1

When a person desires to build a projection from his property - regardless of its size - extending over the space above a courtyard belonging to his colleague, his colleague may prevent him from doing so, for he will invade his privacy by looking at him when he hangs articles on the projection or uses it in any way.

If he built the projection and the owner of courtyard did not protest immediately, the builder of the projection establishes his right to it.

א

הַמְבַקֵשׁ לְהוֹצִיא זִיז מִכָּתְלוֹ עַל אֲוִיר חֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי מַזִּיקוֹ בִּרְאִיָּה בְּעֵת שֶׁתּוֹלֶה בּוֹ וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ. הוֹצִיא אֶת הַזִּיז וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ לְאַלְתַּר בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר הֲרֵי הֶחֱזִיק בַּעַל הַזִּיז:

2

If the projection was a handbreadth wide, the owner of the projection has established his right to the empty space of the courtyard. If the owner of the courtyard desires to build under the projection and as a result nullify its usefulness, the owner of the projection may prevent him from doing so.

If the projection is not a square handbreadth, the owner of the projection does not establish his right to the empty space of the courtyard. Whenever the owner of the courtyard desires, he may build under the projection and as a result nullify its usefulness. The owner of the projection may not prevent him from doing so.

ב

הָיָה הַזִּיז טֶפַח הֶחֱזִיק בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. וְאִם רָצָה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת תַּחַת הַזִּיז וּלְבַטֵּל תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בַּעַל הַזִּיז מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְאִם אֵין בַּזִּיז טֶפַח לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר וְכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת תַּחְתָּיו וּלְבַטֵּל תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ שֶׁל זִיז אֵין בַּעַל הַזִּיז יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו:

3

When the projection that was constructed was one handbreadth wide and extended out four handbreadths into the space of his colleague's courtyard, and the owner of the courtyard did not protest against this, the owner of the projection establishes the right to a space four handbreadths by four handbreadths. If the owner of the projection desires, he may widen the projection until it is four handbreadths by four handbreadths.

The owner of the courtyard may not build anything in the space of his courtyard below the projection unless he leaves a space of ten handbreadths below the projection so that the owner of the projection may make use of it.

ג

הָיָה הַזִּיז שֶׁהוֹצִיא רָחְבּוֹ טֶפַח וּמָשׁוּךְ בַּאֲוִיר חֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ הֶחֱזִיק בּוֹ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה וְאִם רָצָה לְהַרְחִיב אֶת הַזִּיז עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי זֶה מַרְחִיב וְאֵין בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִבְנוֹת בַּאֲוִיר חֲצֵרוֹ תַּחַת הַזִּיז כְּלוּם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִנִּיחַ לוֹ תַּחְתָּיו גֹּבַהּ אֲוִיר עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּזִּיז:

4

When a person sets up a small ladder that has fewer than four rungsin a courtyard or a field belonging to a colleague next to his own wall, he has not established a right to use his colleague's property in this manner. Whenever the owner of the courtyard desires, he may build next to the ladder and nullify its usefulness.

If by contrast the ladder is large - possessing four rungs or more - the owner of the ladder establishes his right to maintain it. If the owner of the courtyard desires to build a structure that would nullify its usefulness, the owner of the ladder may prevent him from doing so unless he moves a sufficient distance away. For he granted him the right of constructing a large ladder.

For this reason, if an owner of a roof comes to set up a large ladder in an adjacent courtyard, the owner of the courtyard may protest and prevent him from doing so, so that he does not establish this right. If, however, he sets up a small ladder, the owner of the courtyard may not prevent him from doing so. For we tell him: "You are losing nothing from this. Whenever you desire, you may move it away."

ד

הַמַּעֲמִיד סֻלָּם קָטָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה חַוָּקִין בְּצַד כָּתְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ חָצֵר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בְּנֵזֶק זֶה וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר בּוֹנֶה בְּצַד סֻלָּם וּמְבַטֵּל תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה סֻלָּם גָּדוֹל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה חַוָּקִין אוֹ יָתֵר הֶחֱזִיק וְאִם בָּא לִבְנוֹת וּלְבַטְּלוֹ בַּעַל הַסֻּלָּם מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי מָחַל לוֹ לְהַעֲמִיד סֻלָּם גָּדוֹל. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא בַּעַל הַגַּג לְהַעֲמִיד סֻלָּם גָּדוֹל בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזִיק עָלָיו. אֲבָל אִם הֶעֱמִיד סֻלָּם קָטָן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְמָנְעוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמְרִין לוֹ אֵין עָלֶיךָ הֶפְסֵד בָּזֶה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁתִּרְצֶה תִּטְּלֶנּוּ:

5

The following rules apply when a person desires to extend a drainpipe from his roof over a courtyard belonging to a colleague so that water will flow unto his colleague's property, or he made a gutter on his wall, so that the water will drain off and descend into his colleague's courtyard. The owner of the courtyard can prevent him from doing so. If the owner of the courtyard does not protest, the neighbor establishes his right to the drainpipe.

If, afterwards, the owner of the pipe desires to close it, the owner of the courtyard can prevent him from doing so. For just as the owner of the roof established his right to have his water flow into the courtyard belonging to his colleague, the owner of the courtyard established his right to have the water from his colleague's roof flow into his garden.

If the owner of the roof desired to move the drainpipe from one corner of the roof to the other or the drainpipe was long and he desired to shorten it, the owner of the courtyard may not prevent him from doing so. For the right that he established was merely that the water flow into his property.

Similarly, if the owner of the courtyard desires to build under the drainpipe, the owner of the projection may not prevent him from doing so. For a drain pipe is not made for use like a projection, so that it could be said that the owner of the roof has established his right to the open space of the courtyard. For a drainpipe is made only for the purpose of letting water flow through it.

ה

הָרוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיא צִנּוֹר עַל חֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַלֵּחַ שָׁם הַמַּיִם. אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה מַזְחֵילָה עַל כָּתְלוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּיִם נִזְחָלִין וְיוֹרְדִין לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ. בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְאִם לֹא מִחָה בּוֹ הֶחֱזִיק זֶה בַּצִּנּוֹר. רָצָה אַחַר כָּךְ לִסְתֹּם הַצִּנּוֹר בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בַּעַל הַגַּג לִשְׁפֹּךְ מֵימָיו לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ כָּךְ הֶחֱזִיק בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֵימֵי גַּגּוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ בָּאִין אֶצְלוֹ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ. רָצָה בַּעַל הַגַּג לַעֲקֹר הַצִּנּוֹר מִצַּד זֶה וּלְהַחְזִירוֹ בְּצַד אַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אָרֹךְ וְרָצָה לְקַצְּרוֹ אֵין בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱזִיק אֶלָּא בְּמֵימֵי הַגַּג וַהֲרֵי הֵם בָּאִים אֶצְלוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם. וְכֵן אִם רָצָה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר אֵין בַּעַל הַגַּג יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו שֶׁאֵין הַצִּנּוֹר עָשׂוּי לְתַשְׁמִישׁ כְּזִיז כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּחְזִיק בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר. שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי אֶלָּא לְקִלּוּחַ הַמַּיִם:

6

The following rules apply when a person caused the water from his roof to descend unto the courtyard of his colleague and established his right to this privilege. If the water was dripping in several places and he desired to have it collect to one place and make a drainpipe, he may. Similarly, if the water would descend in one place, and the owner of the roof wanted it to flow in several different places, he may.

He may even build a slanted canopy on his roof, so that the water will flow speedily into the courtyard of his colleague, for he has established the right to have water descend into the courtyard of his colleague.

ו

מִי שֶׁהוֹרִיד מֵי גַּגּוֹ עַל חֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ וְהֶחֱזִיק בְּדָבָר זֶה. אִם הַמַּיִם מְנַטְּפִין וְרָצָה לְקַבְּצָם לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְלַעֲשׂוֹתָם צִנּוֹר עוֹשֶׂה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ בָּאִין דֶּרֶךְ צִנּוֹר מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וְחִלְּקָן עַל רֹחַב הַכֹּתֶל וְהֶחֱזִירָן נוֹטְפִין עוֹשֶׂה. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִבְנוֹת עַל גַּגּוֹ כְּמִין צְרִיף עַד שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ הַמַּיִם בִּמְהֵרָה לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ בּוֹנֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֻחְזְקוּ מֵימָיו שֶׁל זֶה לֵירֵד לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ:

7

When there is a wall between the properties of Reuven and Shimon, and they share its ownership, both may use it. One may hollow out space from one side and insert his beams, regardless of their size, and the other may hollow out space from the other side and insert his beams.

If the wall belonged to Reuven alone, Shimon may not make use of it. If, however, Shimon hollowed out space in the wall and inserted one beam, and Reuven remained silent and did not protest, he established his right to the place of that beam. Even if his original beam was small and Shimon desired to change it to a big and thick beam, he may.

If the beam was part of a temporary sukkah, he does not establish the right to maintain it for 30 days. For Reuven will say: "I did not waive my right to protest. I allowed it merely because it was temporary." If the owner of the beam maintains the sukkah for 30 days, he establishes his right to it, for that is no longer considered temporary.

Different rules apply if he constructed a sukkah for the holiday. Within all the seven days of the holiday, he does not establish his right to maintain it. After the seven days are completed, he does establish his right.

If he joins the end of the beam to the wall with mortar, he establishes his right immediately, provided he brings proof that Reuven helped him in the construction or saw and did not protest.

ז

כֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין רְאוּבֵן וְשִׁמְעוֹן אִם הָיוּ שֻׁתָּפִין בּוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ זֶה חוֹפֵר מִצַּד זֶה וּמַכְנִיס קוֹרוֹתָיו כָּל שֶׁהֵן. וְזֶה חוֹפֵר מִצַּד זֶה וּמַכְנִיס קוֹרוֹתָיו. הָיָה הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן לְבַדּוֹ אֵין שִׁמְעוֹן יָכוֹל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ. חָפַר שִׁמְעוֹן בְּכֹתֶל זֶה וְהִכְנִיס בָּהּ קוֹרָה אַחַת וְשָׁתַק רְאוּבֵן וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ הֶחֱזִיק בִּמְקוֹם הַקּוֹרָה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה וְרָצָה שִׁמְעוֹן לְהַחְלִיפָהּ בְּקוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה וְעָבָה מַחְלִיף. הָיְתָה הַקּוֹרָה סֻכַּת עַרְאַי כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ סְתָם שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאוּבֵן אוֹמֵר לֹא מָחַלְתִּי וְהִנַּחְתִּיךָ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עַרְאַי. לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֶחֱזִיק שֶׁאֵין זֶה עַרְאַי. וְאִם סֻכַּת יְמֵי הֶחָג הִיא כָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג לֹא הֶחֱזִיק לְאַחַר שִׁבְעָה הֶחֱזִיק. וְאִם חִבֵּר רֹאשׁ הַקּוֹרָה בַּכֹּתֶל בְּטִיט מִיָּד הֶחֱזִיק וְהוּא שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁרְאוּבֵן סִיֵּעַ עִמּוֹ אוֹ רָאָה וְלֹא מִחָה:

8

If a person established a right to insert one beam into a wall, he does not have a right to insert a second beam. For the owner of wall waived his right to protest with regard to only one beam.

When does the above apply? When the person inserting the beam admitted that the wall did not belong to him, and the owner waived his right to protest with regard to the insertion of this beam. If, however, he claimed, "I am a partner in this wall," since he made use of it for one beam, his word is accepted and he is allowed to insert all his beams. He takes a sh'vuat hesset that he is a partner in the entire wall.

ח

מִי שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בְּכֹתֶל זֶה בְּקוֹרָה אַחַת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִיק בְּקוֹרָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא מָחַל לוֹ אֶלָּא עַל הָאַחַת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהוֹדָה שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּתֶל זֶה שֶׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲבֵרוֹ מָחַל לוֹ עַל הַכְנָסַת קוֹרָה זוֹ. אֲבָל אִם טָעַן שֶׁכֹּתֶל זֶה שֻׁתָּף אֲנִי בּוֹ הוֹאִיל וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּקוֹרָה אַחַת נֶאֱמָן וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכֻלָּן אַחַר שֶׁיִּשָּׁבַע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁהוּא שֻׁתָּף בְּכָל הַכֹּתֶל:

9

When one of the colleagues builds the wall without the participation of the other, only he has the right to it. If beams belonging to Reuven were placed within the wall, and there was also space hollowed out on Shimon's side for him to place his beams, Shimon has not established his right to it. Shimon may not insert his beams into the wall, nor may he claim that he is a partner in it, for he has no right to use it.

Reuven can refute Shimon's claims, stating: "Before building the wall I hollowed out these places on your side, so that they will be prepared for you so that when you will purchase a share from me, or when you will request me to waive my right to protest and allow you to insert your beams, you will be able to do so without hollowing out the wall, so that the wall will not be shaken when it is hollowed out.

ט

הָיוּ קוֹרוֹתָיו שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַכֹּתֶל וּבְצַד שִׁמְעוֹן מְקוֹמוֹת חֲפוּרִין לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶן רָאשֵׁי הַקּוֹרוֹת לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בָּהֶן שִׁמְעוֹן לְהַכְנִיס בָּהּ קוֹרוֹת וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן שֶׁהוּא שֻׁתָּף בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ וְיָכוֹל רְאוּבֵן לִטְעֹן שֶׁאֲנִי חָפַרְתִּי מְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּצִדְּךָ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מוּכָנִים עַד שֶׁתִּקְנֶה מִמֶּנִּי אוֹ שֶׁתְּבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶמְחל לְךָ וְתַכְנִיס הַקּוֹרוֹת בְּלֹא חֲפִירָה בַּכֹּתֶל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְמַטְמֵט כָּתְלִי בְּעֵת חֲפִירָה: