1

All of the procedures involving the offering of the continuous offerings and the additional offerings of this day are performed by the High Priest while he is wearing his golden garments. The unique services of this day, by contrast, are performed while he is wearing his white garments.

The unique services of the day are: the offering of the bull brought by the High Priest, the offering of the two goats including the one sent to Azazel, and the offering of the incense in the Holy of Holies. All of these services are performed while wearing white garments.

א

כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה הַתְּמִידִין וְהַמּוּסָפִין שֶׁל יוֹם זֶה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן וְהוּא לָבוּשׁ בְּבִגְדֵי זָהָב. וַעֲבוֹדוֹת הַמְיֻחָדוֹת לְיוֹם זֶה בְּבִגְדֵי לָבָן. וַעֲבוֹדָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לְיוֹם זֶה הִיא מַעֲשֵׂה הַפָּר שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. וּשְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִים שֶׁאֶחָד מֵהֶן שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. וְהַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. כָּל אֵלּוּ בְּבִגְדֵי לָבָן הֵם נַעֲשִׂים:

2

Whenever the High Priest must change his clothes, removing one set of garments and putting on the others, he must immerse himself in a mikveh, as Leviticus 16:23-24] states: "And he shall remove the linen garments... and wash his flesh with water in a holy place and put on his garments." The High Priest would immerse himself five times and sanctify his hands and feet ten times on that day.

What is implied? At the outset, he would remove the ordinary garments he was wearing and immerse himself. He would ascend, dry himself, put on his golden garments and, sanctify his hands and feet. He would slaughter the continuous offering, offer the daily morning incense, and kindle the lamps of the Menorah. He would then offer the limbs of the continuous offering on the pyre of the altar together with the chavitin offering and the wine libations. Then he would offer the bull and the seven sheep of the additional offering of the day.

Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his golden garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his white garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then perform the unique service of the day, reciting all the confessions, performing the lottery of the goats, sprinkling the blood in the Temple building and offering the incense offering in the Holy of Holies. He would entrust the goat to the one who would send it to Azazel, remove the fats and organs of the bull and the goat that will be burnt and entrust the remainder to the one who will burn them.

Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his white garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his golden garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then offer the sin-offering of a goat of the additional offerings of the day, his ram and the ram of the people. These are all burnt-offerings. He would offer the fats and organs of the bull and the goat that were burnt, and offer the continuous offering of the afternoon.

Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his golden garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his white garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then enter the Holy of Holies and remove the incense-ladle and the fire-pan. Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his white garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his golden garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then offer the daily, afternoon incense offering and kindle the lamps of the Menorah for the afternoon. He would then sanctify his hands and feet, remove his golden garments, put on his ordinary clothes and depart.

ב

כָּל עֵת שֶׁיְּשַׁנֶּה הַבְּגָדִים וְיִפְשֹׁט בְּגָדִים וְלוֹבֵשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים טָעוּן טְבִילָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כג) "וּפָשַׁט אֶת בִּגְדֵי הַבָּד" (ויקרא טז כד) "וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַמַּיִם בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ וְלָבַשׁ אֶת בְּגָדָיו". וְחָמֵשׁ טְבִילוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה קִדּוּשִׁין טוֹבֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם. כֵּיצַד. בַּתְּחִלָּה פּוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי חֹל שֶׁעָלָיו וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וְשׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַתָּמִיד וּמַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל שַׁחַר שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת וּמַקְטִיר אֵיבְרֵי הַתָּמִיד עִם הַחֲבִיתִין וְהַנְּסָכִים וּמַקְרִיב הַפָּר וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי הַזָּהָב וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי לָבָן. וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם כָּל הַוִּדּוּיִּים עִם הַהַגְרָלָה וּזְרִיקַת הַדָּמִים בִּפְנִים וְהַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. וּמוֹסֵר הַשָּׂעִיר לַמְשַׁלְּחוֹ לַעֲזָאזֵל. וּמוֹצִיא אֵימוּרֵי הַפָּר וְהַשָּׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִים וּמוֹסֵר שְׁאֵרָן לִשְׂרֵפָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי לָבָן וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג. וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּמַקְרִיב שְׂעִיר חַטָּאת שֶׁל מוּסָף הַיּוֹם וְאֵילוֹ וְאֵיל הָעָם. וְהֵם עוֹלוֹת. וּמַקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵי פַּר וְשָׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. וּמַקְרִיב תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב. וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי לָבָן. וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וְנִכְנָס לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. וּמוֹצִיא מִשָּׁם אֶת הַכַּף וְאֶת הַמַּחְתָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי לָבָן. וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג. וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּמַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי חֹל וְיוֹצֵא:

3

All of these immersions and the sanctification of his hands and feet were performed in the Temple Courtyard, as the verse states: "And he shall wash his flesh with water in a holy place," with the exception of the first immersion which he is permitted to perform outside the Temple, for it is only to heighten his awareness so that he will remember any old situation that caused him to become impure and separate himself from this impurity by immersing himself with that intent.

If a High Priest did not immerse himself between a change of clothes or did not sanctify his hands and feet between a change of clothes and between one type of service and another and still performed the service, his service is acceptable.

ג

כָּל הַטְּבִילוֹת הָאֵלּוּ וְהַקִּדּוּשִׁין כֻּלָּן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כד) "וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַמַּיִם בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ". חוּץ מִטְּבִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהוּא רַשַּׁאי לִטְבּל אוֹתָהּ בְּחֹל שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא לְהוֹסִיף כַּוָּנָתוֹ. שֶׁאִם יִזְכֹּר טֻמְאָה יְשָׁנָה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ יִפְרשׁ מִמֶּנָּה בִּטְבִילָה זוֹ לִשְׁמָהּ. וְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁלֹּא טָבַל בֵּין בְּגָדִים לִבְגָדִים אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא קִדֵּשׁ בֵּין בֶּגֶד לְבֶגֶד וּבֵין עֲבוֹדָה לַעֲבוֹדָה וְעָבַד. עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

4

If the High Priest was elderly or sick, iron slabs should be made white-hot in fire from the previous day, and on the next day they would be cast into the water to remove their chill. This is permitted because prohibitions defined as shvut need not be observed in the Temple. Alternatively, hot water is mixed with the mikveh water to remove its chill.

ד

הָיָה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה מְלַבְּנִין עֲשָׁשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל בְּאֵשׁ מִבָּעֶרֶב וּלְמָחָר מְטִילִין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם כְּדֵי לְהָפִיג צִנָּתָן שֶׁאֵין שְׁבוּת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. אוֹ מְעָרְבִין מַיִם חַמִּין בְּמֵי הַמִּקְוֶה עַד שֶׁתָּפִיג צִנָּתָן:

5

Every other day, the High Priest sanctifies his hands and feet from the basin like the other priests. On this day, he sanctifies them from a golden pitcher as expression of honor for him.

Every day, the priests ascend on the eastern side of the ramp and descend on the western side. On this day, they ascend in the center and descend in the center before the High Priest to glorify him.

Every day, the priest who merited to bring the incense offering would gather coals in a silver fire-pan and then shift the fire into a golden fire-pan. On this day, the High Priest gathers the coals with a golden fire pan and enters the Temple Building with it so as not to weary him with additional service. Similarly, the fire-pan used every day holds four kabbin of coals and the one used on this day, three. The one used every day was heavy and the one used this day, light. The one used every day had a short handle and the one used this day, a long one. All of these were measures to make it easier for the High Priest so that he would not weary.

Every day, there were three arrangements of fire on the altar. On this day, there were four. Another arrangement was added in order to glorify the altar and adorn it.

ה

בְּכָל יוֹם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו מִן הַכִּיּוֹר כִּשְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַיּוֹם מְקַדֵּשׁ מִקִּיתוֹן שֶׁל זָהָב מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ. בְּכָל יוֹם הַכֹּהֲנִים עוֹלִים בְּמִזְרָחוֹ שֶׁל כֶּבֶשׁ וְיוֹרְדִין בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ וְהַיּוֹם עוֹלִים בָּאֶמְצַע וְיוֹרְדִין בָּאֶמְצַע לִפְנֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל כְּדֵי לְהַדְּרוֹ. בְּכָל יוֹם מִי שֶׁזָּכָה בַּמַּחְתָּה חוֹתֶה בְּמַחְתָּה שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וּמְעָרֶה הָאֵשׁ לְמַחְתָּה שֶׁל זָהָב וְהַיּוֹם חוֹתֶה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּמַחְתָּה שֶׁל זָהָב וּבָהּ נִכְנָס לַהֵיכָל. שֶׁלֹּא לְיַגְּעוֹ בְּתוֹסֶפֶת עֲבוֹדָה. וְכֵן מַחְתָּה שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם מַחְזֶקֶת אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין וְשֶׁל הַיּוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה קַבִּין וּבְכָל יוֹם הָיְתָה כְּבֵדָה וְהַיּוֹם קַלָּה. וּבְכָל יוֹם יָדָהּ קְצָרָה וְהַיּוֹם אֲרֻכָּה כְּדֵי לְהָקֵל עַל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יִיגַע. בְּכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם הָיוּ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שָׁלֹשׁ מַעֲרָכוֹת שֶׁל אֵשׁ וְהַיּוֹם הָיוּ שָׁם אַרְבַּע. מוֹסִיפִין מַעֲרָכָה כְּדֵי לְהַדֵּר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְעַטְּרוֹ:

6

The Torah's statements Leviticus 16:17: "And he shall atone for himself, for his household, and for the entire congregation of Israel" is interpreted by the Oral Tradition as referring to the recitation of the confessional. Thus he recites three confessions on this day:

one for himself first;

one for himself together with the other priests; both of these are recited over the bull which he brings as a sin-offering;

and the third is recited for the entire Jewish people on the goat sent to Azazel. In each of these confessions, he recites God's explicit name three times.

What is implied? He says: "I beseech you, HaShem, I have sinned, transgressed, and committed iniquity before You. I beseech you, HaShem, please atone for the sins, transgressions, and iniquities that I committed..., as ibid.:30 states: "For on that day, he shall atone for you to purify yourselves for all your sins, before God you shall be purified." Thus he mentions God's name three times in his confession. And he does this in each of these confessions.

When he places the lot on the goat of the sin-offering, he proclaims: "A sin-offering for HaShem." Thus he mentions God's explicit name ten times on this day. On all occasions, he recites the name as it is written, pronouncing His explicit name.

Originally, the High Priest would raise his voice when pronouncing God's name. When the number of wanton people increased, he would recite it in a low voice, swallowing it in a sweet chant until even his priestly brethren could not recognize it.

ו

זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא טז יז) "וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה וִדּוּי דְּבָרִים. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁהוּא מִתְוַדֶּה בְּיוֹם זֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה וִדּוּיִים. אֶחָד עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ תְּחִלָּה. וִדּוּי שֵׁנִי עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ עִם שְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם עַל פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ. וְהַוִּדּוּי שְׁלִישִׁי עַל יְדֵי כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. וּמַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם בְּכָל וִדּוּי מֵהֶן שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים. כֵּיצַד הוּא אוֹמֵר. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם חָטָאתִי עָוִיתִי וּפָשַׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם כַּפֵּר נָא לַחֲטָאִים וְלָעֲווֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים שֶׁחָטָאתִי וְשֶׁעָוִיתִי וְשֶׁפָּשַׁעְתִּי וְכוּ' שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז ל) "כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי ה' תִּטְהָרוּ". הֲרֵי שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים הִזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם. וְכֵן בְּכָל וִדּוּי מֵהֶן. וּכְשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן אֶת הַגּוֹרָל עַל שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אוֹמֵר לַהַשֵּׁם חַטָּאת. נִמְצָא מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם בַּיּוֹם זֶה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים. וּבְכֻלָּם הוּא מַזְכִּיר כִּכְתָבוֹ שֶׁהוּא הַשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת קוֹלוֹ בַּשֵּׁם. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרַבּוּ פְּרוּצִין חָזְרוּ לְאָמְרוֹ בְּקוֹל נָמוּךְ וּמַבְלִיעוֹ בִּנְעִימוּת עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַכִּירוּ בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ חֲבֵרָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:

7

When all the priests and the people standing in the Temple Courtyard would hear God's explicit name recited by the High Priest in holiness and purity, they would bow, prostrate themselves, and fall on their faces, saying: "Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever." The rationale is that Deuteronomy 32:3 states: "When I call out the name of God, ascribe greatness to our Lord."

During the three confessions, he would intend to complete the recitation of God's name while the people were blessing, and then he would say: "You shall be purified." It is acceptable to recite the confessional of Yom Kippur and the confessional over the bulls that are burnt throughout the entire day.

ז

כָּל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה כְּשֶׁהֵם שׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה. הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם וְאוֹמְרִים בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כָּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֵד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב ג) "כִּי שֵׁם ה' אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גֹּדֶל לֵאלֹהֵינוּ". וּבִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַוִּדּוּיִּים הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כְּנֶגֶד הַמְבָרְכִין וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן תִּטְהָרוּ. וְכָל הַיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר לְוִדּוּי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וּלְוִדּוּי הַפָּרִים הַנִּשְׂרָפִים: