The following rules apply when a person desires to sell a field and brings his neighbor and the prospective purchaser to court. If he tells the neighbor: "If you desire to buy the field at this and this price, do so. If not, withdraw. Here is the purchaser," the neighbor has no room to protest. He must either bring money immediately and purchase the field or waive his privilege.

If the neighbor says: "I will work to raise money," he is not heeded. If he says: "I will go and bring money," and one would presume that he possesses the resources at hand, we wait until he goes and brings the funds. If one would not presume that he possesses the resources, we do not heed him, for we assume that he is merely seeking to delay. Therefore, we tell him: "Either produce the funds immediately or waive your privilege." The rationale is that a neighbor is not given time to amass funds.

The following rule applies when both the neighbor and the prospective purchaser produce money, and the coins produced by the purchaser are better or more likely to be accepted than those produced by the neighbor. The neighbor is not given a privilege; the property may be sold without his being given the right to displace the purchaser.

If the prospective purchaser desires to buy the property to build houses, and the neighbor desires to purchase it as a field, the purchaser is granted it because of the virtue of settling the land. The neighbor is not granted the privilege of displacing him.


הָרוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר שָׂדֵהוּ וְהֵבִיא בֶּן הַמֵּצר שֶׁלּוֹ וְזֶה שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ לְבֵית דִּין וְאָמַר לְבֶן הַמֵּצַר אִם תִּרְצֶה לִקְנוֹת בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ עֲשֵׂה וְאִם לָאו סַלֵּק אֶת עַצְמְךָ וַהֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵחַ. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא נִשְׁאֲרָה לוֹ טַעֲנָה אֶלָּא אוֹ מֵבִיא מָעוֹת מִיָּד וְיִקְנֶה אוֹ בָּטְלָה זְכוּתוֹ. אָמַר אֶטְרַח וְאָבִיא אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. אֵלֵךְ וָאָבִיא אִם הוּא אָמוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַמְתִּינִין לוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ וְיָבִיא. וְאִם אֵינוֹ אָמוּד אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה אֶלָּא לְהִשָּׁמֵט. לְפִיכָךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אוֹ תּוֹצִיא עַתָּה זוּזִים אוֹ בְּטֵלָה זְכוּתְךָ. שֶׁאֵין קוֹבְעִין זְמַן לְבַעַל הַמֵּצַר. הוֹצִיא בֶּן הַמֵּצַר הַמָּעוֹת וְהוֹצִיא הַלּוֹקֵחַ מָעוֹת אִם הָיוּ שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ טוֹבִים מִזּוּזָיו אוֹ מְמַהֲרִים לָצֵאת יוֹתֵר מִזּוּזָיו בָּטְלָה זְכוּתוֹ וְאֵין לוֹ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. הָיָה רוֹצֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ לִקְנוֹתָהּ לִבְנוֹת בָּהּ בָּתִּים וּבֶן הַמֵּצַר רוֹצֶה לְזָרְעָהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ זוֹכֶה מִשּׁוּם יִשּׁוּב הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין בָּהּ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר:


If a purchaser comes and consults with a neighbor, asking him: "So and so, your neighbor desires to sell his field to me; should I purchase it?", the neighbor does not forfeit his right even if he tells him: "Go and purchase it." Instead, he may displace him after he purchases it unless he performs a kinyan confirming that he does not desire the property.

When is it necessary for the neighbor to confirm that he has no claim against the purchaser with a kinyan? When he makes such statements before he purchases the property. If, however, he waives his right after he purchases the property - e.g., the neighbor comes and helps the purchaser, rents a piece of the property from him, or sees that he is building or destroying even the smallest portion of the property and using it as his own - and the neighbor does not protest or assert a claim, he is considered to have waived his right and he is not given another opportunity to displace him.


בָּא לוֹקֵחַ וְנִמְלָךְ בְּבֶן הַמֵּצַר וְאָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן הַמֵּצַר שֶׁלְּךָ רוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר לִי שָׂדֶה זוֹ אֵלֵךְ וְאֶקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ וְאָמַר לוֹ לֵךְ וְקַח לֹא בִּטֵּל זְכוּתוֹ וְיֵשׁ לְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ אַחַר שֶׁיִּקְנֶה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָנוּ מִיָּדוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ קִנְיָן כְּשֶׁמָּחַל לוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקְנֶה. אֲבָל אִם מָחַל לוֹ זְכוּתוֹ אַחַר שֶׁלָּקַח כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּא בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְסִיֵּעַ עִמּוֹ אוֹ שָׂכַר מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתוֹ בּוֹנֶה וְסוֹתֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ וְלֹא עִרְעֵר הֲרֵי זֶה מָחַל וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ:


When the neighbor was in another country, sick or below the age of majority, and afterwards he recuperated, came of age or returned from the journey, he does not have the right to displace the purchaser. If he were given such a right, a person would never be able to sell his landed property. For the purchaser would fear: "It will be taken from me at a later date." The Geonim have ruled in this manner.


הָיָה בֶּן הַמֵּצַר בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת אוֹ חוֹלֶה אוֹ קָטָן וְאַחַר זְמַן הִבְרִיא הַחוֹלֶה וְהִגְדִּיל הַקָּטָן וּבָא הַהוֹלֵךְ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ. שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר כֵּן אֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר קַרְקָעִיתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹמֵר לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁנִים תֵּצֵא מִיָּדִי וְכָזֶה הוֹרוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים:


The following rules apply when a person sells property that is worth 200 zuz for a maneh. If the seller would discount the price for everyone, the neighbor is required to pay the purchaser only 100 zuz before he displaces him. If the seller would not discount the price for everyone, the neighbor must pay the purchaser the 200 zuz that the property is worth. For it is as if the seller gave the purchaser a gift.

If a person purchased property worth a maneh for 200 zuz, a neighbor cannot displace him unless he gives him 200.

If the neighbor protests: "They are perpetrating an act of deception together, "the purchaser must take an oath while holding a sacred article. Afterwards, he may collect the 200 zuz.

If there were witnesses that the purchaser gave 200 zuz, but the neighbor claims that there was an agreement between him and the seller, and that he definitely knows that in truth the seller took only 100 zuz from him, the neighbor must pay the amount of money the witnesses stated. Afterwards, he may displace the purchaser and require him to take a sh'vuat hesset that he purchased the property for 200 zuz. After taking that oath, he is under no further obligations.


הַמּוֹכֵר שְׁוֵה מָאתַיִם בְּמָנֶה אִם לְכָל הָעָם מוֹזִיל וּמוֹכֵר נוֹתֵן לוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר מֵאָה וּמְסַלְּקוֹ וְאִם אֵינוֹ מוֹזִיל לְכָל הָעָם נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָאתַיִם שֶׁהוּא שָׁוֶה שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר נָתַן לָזֶה מַתָּנָה. לָקַח שְׁוֵה מָנֶה בְּמָאתַיִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַמָּאתַיִם. טָעַן בֶּן הַמֵּצַר שֶׁעָשׂוּ קְנוּנְיָא בֵּינֵיהֶם נִשְׁבָּע הַלּוֹקֵחַ בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל מָאתַיִם זוּז. וְאִם הָיָה שָׁם עֵדִים שֶׁנָּתַן מָאתַיִם וּבֶן הַמֵּצַר טוֹעֵן שֶׁאֲמָנָה הָיְתָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמּוֹכֵר וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ [בְּוַדַּאי] שֶׁלֹּא לָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא מֵאָה הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן דָּמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵעִידוּ הָעֵדִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַלְּקוֹ וּמַשְׁבִּיעוֹ הֶסֵּת שֶׁלָּקַח בְּמָאתַיִם וְנִפְטָר:


The following rules apply whenever a person wants to sell landed property and two people come offering to purchase it, and each one is willing to pay the same price and neither of them is a neighbor. If one of the prospective purchasers was an inhabitant of the city and the other dwelled in the outlying fields, the inhabitant of the city is given priority.

If one of them lives close to the property being sold, and the other is a Torah scholar, the Torah scholar is given priority. Similarly, if one is a relative and the other is a Torah scholar, the Torah scholar is given priority. If one is a relative, and the other lives close to the property, the one who lives close to the property is given priority, for this is also an act of "good and justice."

In any of the above situations, if the other person acted first and acquired the property, his colleague does not have the right to displace him. For neither of them owns property bordering on the property being sold, and our Sages established these rules only as an expression of piety and a generous spirit.


כָּל הָרוֹצֶה לִמְכֹּר קַרְקַע וּבָאוּ שְׁנַיִם כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן אוֹמֵר אֲנִי אֶקַּח בְּדָמִים אֵלּוּ וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר. אִם הָיָה הָאֶחָד מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר וְהָאֶחָד מִשְּׁכֵנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁכֵן הָעִיר קֹדֶם. שָׁכֵן וְתַלְמִיד חָכָם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם. קָרוֹב וְתַלְמִיד חָכָם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם. שָׁכֵן וְקָרוֹב הַשָּׁכֵן קוֹדֵם שֶׁגַּם זֶה בִּכְלַל הַטּוֹב וְהַיָּשָׁר הוּא. קָדַם אֶחָד וְקָנָה זָכָה וְאֵין חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁרָאוּי לִקְדֹּם לוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ הוֹאִיל וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר שֶׁלֹּא צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ חֲסִידוּת וְנֶפֶשׁ טוֹבָה הִיא שֶׁעוֹשָׂה כָּךְ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.

Blessed be God who grants assistance.

בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא דְּסַיְּעָן