1

The prohibition against me'ilah applies whether one consecrates an article that is fit to be used for the improvement of the Temple for that purpose, e.g., a stone or a beam, consecrates an article fit for the altar for the improvement of the Temple, e.g., sheep or doves, or consecrates an article that is fit to be used for the improvement of the Temple for the altar, e.g., a stone or a beam, or he consecrates for either of these purposes an article that is not fit for either of these purposes, e.g., he consecrated chickens, vinegar, brine, or land. This applies even if he consecrated a dungheap filled with fertilizer, dust, or ash. In all these instances, the prohibition against me'ilah applies from the time the entity was consecrated until it was redeemed if it is an article fit to be redeemed.

א

אֶחָד הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לְחַזֵּק הַבֶּדֶק כְּגוֹן אֶבֶן אוֹ קוֹרָה. אוֹ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּגוֹן כְּבָשִׂים וְתוֹרִים. אוֹ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת כְּגוֹן אֶבֶן וְקוֹרָה. אוֹ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לָזֶה וְלָזֶה דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לֹא לָזֶה וְלֹא לָזֶה כְּגוֹן הַמַּקְדִּישׁ תַּרְנְגוֹלִין וְחֹמֶץ וְצִיר אוֹ קַרְקַע אֲפִלּוּ הִקְדִּישׁ אַשְׁפָּה מְלֵאָה זֶבֶל אוֹ עָפָר אוֹ אֵפֶר. מוֹעֲלִין בְּכֻלָּן מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפָּדוּ דְּבָרִים הָרְאוּיִים לְהִפָּדוֹת:

2

Any of the article consecrated for the improvement of the Temple and those entities from entities consecrated to the altar for which the prohibition against me'ilah applies may be combined together to reach the minimum measure required for me'ilah. If one derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit from all of them, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ב

כָּל קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת עִם דְּבָרִים שֶׁמּוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן מִקָּדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לִמְעִילָה וְאִם נֶהֱנָה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מִכֻּלָּם מָעַל:

3

If one partook of consecrated food and fed a colleague or derived benefit from a consecrated object and caused a colleague to benefit. His eating and his colleague's benefit or his colleague's eating and his benefit are all combined to make one liable for me'ilah. If a sum of benefit worth a p'rutah is reached, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ג

אָכַל וְהֶאֱכִיל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ נֶהֱנָה וּמְהַנֶּה חֲבֵרוֹ אֲכִילָתוֹ וַהֲנָיַת חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ אֲכִילַת חֲבֵרוֹ וַהֲנָיָתוֹ כֻּלָּן מִצְטָרְפִין לַמְּעִילָה וְאִם נַעֲשָׂה מִן הַכּל הֲנָיָה בִּפְרוּטָה מָעַל:

4

A combination making one liable for the prohibition against me'ilah can be made over an extended period of time.

What is implied? If one derived benefit from a consecrated article on one day and then derived benefit again after the passage of several years in one continuous state of not knowing, the two events are combined for a p'rutah's worth and he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ד

הַמְּעִילָה מִצְטָרֶפֶת לִזְמַן מְרֻבֶּה. כֵּיצַד. נֶהֱנָה הַיּוֹם מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְנֶהֱנָה לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁנִים בְּהֶעְלֵם אֶחָד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין לִפְרוּטָה וּמָעַל:

5

The prohibition against me'ilah applies only to articles that have been separated from the earth. If, however, one benefits from consecrated earth or from consecrated articles attached to the earth, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah even if blemishes that entity.

What is implied? If one plows a consecrated field or sows it, he is exempt. If he takes its earth, derives benefit from it, and damages the earth, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah. A person who threshes in a consecrated field violates the prohibition against me'ilah, because its dust benefits the field. Thus he has benefited from the dust and damaged the field. Similarly, if one plowed a consecrated field in order to raise dust for grass that was planted there and he took the grass, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

A person who dwells in a cave that is consecrated or in the shade of a tree or dovecote that is consecrated does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah, even though he benefited. Similarly, when one consecrates a house that was built, a person who dwells in it does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. When, however, a person consecrates wood and stones and builds a house, a person who dwells in it violates the prohibition against me'ilah, as will be explained.

ה

אֵין מְעִילָה אֶלָּא בְּתָלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע אֲבָל הַנֶּהֱנֶה בַּקַּרְקַע עַצְמָהּ אוֹ בַּמְחֻבָּר לָהּ לֹא מָעַל אֲפִלּוּ פָּגַם. כֵּיצַד. הַחוֹרֵשׁ שְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ הַזּוֹרֵעַ בָּהּ פָּטוּר. נָטַל מֵאֲבָקָהּ וְנֶהֱנָה בָּהּ וּפְגָמָהּ מָעַל. הַדָּשׁ בִּשְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ מָעַל שֶׁהֶאָבָק שֶׁלָּהּ מוֹעִיל לַשָּׂדֶה וַהֲרֵי נֶהֱנָה בָּאָבָק וּפָגַם הַשָּׂדֶה. וְכֵן אִם חָרַשׁ שְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּדֵי לְהַעֲלוֹת אָבָק לְעֵשֶׂב שֶׁנָּתַן בָּהּ וְנָטַל הָעֵשֶׂב מָעַל. הַדָּר בִּמְעָרַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ בְּצֵל אִילָן אוֹ שׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה לֹא מָעַל. וְכֵן הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בַּיִת בָּנוּי הַדָּר בּוֹ לֹא מָעַל. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים וּבָנָה בָּהֶן בַּיִת הַדָּר שָׁם מָעַל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

6

The prohibition against me'ilah applies to produce that grows on consecrated property.

What is implied? If one consecrated a field and it produced grass or one consecrated a tree and it produced fruit, the prohibition against me'ilah applies. If, however, one consecrated an empty cistern and afterwards, it became filled with water, a dungheap and it became filled with wastes, or a dovecote and it became filled with doves, since these are not the products of the consecrated articles, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply with regard to them. Similarly, one may not benefit - but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to - wastes and dung in a courtyard that was consecrated. What should be done with them? They should be sold and the proceeds given to the Temple treasury.

When a spring emerges in a consecrated field, it is forbidden to benefit from the water that emerges in the field, but one who derives benefit does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If the water emerges outside the field, it is permitted to benefit from it. When a willow grows in a consecrated field, it is forbidden to benefit from it, but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply.

The following rules apply when an ordinary tree is growing next to a consecrated field and its roots emerge in that field. If there are up to sixteen cubits between it and the consecrated field, it is forbidden to benefit from the roots in the field, but one who benefits from them does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If the tree was more than sixteen cubits away from the field, one who benefits from the roots violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

The converse applies when a consecrated tree is growing next to an ordinary field and its roots emerge in that field. If the roots emerge within sixteen cubits, the prohibition against me'ilah applies with regard to them. If they emerge more than sixteen cubits away, one should not benefit from the roots in the ordinary field, but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply with regard to them.

ו

גִּדּוּלֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. כֵּיצַד. הִקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֶה וְהוֹצִיאָה עֲשָׂבִים אִילָן וְעָשָׂה פֵּרוֹת מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַבּוֹר רֵיקָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַלֵּא מַיִם. הִקְדִּישׁ אַשְׁפָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַלֵּאת זֶבֶל. שׁוֹבָךְ וְנִתְמַלֵּא יוֹנִים. הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן גִּדּוּלֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. וְכֵן הַזֶּבֶל וְהַפֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁבַּחֲצַר הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין. וּמַה יַּעֲשׂוּ בָּהֶן יִמָּכְרוּ וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לַלִּשְׁכָּה. מַעְיָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹךְ שְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בְּמַיִם שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה לֹא מָעַל. יָצְאוּ הַמַּיִם חוּץ לַשָּׂדֶה מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן. עֲרָבָה הַגְּדֵלָה בִּשְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין. אִילָן שֶׁל הֶדְיוֹט הַסָּמוּךְ לִשְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְשָׁרָשָׁיו יוֹצְאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה. אִם בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַד שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה הֲרֵי אוֹתָן הַשָּׁרָשִׁין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה אֲסוּרִין וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה מֵהֶן לֹא מָעַל. הָיָה הָאִילָן רָחוֹק יֶתֶר עַל שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה הַנֶּהֱנֶה בָּהֶן מָעַל. אִילָן שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ הַסָּמוּךְ לִשְׂדֵה הֶדְיוֹט וְשָׁרָשָׁיו יוֹצְאִין בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה אִם הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. הָיָה רָחוֹק יֶתֶר עַל שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה אוֹתָן הַשָּׁרָשִׁין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׂדֵה הֶדְיוֹט לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין:

7

When there is a nest in the top of a consecrated tree that a fowl built from wood and grass and the like, one should not benefit from the nest and the eggs in it together with the chicks that require their mother. One who derives benefit does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah.

ז

קֵן שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָן שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁבָּנָה אוֹתָן הָעוֹף מֵעֵצִים וַעֲשָׂבִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. כָּל הַקֵּן עִם הַבֵּיצִים שֶׁבּוֹ עִם הָאֶפְרוֹחִים הַצְּרִיכִין לְאִמָּן אֵין נֶהֱנִין בָּהֶן וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה לֹא מָעַל:

8

When one consecrates a forest, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it in its entirety, the trees and the nests at the tops of the trees or between them.

ח

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַיַּעַר מוֹעֲלִין בְּכֻלּוֹ בֵּין בָּאִילָנוֹת בֵּין בְּכָל קֵן שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָנוֹת אוֹ שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן:

9

When the Temple treasurers plane consecrated trees and cut them down, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to those small pieces of wood that were cut off when the trees were cut to size. The prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to the slivers, the sawdust, or to the nivia of the wood, i.e., a hard, round knot in the midst of the wood which resemble a wart, because it will not be useful for work.

ט

גִּזְבָּרִים שֶׁשָּׁפוּ עֲצֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְקָצְצוּ אוֹתָן מוֹעֲלִין בְּאוֹתָן הָעֵצִים הַקְּטַנִּים שֶׁחָתְכוּ מֵעֵת שֶׁקָּצְצוּ. אֲבָל אֵין מוֹעֲלִין לֹא בַּשִּׁפּוּי וְלֹא בַּנְּסֹרֶת וְלֹא בַּנְּבִיָּה שֶׁל עֵצִים וְהוּא הַגּוּף הַקָּשֶׁה הֶעָגל שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ הַדּוֹמֶה לְיַבֶּלֶת שֶׁלֹּא יִצְלַח לִמְלָאכָה:

10

When a person consecrates his servant, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to him, nor to his hair, even though his hair is fit to be cut off. The rationale is that the hair is still attached to the servant and as long as it is attached to him, it grows and increases in value.

י

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עַבְדּוֹ אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׂעָרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לְהִגָּזֵז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לוֹ וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר הוֹלֵךְ וּמַשְׁבִּיחַ:

11

When a person sows produce that was consecrated, he should redeem it when he sows it. Nevertheless, even if he does not redeem it, the produce that grows from it is not consecrated and the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to it. If one derived benefit from other consecrated property, he may not pay the principal and an additional fifth from such produce. One is obligated to separate challah from bread made from such grain.

יא

הַזּוֹרֵעַ פֵּרוֹת הֶקְדֵּשׁ פּוֹדֶה אוֹתָן בִּשְׁעַת זִרְעָן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּדָה הֲרֵי הַגִּדּוּלִין חֻלִּין וְאֵין מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן וְאֵין מְשַׁלְּמִין מֵהֶן קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ וְחַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה:

12

When water was placed on consecrated grape dregs for the first, second, and third times, it is forbidden to benefit from it, but one who benefits does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. The fourth time, the mixture is permitted.

When does the above apply? When the dregs had been consecrated for the Temple's improvement. If they were consecrated for the altar, even from the fourth time onward, they are always forbidden.

יב

שְׁמָרִים שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנָּתַן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם. רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בּוֹ וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה לֹא מָעַל. רְבִיעִי מֻתָּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת. אֲבָל קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ אַף מֵרְבִיעִי וְאֵילָךְ לְעוֹלָם אָסוּר:

13

When a person consecrates a hen for the altar, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it and its eggs. When a person consecrates a donkey for the altar, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it and its milk. When a person consecrates a dove for the improvement of the Temple, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it and its eggs, as we explained.

יג

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ תַּרְנְגלֶת לַמִּזְבֵּחַ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ וּבְבֵיצָתָהּ. הִקְדִּישׁ חֲמוֹר לַמִּזְבֵּחַ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ וּבַחֲלָבָהּ. הִקְדִּישׁ תּוֹרִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן וּבְבֵיצָתָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

14

When the tunics of the priestly garments have worn out, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to them, as it does to other consecrated objects. If they are new, since it is permitted to benefit from them, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to them.

יד

כָּתְנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁבָּלוּ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן כִּשְׁאָר קָדָשִׁים. וְהַחֲדָשִׁים הוֹאִיל וְנִתְּנוּ לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן:

15

The following rules apply to articles consecrated by gentiles. If he consecrated them for the improvement of the Temple, the prohibition against me'ilah applies. If they were consecrated for the altar, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply according to Scriptural Law, for with regard to the sacrifices, Leviticus 1:2 states: "Speak to the children of Israel." It is, however, forbidden to benefit from them according to Rabbinic Law.

טו

קָדְשֵׁי עַכּוּ''ם אִם לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת הִקְדִּישׁוּ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. וְאִם קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ הֵן אֵין בָּהֶן מְעִילָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת (ויקרא א ב) "דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל". אֲבָל אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

16

With regard to sound, appearance, and fragrance from a consecrated object, it is forbidden to benefit from them, but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply.

When does the above apply? When one smelt the fragrance of the incense offering after its cloud ascended. If, however, he smelt the fragrance of the incense offering as its cloud ascends, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

טז

קוֹל וּמַרְאֶה וְרֵיחַ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהֵרִיחַ בַּקְּטֹרֶת אַחַר שֶׁעָלְתָה הַתִּמֹּרֶת. אֲבָל אִם הֵרִיחַ בַּקְּטֹרֶת כְּשֶׁתַּעֲלֶה תִּמְרָתָהּ מָעַל: