1

There are five sins for whose violation one must bring a guilt-offering. It is called a definitive guilt-offering, because it is not brought because of a doubt. They are: a) intimacy with a consecrated maid-servant, b) robbery, c) misappropriation of sacred articles, d) the contraction of ritual impurity by a nazirite, and e) purification from the infliction of tzara'at.

What is implied by intimacy with a consecrated maid-servant? When a man is intimate with a consecrated maid-servant whether intentionally or inadvertently, he must bring a guilt-offering, provided she is past majority, aware of the transgression, willfully participating, and she had previously engaged in relations in the ordinary manner, and the relations were completed, so that she will also be liable for lashes, as Leviticus 19:20-21 states: "There will be an investigation... and he will bring his guilt-offering," i.e., she receives lashes and he brings a sacrifice.

א

עַל חָמֵשׁ עֲבֵרוֹת מֵבִיא קָרְבַּן אָשָׁם וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא אָשָׁם וַדַּאי שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ בָּא מִשּׁוּם סָפֵק. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. עַל שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה וְעַל הַגֵּזֶל וְעַל הַמְּעִילָה וְעַל טֻמְאַת נָזִיר וְעַל הַצָּרַעַת כְּשֶׁיִּטְהַר מִמֶּנָּה. עַל שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה כֵּיצַד. הַבָּא עַל שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה בֵּין בְּזָדוֹן בֵּין בִּשְׁגָגָה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם. וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה גְּדוֹלָה וּמְזִידָה וּבִרְצוֹנָהּ וְתִהְיֶה בְּעוּלָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ וּבִגְמַר בִּיאָה כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּלְקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כ) "בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה" (ויקרא יט כא) "וְהֵבִיא אֶת אֲשָׁמוֹ" הִיא לוֹקָה וְהוּא מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן:

2

According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught, in a situation where she is liable for lashes, he is liable for a sacrifice. When she is exempt from lashes, he is exempt from a sacrifice.

ב

וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא חַיֶּבֶת מַלְקוֹת הוּא חַיָּב בְּקָרְבָּן וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִן הַמַּלְקוֹת הוּא פָּטוּר מִן הַקָּרְבָּן:

3

When a youth who is nine years old is intimate with a consecrated maidservant, she is liable for lashes and he is obligated to bring a sacrifice. It appears to me that he does not bring the sacrifice until he comes of age and attains intellectual maturity.

ג

בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁבָּא עַל שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה. הִיא לוֹקָה וְהוּא מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּיל וְיִהְיֶה בֶּן דַּעַת:

4

We have already explained in Hilchot Bi'ot Assurot, the definition of the term shifchah charufah used in the Torah and that the two are not liable until he is intimate with her in an ordinary manner and the relations were completed. Therefore if two people tell him: "You were intimate with a consecrated maidservant," and he said: "I was not intimate with her," his word is accepted and he does not bring a sacrifice as a result of their statements. For he knows whether or not he completed the relations and his statement: "I was not intimate" can be interpreted as "I did not complete relations."

ד

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת בִּיאוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת מַה הִיא הַשִּׁפְחָה הַחֲרוּפָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה. וְשֶׁאֵינָן חַיָּבִין עַד שֶׁיִּבְעל כְּדַרְכָּהּ וְיִגְמֹר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָמְרוּ לוֹ שְׁנַיִם בָּעַלְתָּ שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא בָּעַלְתִּי נֶאֱמָן וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן עַל פִּיהֶן. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא יוֹדֵעַ אִם גָּמַר בִּיאָתוֹ אוֹ לֹא גָּמַר וְזֶה שֶׁאָמַר לֹא בָּעַלְתִּי כְּלוֹמַר לֹא גָּמַרְתִּי:

5

Although a man is intimate with a consecrated maidservant many times, he is only liable for one guilt-offering. What is implied? A man was intimate with a consecrated maidservant many times intentionally or was intimate with her inadvertently, he became aware of the matter, and then he was intimate with her inadvertently again and became aware of the matter - even if the sequence occurs 100 times in 100 lapses of awareness, he is only liable for one guilt-offering. It atones for him for everything, for both his intentional and inadvertent transgressions with her.

When does the above apply? When he was intimate with only one consecrated maidservant. If, however, he was intimate with many consecrated maidservants, even in one lapse of awareness, he is liable for a guilt-offering for every consecrated maidservant.

ה

הַבָּא עַל הַשִּׁפְחָה בִּיאוֹת הַרְבֵּה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אָשָׁם אֶחָד. כֵּיצַד. הַבָּא עַל הַשִּׁפְחָה בִּיאוֹת הַרְבֵּה בְּזָדוֹן אוֹ שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בִּשְׁגָגָה וְנוֹדַע לוֹ וְחָזַר וּבָא עָלֶיהָ בִּשְׁגָגָה וְנוֹדַע לוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים בְּמֵאָה הַעֲלָמוֹת. מַקְרִיב אָשָׁם אֶחָד וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ עַל הַכּל עַל הַזְּדוֹנוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ וְעַל הַשְּׁגָגוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשִׁפְחָה אַחַת. אֲבָל הַבָּא עַל שְׁפָחוֹת הַרְבֵּה אֲפִלּוּ בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת חַיָּב אָשָׁם עַל כָּל שִׁפְחָה וְשִׁפְחָה:

6

If a man was intimate with a consecrated maidservant, set aside his guilt-offering and then was intimate with her again afterwards, he is liable for every time they were intimate. Setting aside a sacrifice creates a distinction. Thus it is as if he offered the sacrifice and then was intimate with the consecrated maidservant again.

Similarly, if a man was intimate with one consecrated maidservant five times in a single lapse of awareness, he then became aware of one transgression and set aside a guilt-offering and then became aware of the second, he must set aside another one even though both transgression were committed in a single lapse of awareness. Since he did not become aware of the transgression until after he set aside the offering, it is as if he was intimate with her after he set aside the offering. For the laws pertaining to one who acts inadvertently and one who acts intentionally are the same with regard to a consecrated maidservant.

ו

בָּעַל שִׁפְחָה וְהִפְרִישׁ אֲשָׁמוֹ וְחָזַר וּבְעָלָהּ אַחַר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ אֲשָׁמוֹ חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת שֶׁהַהַפְרָשָׁה מְחַלֶּקֶת וְנִמְצָא כְּמִי שֶׁהִקְרִיב וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּעַל. וְכֵן אִם בָּעַל חָמֵשׁ בְּעִילוֹת בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת בְּשִׁפְחָה אַחַת וְנוֹדַע לוֹ עַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְהִפְרִישׁ אֲשָׁמוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹדַע עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה מַפְרִישׁ אָשָׁם אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת הָיוּ כֻּלָּן הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נוֹדַע לוֹ אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ נִמְצָא כְּבוֹעֵל אַחַר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ. שֶׁדִּין הַשּׁוֹגֵג וְהַמֵּזִיד בְּשִׁפְחָה אֶחָד הוּא:

7

In which instance is one obligated to bring a guilt-offering for robbery? Whenever anyone has in his possession a p'rutah's worth or more of Jewish money, whether he obtained it by robbery or theft, or it was entrusted to him, lent to him, came to him as part of partnership agreement, or in another way, and he denied possession of it, taking a false oath, whether intentionally or inadvertently, he must bring a guilt-offering to atone for his transgression. This is called a guilt-offering for robbery.

It is explicitly stated in the Torah that a person will not receive atonement through a guilt-offering until he returned the money in his possession to its owner. The payment of the additional fifth does not, however, hold back the atonement.

We already explained in Hilchot Sh'vuot the types of oaths for which a person will be liable to bring this guilt-offering and when he is exempt from it, in which instances one would be liable for many guilt-offerings commensurate with the number of oaths he is obligated to take and in which instances, he would be liable for only one guilt-offering.

ז

עַל הַגֵּזֶל כֵּיצַד. כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וָמַעְלָה מִמָּמוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל. בֵּין שֶׁגְּזָלוֹ בֵּין שֶׁגְּנָבוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהִפְקִידוּ אֶצְלוֹ אוֹ הִלְוָהוּ אוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֻׁתָּפוּת אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר דְּרָכִים. וְכָפַר בּוֹ וְנִשְׁבַּע לַשֶּׁקֶר בֵּין בְּזָדוֹן בֵּין בִּשְׁגָגָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם עַל חֶטְאוֹ. וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא אֲשַׁם גְּזֵלוֹת. וּמְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בְּאָשָׁם זֶה עַד שֶׁיָּשִׁיב הַמָּמוֹן שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ לִבְעָלָיו. אֲבָל הַחֹמֶשׁ אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב הַכַּפָּרָה. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁבוּעוֹת אֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה חַיָּב בִּשְׁבוּעָה זוֹ שֶׁמַּקְרִיב עָלֶיהָ אָשָׁם זֶה וְאֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה פָּטוּר מִמֶּנָּה. וְעַל אֵי זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ יִתְחַיֵּב אֲשָׁמוֹת רַבּוֹת כְּמִנְיַן חִיּוּב הַשְּׁבוּעוֹת. וְעַל אֵי זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ לֹא יִהְיֶה חַיָּב אֶלָּא אָשָׁם אֶחָד:

8

In which instance is one obligated to bring a guilt-offering for misappropriating consecrated property? Anyone who inadvertently derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit from consecrated property must make restitution for the benefit he derived, add a fifth, and bring a sacrifice to receive atonement. We already explained in Hilchot Me'ilah that bringing the sacrifice and making restitution for the principal prevent atonement from being granted. The additional fifth does not prevent atonement from being granted.

ח

עַל הַמְּעִילָה כֵּיצַד. כָּל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה. מַחְזִיר מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנָה וְיוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ וְיַקְרִיב אָשָׁם וְיִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מְעִילָה שֶׁהַקָּרְבָּן וְהַקֶּרֶן מְעַכְּבִין הַכַּפָּרָה וְאֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב:

9

When a person partakes of food for which one is liable for misappropriating consecrated property in five different dishes in one lapse of awareness, he is liable for a guilt-offering for each one, even though the meat comes from one sacrifice, provided he derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit each time he eats. The rationale is that the different dishes create a distinction and they are considered as different types of food even though they are not considered as different transgressions with regard to the liability for karet. The rationale for this is that there is an added dimension of severity to the prohibition against misappropriating consecrated property, for one who causes others to derive benefit is liable just as one who benefits, the measure for which one is liable can be accumulated over time, and when an agent performs the mission with which he is charged, the principal is liable. These concepts do not apply with regard to other prohibitions.

ט

הָאוֹכֵל מִדָּבָר שֶׁמּוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה תַּמְחוּיִין בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִזֶּבַח אֶחָד אִם יֵשׁ בְּכָל אֲכִילָה וַאֲכִילָה שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה חַיָּב אָשָׁם עַל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. שֶׁהַתַּמְחוּיִין מְחַלְּקִין בִּמְעִילָה וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּמִינִין הַרְבֵּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מֻחְלָקִין בְּחִיּוּב הַכְּרֵתוֹת. חֻמְרָא יְתֵרָה יֵשׁ בִּמְעִילָה שֶׁהֲרֵי עָשָׂה בָּהּ הַמְהַנֶּה כְּנֶהֱנֶה וּמִצְטָרֶפֶת לִזְמַן מְרֻבֶּה. וְשָׁלִיחַ שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ חַיָּב הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַה שֶּׁאֵין דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ בִּשְׁאָר הָאִסּוּרִין:

10

Whenever a person is obligated to bring a definitive guilt-offering, he must become aware of his transgression beforehand and then offer his guilt-offering. If, by contrast, he offers the sacrifice before he becomes aware of the transgression and afterwards, becomes aware of it, he does not fulfill his obligation with it.

A king and an anointed priest bring the same sacrifice as an ordinary person for every transgression for which one is obligated to bring a definitive guilt-offering.

י

כָּל הַמְחֻיָּב אָשָׁם וַדַּאי צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ חֶטְאוֹ תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַקְרִיב אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲבָל אִם הִקְרִיבוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ וְנוֹדַע לוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִקְרִיב אֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה לוֹ. וְכָל חֵטְא שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו אָשָׁם וַדַּאי אֶחָד הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶחָד כֹּהֵן מָשׁוּחַ אוֹ שְׁאָר עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׁוִין בּוֹ:

11

Whenever a doubt arises in a person's mind whether or not he committed a transgression for which he is liable to bring a definitive guilt-offering, he is entirely exempt. Therefore if a doubt arises whether one caused the misappropriation of consecrated property, he is not liable for at all, as stated in Hilchot Me'ilah.

יא

כָּל חֵטְא שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו אָשָׁם וַדַּאי אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם עֲשָׂאָהוּ אוֹ לֹא עֲשָׂאָהוּ פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם. לְפִיכָךְ הַבָּא עַל יָדוֹ סְפֵק מְעִילָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב כְּלוּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מְעִילָה:

12

When there was a piece of ordinary meat and a piece of sacrificial meat before a person and he partook of one without knowing which one it is, he is exempt. If, afterwards, he partook of the second, he must bring a guilt-offering for the misappropriation of consecrated property. If another person comes and partakes of the second piece, they are both exempt.

יב

הָיְתָה לְפָנָיו חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֻלִּין וַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. אָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא פָּטוּר. חָזַר וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם עַל מְעִילָתוֹ. אָכַל אַחֵר אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּטוּרִין:

13

When there are a piece of forbidden fat and a piece of sacrificial meat before a person and he eats one of them without knowing which it is, he must bring a provisional guilt-offering, because of the possibility that he partook of the forbidden fat. If he ate the second one as well, he must bring a sin-offering for partaking of the forbidden fat and a definitive guilt-offering for misappropriating consecrated property. If another person came and partook of the second piece, that other person must also bring provisional guilt-offering.

When there are a piece of forbidden fat and a piece of sacrificial forbidden fat before a person and he eats one of them without knowing which it is, he must bring a sin-offering. If he ate the second after he became aware that he ate the first, he must bring two sin-offerings and a definitive guilt-offering to atone for misappropriating sacred property. If another person came and ate the second piece, each one should bring only a sin-offering. In Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot, we explained the rationale why the prohibition against benefiting from consecrated property falls on forbidden fat. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations concerning other prohibitions.

יג

חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֵלֶב וַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. אָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי מִשּׁוּם חֵלֶב. אָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת עַל הַחֵלֶב וְאָשָׁם וַדַּאי שֶׁל מְעִילָה עַל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. בָּא אַחֵר וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה אַף הַשֵּׁנִי מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֵלֶב וַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֵלֶב הֶקְדֵּשׁ. אָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן מֵבִיא חַטָּאת. אָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה אַחַר שֶׁנּוֹדַע לוֹ עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת וְאָשָׁם וַדַּאי עַל מְעִילָתוֹ. בָּא אַחֵר וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה זֶה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת וְזֶה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת בִּלְבַד. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת מֵאֵיזֶה טַעַם נוֹסָף אִסּוּר הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל אִסּוּר חֵלֶב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ הָאִסּוּרִין: