1

Every transgression for which one is liable for a fixed sin-offering if he transgressed inadvertently carries liability for a provisional guilt-offering if he is unsure whether he violated it.

What does being unsure mean? If a person is in doubt whether he inadvertently violated this transgression or not, he is obligated to bring a guilt-offering, as Leviticus 5:17-18 states: "If he was unaware and became guilty, he shall bear his iniquity. He shall bring an unblemished ram from sheep, of the given value, as a guilt-offering." This is referred to as a provisional guilt-offering, for it brings atonement when the person is in doubt, tentatively, until he knows with certainty that he sinned inadvertently, at which time, he brings a sin-offering.

א

כָּל חֵטְא שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה חַיָּבִין עַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלּוֹ אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וּמַהוּ לֹא הוֹדַע. אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם שָׁגַג בְּדָבָר זֶה אוֹ לֹא שָׁגַג הֲרֵי זֶה מְצֻוֶּה לְהַקְרִיב אָשָׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ה יז) "וְלֹא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֹנוֹ" (ויקרא ה יח) "וְהֵבִיא אַיִל תָּמִים מִן הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם" וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְכַפֵּר עַל הַסָּפֵק וְתוֹלֶה לוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁחָטָא בִּשְׁגָגָה וְיַקְרִיב חַטָּאתוֹ:

2

A person is not liable for a provisional guilt-offering unless there is a prohibition that is established. What is implied? A person partook of forbidden fat, but was in doubt whether there was an olive-sized portion or not. There was a piece of forbidden fat and a piece of permitted fat before a person and he partook of one of them, but he did not know which one he ate. His wife and his sister were with him at home. He was intimate with one of them, but did not know with whom. Both the Sabbath and a weekday passed and he performed a forbidden labor on one of them, but did not know the day on which he acted. He performed a deed on the Sabbath, but did not know whether it falls into a category of forbidden labor. In all these and similar instances, he should bring a provisional guilt-offering.

If, however, a prohibition has not definitely been established, he is not liable for a provisional guilt-offering. Thus if there was one piece of fat before a person and he was unsure whether it was permitted or forbidden and he partook of it, he is exempt, for there is no established prohibition. Similarly, one who partakes of the fat of a ko'i is exempt from a provisional guilt-offering, for there is not an established prohibition.Similarly, when a man is intimate with a woman who is unsure whether or not she is in the niddah state or we are unsure whether she is an ervah due to family connections, he is exempt from a provisional guilt-offering.

Therefore a man who is intimate with a woman is exempt from this sacrifice, if: a) she finds blood on the examination cloth she uses after time has transpired, or

b) he married his yevamah within three months of his brother's death and she gave birth and it is not known whether the child was conceived by her first husband and was born after a nine-month pregnancy or he was conceived by her second husband and was born after a seven-month pregnancy.Similar laws apply in all analogous situations, for there is no established prohibition.

ב

אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאָשָׁם תָּלוּי עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם אִסּוּר קָבוּעַ. כֵּיצַד. אָכַל חֵלֶב וְסָפֵק אִם הָיָה כְּזַיִת אוֹ פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה לְפָנָיו חֲתִיכַת חֵלֶב וַחֲתִיכַת שֻׁמָּן וְאָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זֶה מֵהֶן אָכַל. אִשְׁתּוֹ וַאֲחוֹתוֹ עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת בָּעַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יוֹדֵעַ אֵי זוֹ מֵהֶן בָּעַל. שַׁבָּת וְחל וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכוֹת בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם וְאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּאֵי זֶה יוֹם עָשָׂה. אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא יָדַע מֵעֵין אֵי זוֹ מְלָאכָה עָשָׂה. הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה לְפָנָיו חֲתִיכָה אַחַת סָפֵק שֶׁהִיא חֵלֶב סָפֵק שֶׁהִיא שֻׁמָּן וַאֲכָלָהּ פָּטוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן אִסּוּר קָבוּעַ. וְכָל הָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב הַכְּוִי פָּטוּר מֵאָשָׁם תָּלוּי שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן אִסּוּר קָבוּעַ. וְכֵן הַבָּא עַל אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא סְפֵק נִדָּה אוֹ סְפֵק עֶרְוָה שֶׁל קֵרוּב בָּשָׂר פָּטוּר מֵאָשָׁם תָּלוּי. לְפִיכָךְ הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנִּמְצָא דָּם עַל עֵד שֶׁלָּהּ לְאַחַר זְמַן וְהַנּוֹשֵׂא יְבִמְתּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים וְיָלְדָה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם בֶּן תִּשְׁעָה לָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹ בֶּן שִׁבְעָה לָאַחֲרוֹן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַקָּרְבָּן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שָׁם אִסּוּר קָבוּעַ:

3

An individual can be required to bring a provisional guilt-offering in the following circumstances:

a) he who ate a piece of fat and one witness states: "What you ate was forbidden fat," while the other states; "You did not partake of forbidden fat;

b) a woman said that he partook of forbidden fat and another woman said that he did not. Since he does not know whether he partook of the forbidden fat or not and the existence of the prohibited substance has been established, he is obligated to bring a provisional guilt-offering.

Similarly, if one was intimate with a married woman about whom one witness states: "Her husband died," but another states: "He did not die," he is obligated to bring a provisional guilt-offering. This law also applies when there is a question if a woman is divorced, for the prohibition was established.If, however, there is a doubt whether or not a woman was consecrated, one who is intimate with her is not liable, because the prohibition has not been established.

ג

הָאוֹכֵל חֲתִיכָה וְעֵד אֶחָד אוֹמֵר לוֹ זֶה שֶׁאָכַלְתָּ חֵלֶב הָיָה וְעֵד אֶחָד אוֹמֵר לֹא אָכַלְתָּ חֵלֶב. אִשָּׁה אוֹמֶרֶת אָכַל וְאִשָּׁה אוֹמֶרֶת לֹא אָכַל. הוֹאִיל וְנִקְבַּע הָאִסּוּר וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם חָטָא אוֹ לֹא חָטָא הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְכֵן כָּל הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שֶׁעֵד אֶחָד אוֹמֵר מֵת בַּעְלָהּ וְעֵד אֶחָד אוֹמֵר לֹא מֵת. חַיָּב בְּאָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִסְפֵק מְגֹרֶשֶׁת שֶׁהֲרֵי נִקְבַּע הָאִסּוּר. אֲבָל סְפֵק מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת לֹא נִקְבַּע הָאִסּוּר:

4

A person is liable for a provisional guilt-offering in the following situations: There were two pieces of fat before him: one forbidden and one permitted. He ate one inadvertently and a gentile or a dog came and ate the second. The gentile or the dog ate the first and a Jew ate the second. One ate the first intentionally and the second, inadvertently, or he ate the first inadvertently and the second, intentionally. In all these situations, he is liable, because the existence of a prohibited substance had been established.

If, however, he partook of both of them intentionally, he is exempt from bringing a sacrifice. And if he ate them both inadvertently, he must bring a sin-offering. If he ate the first inadvertently and another person came and ate the second inadvertently, they are both obligated to bring a provisional guilt-offering. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ד

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת אַחַת שֶׁל חֵלֶב וְאַחַת שֶׁל שֻׁמָּן. וְאָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וּבָא עַכּוּ''ם אוֹ כֶּלֶב וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה. אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל עַכּוּ''ם אוֹ כֶּלֶב אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וּבָא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָכַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה. אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל רִאשׁוֹנָה בְּזָדוֹן וּשְׁנִיָּה בִּשְׁגָגָה. אוֹ שֶׁאָכַל רִאשׁוֹנָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וּשְׁנִיָּה בְּזָדוֹן. הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב בְּאָשָׁם תָּלוּי הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה שָׁמָּה אִסּוּר קָבוּעַ. אָכַל שְׁתֵּיהֶן בְּזָדוֹן פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבָּן. אָכַל שְׁתֵּיהֶן בִּשְׁגָגָה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת. אָכַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וּבָא אַחֵר וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה בִּשְׁגָגָה שְׁנֵיהֶן חַיָּבִין בְּאָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

5

A transgressor is exempt from bringing a sacrifice in the following situations. There was a piece of forbidden fat and piece of notar before him. He ate one of them inadvertently, but did not know which one he ate. His wife who was in the niddah state and his sister were at home with him. He was intimate with one of them inadvertently, but did not know which one. The Sabbath and Yom Kippur followed directly after each other, he performed a forbidden labor in the twilight between them. He does not bring a sin-offering, because he does not know which transgression he performed, as we explained. Nor does he bring a provisional guilt-offering, because he knows with certainty that he transgressed.

ה

חֵלֶב וְנוֹתָר לְפָנָיו. אָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ מֵהֶן אָכַל. אִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה וַאֲחוֹתוֹ עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת וְשָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ מֵהֶן בָּעַל. שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִקָּרְבָּן וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא חַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חֵטְא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי שֶׁהֲרֵי יוֹדֵעַ בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁחָטָא:

6

Whenever a person performs a deed that obligates him for one fixed sin-offering when he knows with certainty that he transgressed, he is liable for a provisional guilt-offering if he is unsure whether he transgressed. Whenever a person performs a deed that obligates him for many fixed sin-offerings when he knows with certainty that he transgressed, he is liable for many provisional guilt-offerings, matching the number of sin-offerings, if he is unsure whether he transgressed.

What is implied? Just as a person who ate forbidden fat, blood, notar, and piggul in one lapse of awareness is liable for four sin-offerings,so, too, if he is uncertain whether he partook of them or not, he must bring four provisional guilt-offerings. Similarly, if he is unsure if the woman with whom he was intimate is his wife or so-and-so, another woman who is forbidden to him as an ervah and for whom he would be liable eight sin-offerings if he was intimate with her, he must bring eight provisional guilt-offerings.

ו

כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל וַדָּאוֹ חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה אַחַת חַיָּבִין עַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלּוֹ אָשָׁם תָּלוּי אֶחָד. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל וַדָּאוֹ חַטָּאוֹת הַרְבֵּה חַיָּבִין עַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלּוֹ אֲשָׁמוֹת תְּלוּיִין הַרְבֵּה כְּמִנְיַן הַחַטָּאוֹת. כֵּיצַד. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאִם אָכַל חֵלֶב וְדָם וְנוֹתָר וּפִגּוּל בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת חַיָּב אַרְבַּע חַטָּאוֹת. כָּךְ אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם אֲכָלָן אוֹ לֹא אָכַל אֶלָּא חֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁל הֶתֵּר שֶׁהָיוּ עִמָּהֶם מֵבִיא אַרְבָּעָה אֲשָׁמוֹת תְּלוּיִין. וְכֵן אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ אִשְׁתּוֹ. אוֹ פְּלוֹנִית הָעֶרְוָה שֶׁהָיְתָה עִמָּהּ שֶׁחַיָּב עָלֶיהָ שְׁמוֹנֶה חַטָּאוֹת. הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא שְׁמוֹנָה אֲשָׁמוֹת תְּלוּיִין:

7

When a person ate one of two pieces of fat and he was unsure whether he ate forbidden fat or permitted fat, and after that doubt arose in his mind, he ate another one of two pieces of fat and he was unsure whether he ate forbidden fat or permitted fat, he must bring two provisional guilt-offerings.

ז

הָאוֹכֵל חֲתִיכָה מִשְּׁתֵי חֲתִיכוֹת וְנִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם שֶׁל חֵלֶב אָכַל אוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁמָּן אָכַל וְאַחַר שֶׁנּוֹלַד לוֹ הַסָּפֵק אָכַל חֲתִיכָה מִשְּׁתֵי חֲתִיכוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת וְנִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם שֶׁל חֵלֶב אָכַל אוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁמָּן. הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי אֲשָׁמוֹת תְּלוּיִין:

8

Just as the definitive knowledge that one transgressed creates a distinction with regard to sin-offerings, so too, the awareness that one possibly transgressed creates a distinction with regard to provisional guilt-offerings. Therefore if one partook of five olive-sized portions of forbidden fat in one lapse of awareness and then became aware of the possibility that he sinned with regard to one of them and later, became aware of the possibility that he sinned with regard to a second one, and then with regard to the subsequent ones, he is liable for a provisional guilt-offering for each one.

ח

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְּדִיעַת וַדַּאי בֵּינְתַיִם מְחַלֶּקֶת לְחַטָּאוֹת כָּךְ יְדִיעַת סָפֵק בֵּינְתַיִם מְחַלֶּקֶת לַאֲשָׁמוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָכַל חֲמִשָּׁה זֵיתֵי חֵלֶב בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת. וְנוֹדַע לוֹ יְדִיעַת סָפֵק עַל אַחַת מֵהֶם וְחָזַר וְנוֹדַע לוֹ יְדִיעַת סָפֵק אַחֶרֶת עַל הַשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת. חַיָּב אָשָׁם תָּלוּי עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת:

9

When there is a piece of permitted fat and a piece of forbidden fat and a person ate one of them without knowing which and thus brought a provisional guilt-offering and then partook of the second piece of fat, he must bring a sin-offering. If another person partook of the second piece, that second person must bring a provisional guilt-offering, as stated.

ט

חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל שֻׁמָּן וַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֵלֶב. אָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא וְהֵבִיא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְחָזַר וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת. וְכֵן אִם אָכַל אַחֵר אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה מֵבִיא הָאַחֵר אָשָׁם תָּלוּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

10

When there is a piece of forbidden fat and a piece of forbidden fat that is notar and a person ate one of them without knowing which one, he must bring a sin-offering to atone for partaking of forbidden fat and a provisional guilt-offering because of the possibility that he partook of notar. If he ate the second piece in a second lapse of awareness, he must bring three sin-offerings. If the piece of notar was worth a p'rutah, he must also bring a definitive guilt-offering because of the misappropriation of consecrated articles.

If he ate one of the two pieces and another person came and ate the second, he should bring a sin-offering and a provisional guilt-offering and the second person should bring a sin-offering and a provisional guilt-offering. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

י

חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֵלֶב וַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חֵלֶב נוֹתָר. אָכַל אֶת אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא. מֵבִיא חַטָּאת עַל הַחֵלֶב וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי מִשּׁוּם נוֹתָר. אָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה בְּהֶעְלֵם שֵׁנִי מֵבִיא שָׁלֹשׁ חַטָּאוֹת. וְאִם הָיָה בָּהּ שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם וַדַּאי מִשּׁוּם מְעִילָה. אָכַל אֶחָד אֶת אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן. וּבָא אַחֵר וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה. זֶה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי וְזֶה מֵבִיא חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה: