For a female donkey, 18 months. For an animal that lives in a corral - e.g., sheep or cattle - 24 months. If the owner desires to divide the profits within this period, the caretaker can prevent him from doing so, because they entered into a partnership without making any stipulations.

We set these rules because the care and profit ratio for an animal for the first year cannot be compared to that of the second year. In the first year, it requires much care and brings little profit, because at the beginning it becomes heavier only with much difficulty. In the second year, by contrast, it requires little care and there is much profit, because it becomes much heavier, gaining every day. Therefore, the caretaker may prevent him from dissolving the partnership until the end of the second year.

If the animal that was evaluated gives birth while in the possession of the caretaker, the calf is considered part of the profit and is divided between them. In a place where the custom is that the caretaker raises the offspring, he should raise them and afterwards sell them. In a place where it is not customary that the caretaker raise the offspring, he is nevertheless required to care for the offspring for a limited period. For a lightweight animal, he is required to care for it for 30 days. For a large animal, he is required to care for it for 50 days. Afterwards, the offspring is sold and the profits are divided.

If the caretaker desires to care for them longer than this period, he should evaluate them before three men on the thirtieth or fiftieth day. Afterwards, any profit that is made should be divided between them as follows: The caretaker should receive three fourths of the profit, and his partner, one fourth. The rationale is that the caretaker owns half of the offspring and because he cares for the half belonging to his colleague, he is given half of that half - i.e., a total of three fourths. If the caretaker did not make such a stipulation in the presence of three witnesses, he is considered to have waived this extra profit, and the offspring are divided equally among them.

In a place where it is customary to figure in a porter's fee to the money invested, that fee should be added. The entire fee that the administrator receives for carrying the merchandise should be figured into the profit on the investment. Similarly, if it is the local custom to add an extra fee for handling an animal, it should be added. In a place where it is customary to add an extra fee to the caretaker's wages for handling offspring, it should be added. Whenever a person enters into an investment or partnership agreement, he should not deviate from the local business practices.


הַשָּׁם בְּהֵמָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ עַד מָתַי חַיָּב לְטַפֵּל בָּהּ. בַּאֲתוֹנוֹת שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וּבְגוֹדְרוֹת וְהֵן הַצֹּאן וְהַבָּקָר אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים חֹדֶשׁ. וְאִם בָּא לַחֲלֹק בְּתוֹךְ זְמַן זֶה חֲבֵרוֹ מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ סְתָם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה טְפִילָה שֶׁל שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא מְרֻבָּה וְהָרֶוַח מוּעָט שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִשְׁתַּמֶּנֶת בַּתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא בְּקֹשִׁי לִטְפִילָה שֶׁל שָׁנָה הָאַחֶרֶת שֶׁהִיא מוּעֶטֶת וְהָרֶוַח מְרֻבֶּה שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא מִשְׁתַּמֶּנֶת הַרְבֵּה וּמוֹסֶפֶת בְּכָל יוֹם. לְפִיכָךְ מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו עַד סוֹף שָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה. יָלְדָה הַבְּהֵמָה הַשּׁוּמָה אֶצְלוֹ הֲרֵי הַוָּלָד מִכְּלַל הָרֶוַח לָאֶמְצַע. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְגַדֵּל וַלְדוֹתָם יְגַדְּלוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִמָּכְרוּ. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְגַדֵּל חַיָּב הַמִּתְעַסֵּק לְהִטַּפֵּל בַּוְּלָדוֹת בְּדַקָּה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּבְגַסָּה חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם וְחוֹלְקִין. רָצָה לְהִטַּפֵּל בָּהֶן יֶתֶר עַל זְמַן זֶה שָׁם אוֹתָן בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּיוֹם שְׁלֹשִׁים וּבְיוֹם הַחֲמִשִּׁים וְכָל שֶׁיַּרְוִיחוּ אַחַר כָּךְ יִטּל הַמִּתְעַסֵּק שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלָקִים וַחֲבֵרוֹ רְבִיעַ הָרֶוַח שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ חֲצִי הַוָּלָד. וּמִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּתְעַסֵּק בְּחֵצִי שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ נוֹטֵל חֲצִי אוֹתוֹ הַחֵצִי. הֲרֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבָעִים. וְאִם לֹא הִתְנָה כֵּן בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה הֲרֵי מָחַל וְהַוְּלָדוֹת בֵּינֵיהֶן בְּשָׁוֶה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת שְׂכַר כַּתָּף לִמְעוֹת הָעֵסֶק מַעֲלִין וְיִהְיֶה כָּל הַשָּׂכָר שֶׁנּוֹטֵל הַמִּתְעַסֵּק בַּשָּׂכָר שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא עַל כְּתֵפוֹ בִּכְלַל שְׂכַר הַמָּעוֹת. וְכֵן אִם דַּרְכָּן לְהַעֲלוֹת שְׂכַר בְּהֵמָה מַעֲלִין לוֹ. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת שְׂכַר וְלָדוֹת בִּשְׂכַר עֲמָלוֹ מַעֲלִין. וְכָל הַמִּתְעַסֵּק אוֹ הַמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף סְתָם לֹא יְשַׁנֶּה מִמִּנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה:


The following rules apply when Reuven owns a field and invites Shimon to till it, to sow it or to plant within it, to manage the expenses spent on its account, to sell the produce, and to divide between them the profit that exceeds the cost. Whether they agreed to divide the profits equally or they agreed that Reuven would receive a larger share, whether all the expenses were undertaken by Reuven or by Shimon, any such arrangement is permitted. Even "the shade of interest" is not involved.

Shimon, who takes care of working the land, managing the expenses and selling the produce, is called a sharecropper. If the sharecropper claims: "I agreed to till the field for half the profits," but the owner of the field claims that they agreed on a third, we follow the local custom. The one whose claim departs from the local custom must bring proof to support his position.


רְאוּבֵן שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ שָׂדֶה וְהוֹרִיד שִׁמְעוֹן לְתוֹכָהּ לְזָרְעָהּ אוֹ לְנָטְעָהּ וּלְהוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ הוֹצָאוֹת וְלִמְכֹּר הַפֵּרוֹת וְכָל הַיָּתֵר עַל הַהוֹצָאָה יִהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶם בֵּין שֶׁהִתְנוּ שֶׁיַּחְלְקוּ בְּשָׁוֶה בֵּין שֶׁהִתְנוּ שֶׁיִּטּל רְאוּבֵן יֶתֶר בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַהוֹצָאָה כֻּלָּהּ מִשֶּׁל רְאוּבֵן בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה מִשֶּׁל שִׁמְעוֹן. בְּכָל זֶה מֻתָּר וְאֵין כָּאן אֲבַק רִבִּית. וְשִׁמְעוֹן הַמִּטַּפֵּל בַּעֲבוֹדַת הָאָרֶץ וּבַהוֹצָאָה וּבִמְכִירַת הַפֵּרוֹת הוּא הַנִּקְרָא אָרִיס. אָרִיס אוֹמֵר לְמֶחֱצָה יָרַדְתִּי וּבַעַל הַשָּׂדֶה אוֹמֵר לִשְׁלִישׁ הוֹרַדְתִּיו הוֹלְכִין אַחֵר מִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה וְזֶה שֶׁטָּעַן שֶׁלֹּא כַּמִּנְהַג עָלָיו לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


The following laws apply when a husband hires sharecroppers to till property belonging to his wife, and then he divorces her. If the husband is himself a sharecropper, since the husband does not have any connection to the property any longer, the sharecroppers' connection also ceases. If the value of the field increases, they are granted only the share of their expenses equal to the field's increase in value. And they must support their claim with an oath.

If the husband is not a sharecropper, we assume that the sharecroppers were hired according to the custom of the land, and they are given the share granted to other sharecroppers.


בַּעַל שֶׁהוֹרִיד אֲרִיסִין בְּנִכְסֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְגֵרְשָׁהּ אִם הָיָה הַבַּעַל אָרִיס הוֹאִיל וְנִסְתַּלֵּק בַּעַל נִסְתַּלְּקוּ הֵם וְאֵין לָהֶם מִן הַהוֹצָאָה אֶלָּא שִׁעוּר הַשֶּׁבַח וּבִשְׁבוּעָה. וְאִם אֵין הַבַּעַל אָרִיס עַל דַּעַת [מִנְהַג] הָאָרֶץ יֵרְדוּ וְשָׁמִין לָהֶם כְּאָרִיס:


When brothers or other heirs do not divide the estate of their benefactor, but instead, they all use it together, they are considered partners in all matters.

If one of a group of brothers or one of a group of partners was appointed to the service of the king, the profit he receives is divided among them. If one of them becomes ill and is cured, the expenses required for his cure should be shared. If, however, he became sick because of his own negligence, he went out in the snow, or in the sun during the summer until he became ill or the like, he is responsible for bearing the expenses for his cure by himself.


הָאַחִין אוֹ שְׁאָר הַיּוֹרְשִׁין שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ יְרֻשַּׁת מוֹרִישָׁן אֶלָּא כֻּלָּן מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בָּהּ בְּיַחַד הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשֻׁתָּפִין לְכָל דָּבָר. אֶחָד מִן הָאַחִין אוֹ מִן הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁנָּפַל לְאֻמְּנוּת הַמֶּלֶךְ הָרֶוַח לָאֶמְצַע. חָלָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְנִתְרַפֵּא נִתְרַפֵּא מִן הָאֶמְצַע. וְאִם חָלָה בִּפְשִׁיעָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָלַךְ בַּשֶּׁלֶג אוֹ בַּחַמָּה בִּימֵי הַחֹם עַד שֶׁחָלָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְרַפֵּא מִשֶּׁל עַצְמוֹ: