1

When a person steals from a gentile or from consecrated property, he is required to pay only the principal, as implied by Exodus 22:8: "He shall pay twice the amount to his colleague." "To his colleague" excludes the Temple treasury and a gentile.

Similarly, a person who steals animals that were consecrated to be offered as sacrifices - both sacrifices of the highest sanctity and sacrifices of lesser sanctity - is not liable to pay twice or four or five times the animals' worth. This applies whether or not the owner is liable to bring another animal as an offering instead of the stolen animal.

The rationale is that Exodus 22:6 describes the article as having been "stolen from a person's home" - i.e., not from the the Temple treasury.

א

הַגּוֹנֵּב אֶת הָעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב נִכְסֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא הַקֶּרֶן בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ח) "יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ" לְרֵעֵהוּ וְלֹא לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וְלֹא לְעַכּוּ''ם. וְכֵן הַגּוֹנֵב קָדָשִׁים מִבֵּית בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים בֵּין קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים בֵּין קָדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵין הַבְּעָלִים חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן בֵּין קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל וּמִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ו) "וְגֻנַּב מִבֵּית הָאִישׁ" וְלֹא מִבֵּית הֶקְדֵּשׁ:

2

Similarly, a person who steals servants, promissory notes or landed property is not liable to make double payment. For the Torah obligated double payment only for the theft of chattel that is itself worth money.

The exclusion of landed property is derived from Exodus 22:8, which speaks about paying double for: "an ox, a donkey, a sheep or a garment." Servants are equated with landed property, as Leviticus 25:46 states: "You shall give them as an inheritance to your sons." And promissory notes are not themselves worth money.

ב

וְכֵן הַגּוֹנֵב עֲבָדִים וּשְׁטָרוֹת וְקַרְקָעוֹת אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבָה הַתּוֹרָה הַכֶּפֶל אֶלָּא בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁגּוּפָן מָמוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ח) "עַל שׁוֹר עַל חֲמוֹר עַל שֶׂה עַל שַׂלְמָה". אֲבָל הָעֲבָדִים הֻקְּשׁוּ לְקַרְקָעוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה מו) "וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם". וְהַשְּׁטָרוֹת אֵין גּוּפָן מָמוֹן:

3

When a person steals a firstling donkey belonging to a colleague before it was redeemed, he must make double restitution to the owner. Although the donkey is not yet his, it is fit to be his at a later date.

ג

הַגּוֹנֵב פֶּטֶר חָמוֹר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּפָּדֶה מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל לַבְּעָלִים. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עַכְשָׁו שֶׁלּוֹ רָאוּי לִהְיוֹתוֹ לוֹ אַחַר שֶׁיִּפָּדֶה:

4

A person who steals tevel belonging to a colleague and eats it must reimburse him for his tevel. A person who steals forbidden fats belonging to a colleague and eats it must reimburse him for his fats.

ד

הַגּוֹנֵב טִבְלוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ וַאֲכָלוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ דְּמֵי טִבְלוֹ. וְכֵן אִם גָּנַב חֶלְבּוֹ וַאֲכָלוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ דְּמֵי חֶלְבּוֹ:

5

When a person steals terumah from an Israelite who owns it, he is not required to pay double. For the Israelite possesses merely the prerogative to give it to the priest of his choice,and that prerogative is not considered to be equivalent to money.

ה

גָּנַב תְּרוּמָה מִבְּעָלֶיהָ הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִים שֶׁהִפְרִישׁוּהָ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם בָּהּ אֶלָּא טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה וְטוֹבַת הֲנָאָה אֵינָהּ מָמוֹן:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.

6

When a person steals a sheep or a cow from his father and slaughters or sells the stolen animal and then his father dies, he is liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth to his father's estate. If his father dies, and then he slaughters or sells the stolen animal, he must make double payment; he does not, however, pay four or five times the animal's worth.

If a thief steals a sheep or a cow, slaughters or sells the stolen animal and then consecrates it as a sacrifice, he must pay four or five times the animal's worth.

If, by contrast, a thief consecrates an animal and then slaughters or sells it - even if he consecrates it as a sacrifice of a lesser degree of sanctity - he must make a double payment; he does not pay four or five times the amount.

When does the above apply? When he consecrated the animal after the owner despaired of the animal's return. If, however, he consecrates it before the owner despairs of the animal's return, the consecration is not effective. If the thief slaughters or sells it, he must pay four or five times the amount.

ו

הַגּוֹנֵב מִשֶּׁל אָבִיו וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת אָבִיו מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם מֵת אָבִיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. גָּנַב וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִקְדִּישׁ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם הִקְדִּישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁוֹ קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ אַחַר יֵאוּשׁ. אֲבָל אִם הִקְדִּישׁ לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ אֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ וְאִם טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

7

If the owner consecrates the animal while it is in the thief's domain, the consecration is not effective. The rationale is that it is not in the owner's possession. If the thief slaughtered or sold it after the owner consecrated it, he must still pay four or five times its worth to the owner.

ז

הִקְדִּישׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים וְהוּא בְּבֵית הַגַּנָּב אֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתָן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ. וְאִם טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר הֶקְדֵּשָׁן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

8

When a thief slaughters a sheep or a cow, but the slaughter is not ritually acceptable, or he kills the animal or rips out the signs of ritual slaughter, he is liable to pay only double the animal's worth.

If, however, he slaughters an animal for medicinal purposes, to feed it to the dogs - and after it was slaughtered it was discovered to be taref - or he slaughtered it in the Temple courtyard although it was not consecrated, he must pay four or five times its worth. Although it is forbidden to benefit from a non-consecrated animal that is slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, since that prohibition is Rabbinic in origin, he is liable to pay four or five times the animal's worth.

ח

הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְּיָדוֹ וְהַנּוֹחֵר וְהַמְעַקֵּר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אִם שָׁחַט לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לִכְלָבִים אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת טְרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ בָּעֲזָרָה מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בַּעֲזָרָה אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה הוֹאִיל וְאִסּוּרָן מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

9

Similarly, if a person steals a half-breed that comes from a sheep and another animal, or he steals an animal that had been preyed upon, one whose leg had been cut off, one that limped or was blind, or that belonged to partners, and he slaughtered it or sold it, he is liable to pay four or five times its worth.

ט

וְכֵן הַגּוֹנֵב כִּלְאַיִם הַבָּא מִן הַשֶּׂה וּמִמִּין אַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב טְרֵפָה אוֹ קִטַּעַת אוֹ חִגֶּרֶת אוֹ סוּמָא אוֹ בֶּהֱמַת הַשֻּׁתָּפִין וְטָבַח וּמָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

10

When a person steals a cow or a sheep and gives it to another person as a present, or he charges another person with slaughtering it, and the other person slaughters it, or he charges another person with selling it, and the other person sells it, the thief must pay four or fives times its worth.

He is also liable for this penalty if he stole it and sold it on credit, exchanged it for another article, paid a debt that he owed, or sent it as an engagement gift to his fiancee in his father-in-law's home.

י

גָּנַב וְנָתַן לְאַחֵר בְּמַתָּנָה אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לְאַחֵר לִטְבֹּחַ וְטָבַח אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לְאַחֵר לִמְכֹּר וּמְכָרָהּ לְאַחֵר. גָּנַב וְהִקִּיף גָּנַב וְהֶחְלִיף גָּנַב וּפָרַע בְּהֶקֵּפוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁלָחוֹ סִבְלוֹנוֹת לְבֵית חָמִיו מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

11

A thief stole a sheep or a cow and sold it, but posited that the sale not take effect until thirty days have passed - and within those thirty days the thief was apprehended - he is required to pay only double its worth.

The following rule applies if the thief sold the stolen animal to another person except for one hundredth of its bulk, or except for its foreleg or its hindleg. If the thief retained ownership of a portion of the animal that is permitted to be used only through ritual slaughter, he is not liable to pay four or five times its worth. If he sold it with the exception of its shearings or its horns, he is liable to pay four or five times its worth, for these portions of the animal are permitted to be used even without ritual slaughter.

יא

גָּנַב וּמָכַר וְהִקְנָה לַמּוֹכֵר לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּבְתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא כֶּפֶל. מְכָרוֹ חוּץ מֵאֶחָד מִמֵּאָה שֶׁבּוֹ אוֹ חוּץ מִיָּדוֹ אוֹ רַגְלוֹ כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר שֶׁשִּׁיֵּר בּוֹ דָּבָר הַנִּתָּר עִמּוֹ בִּשְׁחִיטָה פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם מְכָרוֹ חוּץ מִגִּזָּתוֹ אוֹ חוּץ מִקַּרְנָיו חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵלּוּ אֵינָם נִתָּרִים עִמּוֹ בִּשְׁחִיטָה:

12

If a thief stole a sheep or a cow, cut off a limb and then sold it, or he sold it with the exception of the right to work with it, or he sold it except for a 30-day period, the payment for four or five times its amount should not be expropriated from the thief. If the person whose animal was stolen seizes this amount from the thief's assets, the property that he seized should not be expropriated from him.

יב

גָּנַב וְקָטַע מִמֶּנָּה אֵיבָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְכָרָהּ אוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ חוּץ מִמְּלַאכְתָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ חוּץ מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם תָּפַשׂ הַנִּזָּק אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ:

13

If the thief was a partner in the animal he stole and then he sold it, he is not liable to pay four or five times its worth.

יג

מְכָרָהּ וְהָיְתָה לוֹ בָּהּ שֻׁתָּפוּת פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

14

The following rules apply when partners steal a sheep or a cow. If one of them slaughtered or sold the stolen animal with his partner's consent, they must both join in the payment of four or five times its worth. If he acted without the consent of his partner, they are not liable for the payment of four or five times the animal's worth. They must, however, make double restitution.

יד

שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁגָּנְבוּ. אִם טָבַח אֶחָד מֵהֶן אוֹ מָכַר מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ מְשַׁלְּמִין תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. וְאִם עָשָׂה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת חֲבֵרוֹ פְּטוּרִין מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה וְחַיָּבִין בְּכֶפֶל:

15

When a thief stole a sheep or a cow, was brought to court and was told by the judges: "Go and give him what you stole," and instead of making restitution he sold or slaughtered the animal, he is not liable for the payment of four or five times the animal's worth. If the judges told him: "You are obligated to return it to him," and then he slaughtered or sold the stolen animal, he is liable for the payment of four or five times the animal's worth. The rationale is that the judgment was not rendered in a definitive manner, and he is persevering in his theft.

טו

גָּנַב וְעָמַד בַּדִּין וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ הַדַּיָּנִין צֵא תֵּן לוֹ מַה שֶּׁגָּנַבְתָּ וְיָצָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ חַיָּב אַתָּה לִתֵּן לוֹ וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר אַחַר כָּךְ הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה הוֹאִיל וְלֹא חָתְכוּ הַדִּין עָלָיו וַעֲדַיִן עוֹמֵד הוּא בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ:

16

When a person steals an object without removing it from the domain of its owner, he is not liable for a double payment.Similarly, if he slaughtered or sold a stolen sheep or cow in the owner's domain, he is not liable for the added penalty. If, however, he lifted the stolen object above the ground, he is liable as a thief, even though he did not take it out of the owner's domain.

What is implied? If he stole a lamb from the corral and was pulling it, and it died while in the owner's domain, he is not liable for the added penalty. If he lifted it up or removed it from the owner's domain, and then it died, he is liable.

If while in the owner's domain, the thief gave it to a priest in redemption of his first-born son, to his creditor, to an unpaid watchman, to a borrower, to a renter or to a paid watchman, and the recipient was pulling the animal and it died, the recipient is not liable. If the recipient lifted it up or removed it from the domain of its owner and it died, the recipient is liable, because the thief did not remove it from the owner's domain and the recipient did.

טז

הַגּוֹנֵב בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים הוֹאִיל וְהַגְּנֵבָה עֲדַיִן הִיא בִּרְשׁוּתָם פָּטוּר מִן הַכֶּפֶל. וְכֵן אִם טָבַח וּמָכַר שָׁם בִּרְשׁוּתָן פָּטוּר. וְאִם הִגְבִּיהַּ הַגְּנֵבָה נִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם גּוֹנֵב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאָהּ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים. כֵּיצַד. גָּנַב טָלֶה מִן הַדִּיר וְהָיָה מוֹשְׁכוֹ וְיוֹצֵא וּמֵת בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים פָּטוּר. הִגְבִּיהוֹ אוֹ הוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵת חַיָּב. נְתָנוֹ שָׁם בְּבֵית הַבְּעָלִים לִבְכוֹרַת בְּנוֹ אוֹ לְבַעַל חוֹבוֹ אוֹ לְשׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם וּלְשׁוֹאֵל לְנוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר וּלְשׂוֹכֵר וְהָיָה מוֹשְׁכוֹ זֶה שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ וּמֵת פָּטוּר הַשּׁוֹמֵר. הִגְבִּיהוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵת חַיָּב הַשּׁוֹמֵר אוֹ בַּעַל הַחוֹב שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאוֹ הַגַּנָּב מֵרְשׁוּת בְּעָלָיו:

17

When a herd of sheep or cows are in a forest, and a thief prods an animal to move and then hides it among the trees and woods, he is obligated to pay twice its worth. If he slaughters or sells it there, he is obligated to pay four or five times its worth.

יז

הָיָה הָעֵדֶר בַּיַּעַר כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִכִּישׁ אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וּטְמָנָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הָאִילָנוֹת וְהָעֵצִים חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְאִם טְבָחָהּ אוֹ מְכָרָהּ שָׁם מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה:

18

When a thief steals a sheep or a cow in the owner's domain, and after the owner discovered the theft, the thief removed it and slaughtered it or sold it outside their domain, or if a thief stole and removed the animal from the owner's domain and then slaughtered or sold it in the owner's domain, he is obligated to pay four or five times its worth.

יח

גָּנַב בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וְאַחַר שֶׁיָּדְעוּ שֶׁנִּגְנְבָה הוֹצִיאָהּ וּטְבָחָהּ אוֹ מְכָרָהּ חוּץ מֵרְשׁוּתָן. אוֹ שֶׁגָּנַב וְהוֹצִיא חוּץ מֵרְשׁוּתָן וְטָבַח אוֹ מָכַר בִּרְשׁוּתָן מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה: