1

We already explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim that a Paschal sacrifice is slaughtered only for the sake of a Paschal sacrifice and only for the sake of its owners. If it was slaughtered for the sake of another type of sacrifice, it is unacceptable.

When a person slaughters a Paschal sacrifice for the members of a company and, at a later time, told them: "That Paschal sacrifice that I slaughtered for you was not slaughtered with the proper intent," they should rely on his words if they consider him trustworthy. If not, according to the letter, his word is not accepted. If one desires to be stringent with himself and bring a second Paschal sacrifice, he is praiseworthy.

א

כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין שֶׁהַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ נִשְׁחַט אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח וּלְשֵׁם בְּעָלָיו וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ בְּמַחְשֶׁבֶת שִׁנּוּי הַשֵּׁם פָּסוּל. הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַפֶּסַח עַל בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה וְאָמַר לָהֶם לְאַחַר זְמַן אוֹתוֹ הַפֶּסַח שֶׁשָּׁחַטְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ שְׁחַטְתִּיו. אִם הָיָה נֶאֱמָן לָהֶן סוֹמְכִין עַל דְּבָרָיו. וְאִם לָאו שׁוּרַת הַדִּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן. וְהָרוֹצֶה לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח וְיָבִיא פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי:

2

When the meat of the Paschal sacrifice becomes impure and one becomes aware of this before the blood is poured on the altar, it should not be poured on the altar even though the fats and organs are pure. The rationale is that the Paschal sacrifice is offered only with the intent that it be eaten. If the blood is poured on the altar, it is not acceptable.

If one does not become aware until the blood was poured, it is acceptable. For the High Priest's forehead plate generates appeasement for blood offered unintentionally when meat became impure, but it does not generate appeasement for intentional violation.

If a portion of the limbs of the Paschal sacrifice become impure, he should burn those which became impure and partake of those which are pure. If the fats and organs become impure while the meat is intact, the blood should be poured and the meat eaten in the evening.

If the owners become impure after the Paschal sacrifice was slaughtered, the blood should not be poured. If it is poured, it is not acceptable. Therefore they are obligated to bring a second Paschal sacrifice. For the High Priest's forehead plate does generate appeasement for bodily impurity unless the person became impure due to "impurity likened to the depths," as we explained in Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash.

ב

בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְנוֹדַע לוֹ קֹדֶם זְרִיקָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאֵימוּרִין טְהוֹרִין לֹא יִזְרֹק אֶת הַדָּם שֶׁאֵין הַפֶּסַח בָּא אֶלָּא לַאֲכִילָה וְאִם זָרַק לֹא הֻרְצָּה. וְאִם לֹא נוֹדַע לוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּזְרַק הַדָּם הֻרְצָּה שֶׁהַצִּיץ מְרַצֶּה עַל שִׁגְגַת הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְאֵינוֹ מְרַצֶּה עַל הַזָּדוֹן. נִטְמְאוּ מִקְצָת הָאֵיבָרִים שׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים וְאוֹכֵל אֶת הַטְּהוֹרִים. נִטְמְאוּ הָאֵימוּרִים וְהַבָּשָׂר קַיָּם זוֹרֵק אֶת הַדָּם וְהַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לָעֶרֶב. נִטְמְאוּ הַבְּעָלִים אַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט לֹא יִזְרֹק אֶת הַדָּם וְאִם זָרַק לֹא הֻרְצָּה. לְפִיכָךְ חַיָּבִין בְּפֶסַח שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵין הַצִּיץ מְרַצֶּה עַל טֻמְאַת הַגּוּף אֶלָּא אִם נִטְמְאָה בְּטֻמְאַת הַתְּהוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת בִּיאַת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:

3

When a Paschal sacrifice was taken out of Jerusalem or it became impure on the fourteenth of Nisan, it should be burnt immediately. When the owners became impure, died, or remove themselves - even if they became impure or died before the blood was poured on the altar - it should be left overnight and burnt afterwards.

This is the general principle: Whenever there is a disqualifying factor involving the actual body of the sacrifice, it should be burnt immediately. If the disqualifying factor involves the blood or the owners, it should be left overnight and then burnt. Therefore if it was slaughtered after it was known that the owners removed themselves from the sacrifice, died, or became impure and thus their obligation was postponed until the second Pesach, their first Paschal sacrifice should be burnt immediately.

When does the statement that the Paschal sacrifice should be burnt if the owners become impure apply? When all of the members of the company become impure. If, however, only some of them become impure, those who remain pure acquire the portions of those who became impure. Even if those who became impure incurred their impurity after they began eating, those who were pure who did not begin eating as of yet, acquire their portion.

If, however, all of them began eating and some of them became impure, those who remain pure do not acquire the portions of those who became impure. Instead, those who remain pure should partake of their portions and the portions of those who became impure should be burnt. This also applies if a portion of the owners died.

If the Paschal sacrifice became impure after those impure began eating, those who remained pure acquire their portions. If, however, they all had begun to eat and some of them became impure, those who remained pure do not acquire the portions of those who became impure. Instead, those who remained pure should eat their own portion and the portions of those who became impure should be burnt. These same laws apply if some of those enumerated on the sacrifice died.

If the entire Paschal sacrifice or its majority becomes impure, it should be burnt in front of the Temple in the presence of everyone to embarrass its owners, so that in the future they will show greater care. It should be burnt with wood designated for the altar so that suspicion about them will not be aroused and it be said: "They stole wood designated for the altar." Therefore if they burn it with straw and reeds and desire to burn it with their own straw, they may.

If less than half of it became impure and similarly, any meat left over from the Paschal sacrifice should be burnt in their own courtyards from their own wood. Wood designated for the altar should not be used, so that it will not remain in their possession and they misappropriate it.

ג

הַפֶּסַח שֶׁיָּצָא מִירוּשָׁלַיִם אוֹ שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יִשָּׂרֵף מִיָּד. נִטְמְאוּ הַבְּעָלִים אוֹ מֵתוּ אוֹ מָשְׁכוּ אֶת יְדֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ נִטְמְאוּ אוֹ מֵתוּ קֹדֶם זְרִיקַת הַדָּם מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁתְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשָּׂרֵף. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁפְּסוּלוֹ בְּגוּפוֹ יִשָּׂרֵף מִיָּד. בַּדָּם אוֹ בַּבְּעָלִים תְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשָּׂרֵף. לְפִיכָךְ אִם שְׁחָטוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנּוֹדַע שֶׁמָּשְׁכוּ הַבְּעָלִים אֶת יְדֵיהֶם אוֹ מֵתוּ אוֹ נִטְמְאוּ וְנִדְּחוּ לְפֶסַח שֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה יִשָּׂרֵף מִיָּד. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁיִּשָּׂרֵף אִם נִטְמְאוּ הַבְּעָלִים כְּשֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ כָּל בְּנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה. אֲבָל אִם נִטְמְאוּ מִקְצָתָן זָכוּ טְהוֹרִים בְּחֶלְקָם שֶׁל טְמֵאִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מִקְצָתָן אַחַר שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לֶאֱכל זָכוּ הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְחִילוּ. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִילוּ כֻּלָּן וְנִטְמְאוּ מִקְצָתָן לֹא זָכוּ טְהוֹרִים בְּחֶלְקָן שֶׁל טְמֵאִים אֶלָּא הַטְּהוֹרִים אוֹכְלִין חֶלְקָם וְחֵלֶק הַטְּמֵאִים יִשָּׂרֵף. וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם מֵתוּ מִקְצָתָן. נִטְמָא שָׁלֵם אוֹ רֻבּוֹ שׂוֹרְפִים אוֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַבִּירָה בִּפְנֵי הַכּל כְּדֵי לְבַיְּשָׁן עַד שֶׁיִּזָהֲרוּ בּוֹ. וְשׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ מֵעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחְשְׁדוּ אוֹתָן וְיֹאמְרוּ מֵעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה גָּנְבוּ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם יִשְׂרְפוּהוּ בְּקַשׁ וּבְקָנִים וְרָצוּ לִשְׂרֹף מִשֶּׁל עַצְמָן שׂוֹרְפִין. נִטְמָא מִעוּטוֹ וְכֵן הַנּוֹתָר שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ בְּחַצְרוֹתֵיהֶן מֵעֲצֵי עַצְמָן אֲבָל לֹא מֵעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֲרוּ מֵהֶן אֶצְלָם וְיִמְעֲלוּ בָּהֶן:

4

If one set aside a female animal for his Paschal sacrifice or a male animal in its second or third year of life, it should be allowed to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish. Then it should be sold and a Paschal sacrifice brought with the proceeds of the sale. If it did not contract a blemish until after he offered his Paschal sacrifice, he should bring a peace-offering with the proceeds of the sale.

ד

הַמַּפְרִישׁ נְקֵבָה לְפִסְחוֹ אוֹ זָכָר בֶּן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים. יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִמָּכֵר וְיָבִיא בְּדָמָיו פֶּסַח. וְאִם לֹא נָפַל בָּהּ מוּם עַד שֶׁהִקְרִיב פִּסְחוֹ יָבִיא בְּדָמָיו שְׁלָמִים:

5

When a person sets aside a Paschal sacrifice and dies, his son should not bring it afterwards as a Paschal sacrifice, but as a peace-offering. If the son was enumerated on the Paschal sacrifice together with his father, he may bring it as a Paschal sacrifice.

When does the above apply? When his father dies after midday on the fourteenth of Nisan. If, however, he died before midday on the fourteenth, the son is deferred to the second Pesach, because he is in the acute state of onain mourning, as will be explained. He should bring this animal as a Paschal sacrifice on the second Pesach.

ה

הִפְרִישׁ פִּסְחוֹ וּמֵת. לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ בְּנוֹ אַחֲרָיו לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם שְׁלָמִים. וְאִם הָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עִם אָבִיו עָלָיו יְבִיאֶנּוּ לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁמֵּת אָבִיו אַחַר חֲצוֹת אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר אֲבָל קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה נִדְחֶה לְפֶסַח שֵׁנִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אוֹנֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר וְיָבִיא פִּסְחוֹ זֶה בַּשֵּׁנִי:

6

The following laws apply if a person's Paschal sacrifice was lost and then he found it after he set aside another Paschal sacrifice and they are both standing before him. He should sacrifice whichever one he desires for the sake of a Paschal sacrifice and the other should be offered as a peace-offering.

If he finds it after he slaughtered another animal as a Paschal sacrifice, the one that he found should be offered as a peace-offering. Similarly, if he transferred the holiness of the animal he found after the slaughter of its replacement, the animal unto which the holiness was transferred should be sacrificed as a peace-offering. If, however, he found it before the other he set aside was slaughtered, different rules apply. Since the animal that was found is fit to be offered as a Paschal sacrifice and it is fit to be offered as a peace-offering, as explained above, if he transferred the holiness of the animal that was found whether before the slaughter of the one designated in its place or afterwards, the animal to which its holiness is transferred is not sacrificed. Instead, it is left to pasture until it contracts a blemish. Then a peace-offering is brought with the proceeds of its sale.

ו

מִי שֶׁאָבַד פִּסְחוֹ וּמְצָאוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ פֶּסַח אַחֵר וַהֲרֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן עוֹמְדִין יַקְרִיב אֵי זֶה מֵהֶן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִקְרַב שְׁלָמִים. מְצָאוֹ אַחַר שֶׁשָּׁחַט פִּסְחוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה יִקְרַב שְׁלָמִים. וְכֵן אִם הֵמִיר בָּזֶה הַנִּמְצָא אַחַר שְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי תְּמוּרָה זוֹ תִּקְרַב שְׁלָמִים. אֲבָל אִם מְצָאוֹ קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטַת זֶה שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ. הוֹאִיל וְזֶה הַנִּמְצָא רָאוּי לְהַקְרִיבוֹ פֶּסַח וְרָאוּי לְהַקְרִיבוֹ שְׁלָמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אִם הֵמִיר בָּזֶה הַנִּמְצָא בֵּין קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטַת הַמֻּפְרָשׁ תַּחְתָּיו בֵּין אַחַר שְׁחִיטָה. אֵין תְּמוּרָתוֹ קְרֵבָה אֶלָּא תִּרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהּ מוּם וְיָבִיא בְּדָמֶיהָ שְׁלָמִים:

7

An animal designated as a Paschal sacrifice that becomes more than a year old or a peace-offering brought from an animal that was originally designated as Paschal sacrifice is considered as a peace-offering in all contexts. It requires semichah, accompanying offerings, and the waving of the breast and thigh. These requirements do not apply with regard to the Paschal sacrifice.

ז

פֶּסַח שֶׁעָבְרָה שְׁנָתוֹ וּשְׁלָמִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי הֵם כִּשְׁלָמִים לְכָל דָּבָר טְעוּנִין סְמִיכָה וּנְסָכִים וּתְנוּפַת חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּפֶסַח:

8

When an animal designated as a Paschal sacrifice becomes intermingled with animals designated as peace-offerings, they should all be brought as peace-offerings. If it became intermingled with an animal designated as another type of offering, the two should be allowed to pasture until they contract disqualifying physical blemishes. An animal equivalent to the value of the more expensive of the two should be brought for each type of sacrifice and the owner should forfeit the remainder from his resources, as explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim.

If a Paschal sacrifice becomes intermingled with firstborn animals, they should be allowed to pasture until they contract disqualifying physical blemishes and then they should be eaten according to the laws pertaining to a blemished firstborn animal. And he should bring an animal equivalent to the most valuable one in the mixture and say: "Wherever the Paschal sacrifice is, its holiness should be transferred to this animal." That animal should be brought as a peace-offering if his Paschal sacrifice was already offered.

ח

פֶּסַח שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בִּשְׁלָמִים יִקְרְבוּ כֻּלָּן שְׁלָמִים. נִתְעָרֵב בִּזְבָחִים אֲחֵרִים יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיָבִיא בִּדְמֵי הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבָּהֶן מִמִּין זֶה וּבִדְמֵי הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבָּהֶן שְׁלָמִים וְיַפְסִיד הַמּוֹתָר מִבֵּיתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. נִתְעָרֵב בִּבְכוֹרוֹת. יִרְעוּ הַכּל עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיֵאָכֵלוּ כִּבְכוֹר בַּעַל מוּם. וְיָבִיא בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִיא יָפָה כַּיָּפָה שֶׁבְּתַעֲרוֹבוֹת וְיֹאמַר כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא הַפֶּסַח קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ תָּחוּל עַל זוֹ וְיַקְרִיבֶנָּה שְׁלָמִים אִם קָרֵב פִּסְחוֹ:

9

When one sets aside an animal for a Paschal sacrifice before he converts and then converts or a Canaanite servant sets one aside before he is freed and then he is freed, or a child sets one aside before he manifests signs of physical maturity and then he manifests them, he may offer it for the sake of a Paschal sacrifice. The rationale is that living animals are not deemed unacceptable forever, as explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim.

ט

הַמַּפְרִישׁ פִּסְחוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְגַּיֵּר וְנִתְגַּיֵּר. עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּחְרֵר וְנִשְׁתַּחְרֵר. עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְהֵבִיא. הֲרֵי זֶה מַקְרִיבוֹ לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח. שֶׁאֵין בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים נִדְחִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין:

10

If one set aside money for his Paschal sacrifice and there was some left over, he should use the remainder for a peace-offering. If someone enumerates others on his Paschal sacrifice and festive offering, the money he takes from them for their portion is considered as ordinary funds. Even though this one set aside a lamb for his Paschal sacrifice and this one set aside money, and the one took that money and enumerated the other on his Paschal sacrifice, the money is considered as ordinary funds. For the Jews consecrated their Paschal sacrifices and festive offerings and the money for their Paschal sacrifices and festive offerings with this stipulation.

י

הַמַּפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לְפִסְחוֹ וְהוֹתִירוּ. יָבִיא הַמּוֹתָר שְׁלָמִים. הַמְמַנֶּה אֲחֵרִים עַל פִּסְחוֹ וְעַל חֲגִיגָתוֹ. הֲרֵי הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁיִּקַּח מֵהֶן בְּחֶלְקָם חֻלִּין. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה הִפְרִישׁ טָלֶה לְפִסְחוֹ וְזֶה הִפְרִישׁ מָעוֹת לְפִסְחוֹ וְלָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ הַמָּעוֹת וּמִנָּהוּ עַל פִּסְחוֹ הֲרֵי הַמָּעוֹת חֻלִּין שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן הִקְדִּישׁוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת פִּסְחֵיהֶן וְאֶת חֲגִיגָתָן וְאֶת מְעוֹת פִּסְחֵיהֶן וַחֲגִיגָתָן:

11

The wood used for roasting the Paschal sacrifice is equivalent to the Paschal sacrifice. Similarly, the matzah and bitter herbs, since they are necessary elements for the Paschal sacrifice, are equivalent to the Paschal sacrifice. If one took money from the money for the Paschal sacrifice from someone who was enumerated with him to enumerate him on the matzah and the bitter herbs or so that he will own a portion of the wood used to roast it, the money is considered as ordinary funds.

יא

עֵצִים שֶׁל צְלִיַּת הַפֶּסַח כְּפֶסַח. וְכֵן מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר הוֹאִיל וְהֵן מַכְשִׁירֵי הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי הֵם כְּפֶסַח. וְאִם לָקַח מִמְּעוֹת הַפֶּסַח מִמִּי שֶׁמִּנָּה אוֹתָן עִמּוֹ כְּדֵי לְמַנּוֹתָן עִמּוֹ בַּמַּצָּה וּמָרוֹר אוֹ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ חֵלֶק בָּעֵצִים שֶׁצּוֹלֶה בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הַמָּעוֹת חֻלִּין: