1

A person who strikes a woman and causes her to miscarry is liable, even if her injury was caused unintentionally. He must compensate the woman's husband for the value of the fetus, and the woman for the injury and the pain.

א

הנוגף את האשה ויצאו ילדיה אע"פ שלא נתכוון חייב לשלם דמי ולדות לבעל ונזק וצער לאשה:

2

How is the payment for the fetus assessed? We evaluate how much the woman would be worth before she gave birth, and how much she would be worth had she given birth. The difference between these two figures should be given to her husband.

If her husband died after she miscarried, the assessment should be given to his heirs. If a woman was struck after her husband died and she miscarried, the assessment for the fetus should also be given to the woman.

ב

וכיצד משערין דמי ולדות. שמין האשה כמה היתה יפה עד שלא ילדה וכמה היא יפה משילדה ונותנין לבעל. אם מת הבעל נותנין ליורשים. ואם נגפה אחר מיתת הבעל נותנין אף דמי ולדות לאשה:

3

If the woman who miscarries was married to a convert, and a person injures her during the convert's lifetime, he must pay the assessment for the fetus to the husband. If the convert dies without leaving any heirs, he is not liable. If the woman is injured after the convert dies, she acquires the right to the assessment for the fetus.

ג

היתה נשואה לגר וחבל בה בחיי הגר נותן דמי ולדות לבעל. מת הגר פטור. ואם חבל בה אחר מיתת הגר זכתה היא בדמי ולדות:

4

If the woman was a maidservant or a gentile at the time of conception, and was freed or converted before the accident took place, the assessment for the fetus belongs to her.

ד

היתה [א] שפחה או עכו"ם בשעת הריון ובשעת נגיפה נשתחררה או נתגיירה הרי דמי הולדות שלה:

5

When a person strikes a woman, and she miscarries and dies, he is not liable for payment, even if he struck her unintentionally.This law is derived as follows. Exodus 21:22 states: "If there will not be a fatal injury, he must certainly be punished financially." Thus, we see that Scripture did not distinguish between unintentional and intentional conduct with regard to an act punishable by execution by the court, and freed the perpetrator from financial liability in all instances.

ה

הנוגף את האשה ויצאו ילדיה ומתה אע"פ שהיה שוגג הרי זה פטור מן התשלומין ואינו משלם כלום. שנאמר ולא יהיה אסון ענוש יענש. לא חילק הכתוב בין שוגג למזיד בדבר שיש בו מיתת בית דין לפוטרו מן התשלומין:

6

When does the above apply? When the person intended to strike the woman. When, however, he intended to strike his colleague, but instead struck the woman - although she died - since he killed her without intention, this is considered a matter that does not involve capital punishment, and he is liable for the assessment for the fetus.

ו

במה דברים אמורים כשנתכוון לאשה. אבל אם נתכוון לחבירו ונגף את האשה אע"פ שמתה הואיל והמיתה בלא כוונה הרי זה כדבר שאין בו מיתת בית דין ומשלם דמי ולדות:

7

A person who strikes his father or his mother, but does not draw blood, is liable to pay the five assessments. If, however, he drew blood while striking his parents or injured a colleague on the Sabbath - even if he did so unintentionally - he is not liable for a financial penalty, because these sins are punishable by execution by the court. And as we explained, Scripture did not distinguish between unintentional and intentional conduct with regard to an act punishable by execution by the court, and freed the perpetrator from financial liability in all instances.

ז

המכה אביו ואמו ב ולא עשה בהן חבורה חייב בחמשה דברים. אבל אם עשה בהם חבורה או שחבל בחבירו בשבת אפילו היה שוגג פטור מן התשלומין מפני שהוא עון מיתת בית דין וכבר ביארנו שלא חילק הכתוב בדבר שיש בו מיתת בית דין בין שוגג למזיד לפוטרו מן התשלומין:

8

With regard to causing injury on the Sabbath, one might ask: "A person who causes injury is considered to be performing destructive activity, and one who performs destructive activity on the Sabbath is not liable for execution. Why then is the person who causes injury considered to be transgressing a sin punishable by execution by the court?"

The resolution is: since the person is satisfying his evil inclination by injuring his colleague, he is considered to be performing constructive activity. Thus, he is performing an act that is punishable by execution. Therefore, he is not liable for a financial penalty.

ח

והלא החובל מקלקל הוא וכל המקלקלין בשבת פטורין מן המיתה ולמה נחשוב זה החובל עון שיש בו מיתת בית דין. הואיל ועשה נחת רוח ליצרו הרע בעת שחבל בחבירו הרי הוא כמתקן ונמצא עון מיתה לפיכך פטור מתשלומין:

9

When a person injures a colleague on Yom Kippur, he is liable to pay financial compensation, even though he did so intentionally.

This is the halachah although he transgressed a sin that is punishable by lashes. Generally, whenever a deed that a person commits obligates the person to receive lashes and pay a financial penalty, he should be lashed and is not required to pay a financial penalty, for a person is never obligated for both lashes and a financial penalty. Although this is the general rule, an exception is made with regard to a person who injures a colleague. For the Torah specifically stated that a person who injures a colleague should pay compensation, as Exodus 21:19 states: "He shall pay unemployment compensation."

ט

החובל בחבירו ביום הכפורים אפילו במזיד חייב בתשלומין. אע"פ שעבר עבירה שהוא חייב עליה מלקות. והלא כל המחוייב מלקות ותשלומין לוקה ואינו משלם שאין אדם לוקה ומשלם. כך הם הדברים בכל חוץ מחובל בחבירו שהוא משלם שהרי בפירוש רבתה תורה חובל בחבירו לתשלומין שנאמר רק שבתו יתן:

10

A person who injures a Canaanite servant whom he owns is not liable for any penalty. If he injures a Hebrew servant whom he owns, he is liable for all the assessments, with the exception of unemployment compensation.

When a person injures a Canaanite servant belonging to a colleague, the owner of the injured servant receives the five assessments. Even if he gave him powerful medication that caused the servant pain but healed him quickly, the owner is entitled to payment for all medical expenses.

י

החובל בעבד כנעני שלו פטור. חבל בעבד עברי שלו חייב בכולן חוץ מן השבת. החובל בעבד כנעני של חבירו רבו של עבד נוטל חמשה דברים ואפילו ציערו בסם ונתרפא במהרה הרי כל רפואתו לרבו:

11

Whenever a servant has been freed, but his bill of release has not been given to him yet, the penalty granted to the owner if the servant is killed by an ox is not paid because of him. If others injure him, he cannot collect the money for himself, because he is not a totally free man yet. Nor may his owner collect that money, because he no longer owns him.

For this reason, if an owner knocks out one of his servant's teeth, and then blinds his eye, he must free him because of his tooth, but he is not required to pay him because of the eye. If, however, the servant seizes the assessment that would be due him, it is not expropriated from him.

יא

כל עבד שיצא לחירות ועדיין לא הגיע גט שחרור לידו אין לו קנס. ואחרים שחבלו בו אינו יכול להוציא מהן לעצמו שעדיין לא גמר שחרורו. ולא האדון יכול להוציא מהן שהרי לא נשאר [לו] בו קנין. לפיכך המפיל שן עבדו ואחר כך סימא עינו יוצא בשינו ואינו נותן לו דמי עינו. ואם תפש אין מוציאין מידו:

12

When a servant has been half-freed, he must work for his master one day, and may work for himself the next day.

The following rules apply if such a servant was embarrassed by a person, or one caused him pain, or he was gored by an ox, or the like. If this took place on the day on which he must work for his master, the master is entitled to the payment. If this took place on the day when he works for himself, he is entitled to the payment.

יב

מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חורין שביישו אדם או ציערו או שנגחו שור וכיוצא באלו. אם אירעו זה ביום של רבו לרבו ביום של עצמו לעצמו:

13

When a person injures a Hebrew servant belonging to another person, he is liable for all five assessments. Land should be purchased with the money, and the servant's master is entitled to the profits. When the servant is freed, the land is released from his owner's control.

If the servant was injured in a way that does not impair his work at all - e.g., the tip of his ear or the tip of his nose was cut off - the entire payment should be given to the servant, and his owner is not entitled to the benefit.

יג

החובל בעבד עברי של חבירו חייב בחמשה דברים וילקח בהן קרקע ורבו אוכל פירותיה. ולכשיצא העבד לחירות יצא השדה מתחת רבו. הזיקו היזק שאינו מעכב מלאכה כלל כגון שקטע ראש אזנו או ראש חוטמו הכל לעבד ואין לרבו בהן פירות:

14

The following rules apply when a person injures a girl below the age of majority who is not his own daughter. If the injuries reduce the money her father would receive for consecrating her, the assessment should be given to her father. Similarly, the unemployment assessment should be given to her father, for her wages belong to him, and the money received for selling her as a servant belongs to him.

The assessments for pain, embarrassment and medical attention, by contrast, belong to the girl herself. Similarly, if the injuries do not reduce the money he would receive for consecrating her, the assessment should be given to [the daughter.

When a person injures his own daughter, he must pay her only the assessments for pain, medical attention and embarrassment.

יד

החובל בבת קטנה של אחרים אם נזק הפוחת אותה מכספה הוא הרי הוא של אב. וכן שבתה של אב שהרי מעשה ידיה וכסף מכירתה של אביה הוא. אבל צער ובושת וריפוי הרי הוא שלה. וכן נזק שאינה פוחתה מכספה הרי הוא שלה. וכן החובל בבתו משלם צער וריפוי ובושת:

15

The following rules apply when a person injures a married woman. The unemployment benefits and medical assessment should be given to her husband. With regard to shame and damages, the rules are: If the damage is plainly evident - e.g., he injured the woman's face, her neck, her hands or her arms - a third is given to her, and two thirds are given to her husband. If the damages are in concealed places, a third is given to her husband, and two thirds are given to her.

The assessment for the husband should be given to him immediately. The assessment for the woman should be used to purchase land, from which the husband is entitled to the profits.

טו

החובל באשת איש השבת והריפוי לבעלה והצער שלה. והבושת והנזק אם בגלוי הוא כגון שחבל בפניה ובצוארה או בידיה וזרועותיה השליש שלה ושני שלישים לבעל. ואם בסתר הוא הנזק השליש לבעל ושני שלישים לאשה. של בעל נותנין לו מיד ושל אשה ילקח בהן קרקע והבעל אוכל פירות:

16

When does the above apply? When others injured her. When, however, a husband injures his wife, he is required to pay her the entire assessment for the damages, the embarrassment and the pain. This money is hers entirely. The husband has no rights to the profits. If she desires to give the money to another person, she may. This is the ruling rendered by the geonim. The husband must pay for her medical expenses, as he pays for all her other medical expenses.

טז

במה דברים אמורים כשחבלו בה אחרים [ב] אבל הבעל שחבל באשתו חייב לשלם לה מיד כל הנזק וכל הבושת והצער והכל שלה ואין לבעל בהן פירות ואם רצתה ליתן הדמים לאחר נותנת וכזה הורו הגאונים. והבעל מרפא אותה כדרך שמרפא כל חליה:

17

When a person injures his wife through sexual intercourse, he is liable for the damages.

יז

והמזיק אשתו בתשמיש המטה חייב בנזקיה:

18

The following rules apply when a woman injures her husband. In a case where he had added an amount above the minimum to her marriage contract, if the husband desires, we require her to sell the right to this additional amount to her husband for the price she would receive for it, and her husband is entitled to collect the damages from these funds. If he desires, he may divorce her and collect the damages from the entire sum of the money due her by virtue of her ketubah.

If he had not added an amount above the minimum to her marriage contract, she may not sell him the rights to the money due her by virtue of her ketubah itself, for it is forbidden for a person to remain married to a woman for one moment without a marriage contract. Thus, if the husband desires, he may have a promissory note written obligating her to pay for the damages, or he may divorce her and collect the amount due him from the money due her by virtue of her ketubah.

יח

האשה שחבלה בבעלה אם היה תוספת בכתובתה מחייבין אותה למכור התוספת לבעלה בטובת הנאה וגובה ממנה אם רצה הבעל. ואם רצה לגרשה ולגבות מן הכל גובה. ואם לא היה לה תוספת אינה יכולה למכור לו עיקר כתובתה. שאסור לו לאדם לשהות את אשתו שעה אחת בלא כתובה כדי שלא תהא קלה בעיניו להוציאה. אלא אם רצה הבעל כותב עליה שטר בדמי חבלו או מגרשה ונוטל מכתובתה הראוי לו:

19

The following rules apply when a person injures his sons who have attained majority. If they are not dependent on him for their livelihood, he must pay them the damages immediately. If they are below the age of majority, he should purchase land for them with the money due them for the damages,and they are entitled to the benefits. The same rules apply if they are injured by others.

If a father injures sons who are dependent on him for their livelihood, he is not liable. This applies whether or not they are above majority. If others injure them, the person who causes the injury must compensate them immediately if they are above majority. If they are below majority, the damages should be used to purchase landed property. They are entitled to its profits until they reach majority at which time the property becomes theirs without limitation.

יט

החובל בבניו הגדולים אם אין סומכין על שלחנו נותן להם מיד. והקטנים ילקח בהן קרקע בנזקן והן אוכלין פירותיו וכן הדין באחרים שחבלו בהן. ואם היו סמוכין על שלחנו וחבל בהן פטור בין שהיו גדולים בין שהיו קטנים. ואם חבלו בהן אחרים בגדולים יתן להם מיד ובקטנים ילקח בהן קרקע והן אוכלין פירותיה עד שיגדילו:

20

An encounter with a deaf mute, a mentally incompetent individual or a minor is undesirable. For if a person injures them, he is liable, but if they injure another person, they are not.

Even if the deaf mute gains the ability to speak and hear, the mentally incompetent person attains competency, and the minor comes of age, they are not obligated to pay for injuries they caused previously. For at the time they caused the injuries, they were not fully mentally competent.

כ

חרש שוטה וקטן פגיעתן רעה החובל בהן חייב והן שחבלו באחרים פטורין. אע"פ שנתפתח החרש ונשתפה השוטה והגדיל הקטן אינם חייבין לשלם שבשעה שחבלו בהן לא היו בני דעת:

21

An encounter with a servant or a married woman is undesirable. For if a person injures them, he is liable, but if they injure another person, they are not liable to pay immediately.

They must, however, pay afterwards - i.e., if the woman is divorced or if her husband dies and if the servant is freed. They are held responsible because they are mentally competent. They are considered as a creditor who has no resources with which to pay, and who is thus held liable with regard to damages if he becomes wealthy.

כא

העבד והאשה פגיעתן רעה החובל בהן חייב והן שחבלו באחרים פטורין. אבל משלמין לאחר זמן אם נתגרשה האשה או מת בעלה או נשתחרר העבד. שהרי בני דעה הן והרי הן כבעל חוב שאין לו מה יגבה שאם העשיר חייב לשלם:

22

A servant belonging to a man is considered as his own person, and an animal as one of his possessions.

What is implied? If a person places a burning coal on the heart of a servant belonging to a colleague and causes him to die, or if he pushes him into the sea or into a fire from which the servant could ascend, but the servant fails to do so and died instead, the person who caused his death is not obligated to pay financial compensation. If, however, he does this to an animal belonging to a colleague, it would be considered as if he had placed a coal on a garment and burned it, in which case he would be liable for damages. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

כב

עבדו של אדם כגופו ובהמתו כממונו. כיצד הרי שהניח גחלת על לב עבדו של חבירו ומת או שדחפו לים או לאש והוא יכול לעלות משם ולא עלה ומת פטור מן התשלומין. ואם עשה כן לבהמת חבירו כאילו הניח הגחלת על בגדו ונשרף שהוא חייב לשלם וכן כל כיוצא בזה: