1

When a person prostrates himself to a false deity, poured a libation to it, offers a burnt-offering to it, and slaughters an animal as a sacrifice to it in one lapse of awareness, he is liable for four sin-offerings. Similarly, if he defecated to Peor or threw a rock to Mercury in one lapse of awareness, he is liable for two sin-offerings. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. The person will be liable for every act of service performed.

When does the above apply? When he consciously desired to serve a false deity, but was unaware that these acts constituted service. If, however, he willfully performed these acts, but inadvertently served a false deity, he is liable for only one sin-offering.

What is implied? He knew that a particular image was a false deity and that it is forbidden to serve it, but did not know that bowing down to it or pouring a libation constituted a transgression and bowed down and poured a libation, he is liable for two sin-offerings. If, however, he knew that these were ways in which false deities were served and that it is forbidden to perform these acts in service of a false deity, but did not know that a particular image was considered a false deity, because it was not made of gold or silver and he was under the mistaken impression that only images of gold and silver were considered as false deities and hence, performed all these acts of service to it, he is liable for only one sin-offering.

א

הַמִּשְׁתַחֲוְה לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְנִסֵּךְ וְקִטֵּר וְזִבֵּחַ בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת חַיָּב אַרְבַּע חַטָּאוֹת. וְכֵן אִם פִּעֵר עַצְמוֹ לִפְעוֹר וְזָרַק אֶבֶן לְמַרְקוּלִיס בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת. חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה יְהֵא חַיָּב עַל כָּל עֲבוֹדָה וַעֲבוֹדָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהֵזִיד בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְשָׁגַג בַּעֲבוֹדוֹת אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל אִם הֵזִיד בַּעֲבוֹדוֹת אֵלּוּ וְשָׁגַג בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת. כֵּיצַד. יָדַע שֶׁזּוֹ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְשֶׁאָסוּר לְעָבְדָהּ אֲבָל לֹא יָדַע שֶׁהַהִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה וְהַנִּסּוּךְ עֲבֵרָה וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָה וְנִסֵּךְ חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. יָדַע שֶׁאֵלּוּ עֲבוֹדוֹת הֵן וְאָסוּר לַעֲבֹד בָּהֶן לְאֵל אַחֵר וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁזּוֹ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וְעָלָה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁאֵין קְרוּיִין עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אֶלָּא שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וַעֲבָדָהּ בְּכָל הָעֲבוֹדוֹת אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת:

2

A great general principle was stated with regard to the violation of the Sabbath prohibitions: Anyone who forgets the fundamental principle of the Sabbath, failing to recall that the Jews were commanded to observe the Sabbath or was captured and taken among gentiles while a child or converted in his childhood and remained living among gentiles, he is liable for only one sin-offering even though he performed many forbidden labors on many different Sabbaths, for it is all one lapse of awareness.

Similarly, he is liable for one sin-offering for all the forbidden fat that he ate, one sin-offering for all the blood that he ate. Similar laws apply to all analogous situations regarding these sins. Whenever one knows the fundamental principle of the Sabbath, but forgot that a given day was the Sabbath and thought it was an ordinary day, he is liable for only one sin-offering for the entire day, even though he performed many forbidden labors on it. Similarly, he is liable for a sin-offering for every Sabbath that he inadvertently desecrated.

ב

כְּלָל גָּדוֹל אָמְרוּ בְּשַׁבָּת כָּל הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ עִקַּר שַׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל הַשַּׁבָּת. אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁבָּה וְהוּא קָטָן לְבֵין הָעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ נִתְגַּיֵּר קָטָן וְהוּא בֵּין הָעַכּוּ''ם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת הַרְבֵּה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת שֶׁהַכּל שְׁגָגָה אַחַת הִיא. וְכֵן חַיָּב חַטָּאת אַחַת עַל כָּל חֵלֶב שֶׁאָכַל וְחַטָּאת אַחַת עַל דָּם שֶׁאָכַל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בַּעֲבוֹדוֹת אֵלּוּ. וְכָל הַיּוֹדֵעַ עִקַּר שַׁבָּת אֲבָל שָׁכַח שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְדִמָּה שֶׁהוּא חֹל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂה בּוֹ מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה חַיָּב חַטָּאת אַחַת עַל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ וְכֵן חַטָּאת עַל כָּל שַׁבָּת וְשַׁבָּת שֶׁשָּׁגַג בּוֹ:

3

Anyone who knows that a given day is the Sabbath, but inadvertently performed forbidden labors without knowing that these labors are forbidden or knew that they were forbidden, but did not know that one was liable for karet for their violation, is liable for a sin-offering for every general category of forbidden labor. Even if he performed all 39 forbidden labors in one lapse of awareness, he must bring 39 sin-offerings.

ג

וְכָל הַיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְשָׁגַג בִּמְלָאכוֹת וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁמְּלָאכוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרוֹת אוֹ שֶׁיָּדַע שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרוֹת וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת וְעָשָׂה מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה. חַיָּב חַטָּאת עַל כָּל אַב מְלָאכָה וּמְלָאכָה. אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה הָאַרְבָּעִים חָסֵר אַחַת בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת מֵבִיא שְׁלֹשִׁים וְתֵשַׁע חַטָּאוֹת:

4

If he forgot that the day is the Sabbath and also forgot that these labors were forbidden, he is only liable for one sin-offering.

ד

שָׁכַח שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְשָׁגַג אַף בִּמְלָאכוֹת וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁמְּלָאכוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרוֹת אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת:

5

When a person performs an action that is the primary forbidden activity of a particular category of labor and also a derivative in one lapse of awareness, he is only liable for one sin-offering. Needless to day, if he performs many derivatives of one category of forbidden labor, he is only liable for one sin-offering.

ה

הָעוֹשֶׂה אָב וְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הָעוֹשֶׂה תּוֹלָדוֹת הַרְבֵּה שֶׁל אָב אֶחָד שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת:

6

If he performs derivatives of one category of forbidden labor and derivatives of another category of forbidden labor in one lapse of awareness, it appears to me that he is liable for two sin-offerings.

ו

עָשָׂה תּוֹלָדָה שֶׁל אָב זֶה וְתוֹלָדָה שֶׁל אָב זֶה בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת. יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת:

7

If he performs several activities comprising a single category of forbidden labor in one lapse of awareness, e.g., he sowed, extended a vine by replanting one of its branches, grafted a branch onto a tree, he is liable for only one sin-offering. In Hilchot Shabbat, it has already been explained which activities are primary labors, which are derivatives, and which activities comprise a single category of forbidden labor.

ז

עָשָׂה מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה אַחַת. כְּגוֹן שֶׁזָּרַע וְהִבְרִיךְ וְהִרְכִּיב בְּהֶעְלֵם אַחַת אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת. וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת שַׁבָּת הָאָבוֹת וְהַתּוֹלָדוֹת וְהַמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁהֵן מֵעֵין אָבוֹת:

8

When a person performs activities comprising a single category of forbidden labor on many Sabbaths, whether he was aware that it was the Sabbath, but unaware that he was performing forbidden labors or he was unaware that it was the Sabbath, but aware that the labor he performed is forbidden on the Sabbath, he is liable for a sin-offering for every forbidden labor he performs.

What is implied? He knew that it was the Sabbath and sowed on that day, because he did not know that sowing constituted forbidden labor. Similarly, on the following Sabbath, he knew that it was the Sabbath and planted because he did not know that planting constituted forbidden labor. Similarly, on the third Sabbath, he extended a vine, because he did not know that extending constituted forbidden labor, he is liable for a sin-offering for each one, even though they all comprise a single category of forbidden labor, because the different Sabbaths are considered like different bodies.

ח

עָשָׂה מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה אַחַת בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת הַרְבֵּה בֵּין בִּזְדוֹן שַׁבּתַ וְשִׁגְגַת מְלָאכוֹת בֵּין בְּשִׁגְגַת שַׁבָּת וּזְדוֹן מְלָאכוֹת חַיָּב עַל כָּל מְלָאכָה וּמְלָאכָה. כֵּיצַד. יָדַע שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְזָרַע בּוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע שֶׁהַזְּרִיעָה מְלָאכָה. וְכֵן בְּשַׁבָּת שְׁנִיָּה יָדַע שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְנָטַע בָּהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע שֶׁהַנְּטִיעָה אֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה. וְכֵן בְּשַׁבָּת שְׁלִישִׁית הִבְרִיךְ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע שֶׁהַהַבְרָכָה מְלָאכָה. חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה אַחַת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּתוֹת כְּגוּפִין מֻחְלָקִין:

9

When a person was unaware that it was the Sabbath and sowed upon it, although he knew that sowing is a forbidden labor, on the following Sabbath, he forgot that it was Sabbath and planted, although he knew that planting is a forbidden labor, and on the third Sabbath, he forgot that it was Sabbath and extended, although he knew that extending is a forbidden labor, he is liable for a sin-offering for every Sabbath. The rationale is that the days between each Sabbath are considered equivalent to gaining awareness of one's transgression and create a distinction.

ט

שָׁגַג שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְזָרַע בּוֹ וְהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַזְּרִיעָה מְלָאכָה. וְכֵן בְּשַׁבָּת שְׁנִיָּה שָׁכַח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְנָטַע בּוֹ וְהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַנְּטִיעָה מְלָאכָה. וְכֵן בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית שָׁכַח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְהִבְרִיךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַהַבְרָכָה מְלָאכָה. הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת. שֶׁהַיָּמִים שֶׁבֵּין שַׁבָּת לְשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי הֵן כִּידִיעָה אַחַת לְחַלֵּק:

10

When a person harvested and ground a dried-fig-sized measure of grain without being aware that it is Sabbath, but knowing that these labors are forbidden on the Sabbath, he is only liable for one sin-offering. Afterwards, he harvested and ground a dried-fig-sized measure of grain while aware that it is the Sabbath, but forgetting that these labors were forbidden, in which instance, he is liable for a sin-offering for every forbidden labor. He then became aware of the harvesting performed without being aware that it is Sabbath, but knowing that these labors are forbidden on the Sabbath. In such an instance, the one act of harvesting draws the other after it and the one act of grinding draws the other after it. Thus it is as if he performed all four acts without being aware that it is Sabbath, but knowing that these labors are forbidden on the Sabbath, in which instance he is liable for only one sin-offering. After he brings that sin-offering, he has secured atonement for all the other forbidden labors he performed. When he later becomes aware of them, he does not have to bring another sin-offering.

If, however, he first becomes conscious of the harvesting performed while aware that it is the Sabbath, but forgetting that these labors were forbidden, and brings a sin-offering, he receives atonement for the harvesting that he became aware of and on the harvesting and grinding performed without being aware that it is Sabbath, but knowing that these labors are forbidden, because the two are considered as one labor and the harvesting and grinding are drawn after the harvesting performed when he was aware that it was the Sabbath. Thus there remains without atonement, only the grinding performed when he was aware that it was the Sabbath until he becomes aware of it and brings a second sin-offering.

If a person harvested half a dried-fig-sized measure without being aware that it is Sabbath, but knowing that this labor is forbidden and then harvested half a dried-fig-sized measure while aware that it is Sabbath, but not aware that this labor is forbidden, these two activities are combined. One harvesting draws the other after it. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations with regard to the other forbidden labors.

י

מִי שֶׁקָּצַר וְטָחַן כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת בְּשִׁגְגַת שַׁבָּת וּזְדוֹן מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת. וְחָזַר וְקָצַר וְטָחַן כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת בִּזְדוֹן שַׁבָּת וְשִׁגְגַת מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב עַל כָּל מְלָאכָה וּמְלָאכָה. וְנוֹדַע לוֹ עַל קְצִירָה שֶׁל שִׁגְגַת שַׁבָּת וּזְדוֹן מְלָאכוֹת. קְצִירָה גּוֹרֶרֶת קְצִירָה וּטְחִינָה גּוֹרֶרֶת טְחִינָה וּכְאִלּוּ עָשָׂה אַרְבַּעְתָּן בְּשִׁגְגַת שַׁבָּת וּזְדוֹן מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אַחַת. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִקְרִיב חַטָּאת זוֹ נִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ עַל הַכּל. וּכְשֶׁיְּדָעֵם אַחַר כֵּן אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא חַטָּאת אַחֶרֶת. אֲבָל אִם נוֹדַע לוֹ תְּחִלָּה עַל קְצִירָהּ שֶׁל זְדוֹן שַׁבָּת וְשִׁגְגַת מְלָאכוֹת וְהִקְרִיב חַטָּאת. נִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ עַל זוֹ הַקְּצִירָה שֶׁנּוֹדַע לוֹ עָלֶיהָ וְעַל הַקְּצִירָה וְהַטְּחִינָה שֶׁל שִׁגְגַת שַׁבָּת וּזְדוֹן מְלָאכוֹת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן כִּמְלָאכָה אַחַת וְנִגְרְרָה קְצִירָה וּטְחִינָה עִם הַקְּצִירָה וְתִשָּׁאֵר הַטְּחִינָה שֶׁל זְדוֹן שַׁבָּת עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ עָלֶיהָ וְיָבִיא חַטָּאת שְׁנִיָּה. קָצַר כַּחֲצִי גְּרוֹגֶרֶת בְּשִׁגְגַת שַׁבָּת וּזְדוֹן מְלָאכוֹת וְחָזַר וְקָצַר כַּחֲצִי גְּרוֹגֶרֶת בִּזְדוֹן שַׁבָּת וְשִׁגְגַת מְלָאכוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין. קְצִירָהּ גּוֹרֶרֶת קְצִירָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בִּשְׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת:

11

When, on the Sabbath, a person had the intent to cut an object that was already severed from the ground, but instead, cut an object that was connected to the ground, even though he had the intent to cut, since his desired intent was not fulfilled, he is exempt from a sin-offering. He is considered as one who is merely busying himself and the Torah forbade only purposeful labor, as we explained several times.

יא

הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לַחְתֹּךְ אֶת הַתָּלוּשׁ וְחָתַךְ אֶת הַמְחֻבָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לַחֲתִיכָה הוֹאִיל וְלֹא עָשָׂה מַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הַחַטָּאת שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִתְעַסֵּק וְלֹא אָסְרָה תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מְלֶאכֶת מַחֲשֶׁבֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים:

12

The following rule applies when a person stirs coals on the Sabbath, in which instance, he extinguishes the upper ones and ignites the lower ones. If he intended to extinguish and ignite, he is liable for two sin-offerings. If he stirred the coals to become warm and they were ignited on their own, he is liable, because one is liable for performing a forbidden labor even if he has no need for the actual labor he performed, as explained in Hilchot Shabbat. Just as he is liable for karet for the intentional performance of forbidden labor, he is liable for a sin-offering for unintentional violation.

יב

הַחוֹתֶה גֶּחָלִים בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא מְכַבֶּה אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת וּמַדְלִיק אֶת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְכַבּוֹת וּלְהַבְעִיר חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. חָתָה גֶּחָלִים לְהִתְחַמֵּם מֵהֶם וְהֻבְעֲרוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶן חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שַׁבָּת. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל זְדוֹנָהּ כָּרֵת כָּךְ חַיָּב עַל שִׁגְגָתָהּ קָרְבַּן חַטָּאת: